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1.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(3): 635-640, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595491

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomic and functional outcomes of 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (25G PPV) with encircling scleral band (ESB) in patients with acute retinal necrosis (ARN)-related rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Methods: Single-center retrospective interventional case series of patients who underwent 25G PPV with ESB for ARN-related RRD. Complete anatomic success was defined as the complete attachment of retina after primary PPV. Functional success was measured by the final best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ≥20/400. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were also noted. Results: 14 eyes of 13 patients were included in the study. Six patients (46.1%) were immunocompromised. The mean follow-up was 23.64 ± 9.95 (range 6-42) months. Silicone oil was used as tamponade in 13 eyes and C3F8gas in one eye. After the primary PPV, complete anatomical success was seen in all eyes (100%), however, one eye developed phthisis bulbi after silicone oil removal (SOR). Statistically significant improvement of BCVA was seen, from LogMAR 2.03 ± 0.29 preoperatively to LogMAR 1.57 ± 0.63 postoperatively (p-value 0.014). Six eyes (42.9%) had functional success. Nine eyes (64.3%) had improvement in vision while 4 eyes (28.6%) maintained preoperative vision. 10 eyes (71.4%) underwent cataract surgery, nine eyes (64.3%) underwent SOR while 2 eyes (14.3%) had epiretinal membrane (ERM) under oil during follow-up. Conclusion: 25G PPV combines the advantages of minimally invasive vitrectomy surgery while offering improved anatomic outcomes in patients with ARN-related RRD. The functional outcome varies depending on the status of the optic disc and macula.

3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111621, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396141

RESUMO

The study explored the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon tolerance of indigenous biosurfactant producing microorganisms. Three bacterial species were isolated from crude oil contaminated sites of Haldia, West Bengal. The three species were screened for biosurfactant production and identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Brevundimonas sp. IITISM 11, Pseudomonas sp. IITISM 19 and Pseudomonas sp. IITISM 24. The strains showed emulsification activities of 51%, 57% and 63%, respectively. The purified biosurfactants were characterised using FT-IR, GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy and found to have structural similarities to glycolipopeptides, cyclic lipopeptides and glycolipids. The biosurfactants produced were found to be stable under a wide range of temperature (0-100 °C), pH (4-12) and salinity (up to 20% NaCl). Moreover, the strains displayed tolerance to high concentrations (275 mg/L) of anthracene and fluorene and showed a good amount of cell surface hydrophobicity with different hydrocarbons. The study reports the production and characterisation of biosurfactant by Brevundimonas sp. for the first time. Additionally, the kinetic parameters of the bacterial strains grown on up to 300 mg/L concentration of anthracene and fluorene, ranged between 0.0131 and 0.0156 µmax (h-1), while the Ks(mg/L) ranged between 59.28 and 102.66 for Monod's Model. For Haldane-Andrew's model, µmax (h-1) varied between 0.0168 and 0.0198. The inhibition constant was highest for Pseudomonas sp. IITISM 19 on anthracene and Brevundimonas sp. IITISM 11 on fluorene. The findings of the study suggest that indigenous biosurfactant producing strains have tolerance to high PAH concentrations and can be exploited for bioremediation purposes.


Assuntos
Antracenos/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Fluorenos/metabolismo , Tensoativos/metabolismo , Antracenos/química , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fluorenos/química , Glicolipídeos , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Cinética , Petróleo/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Tensoativos/química
4.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127826, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182120

RESUMO

The present manuscript investigates the roles of silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) in ameliorating fluoride toxicity in the susceptible rice cultivar, IR-64. Fluoride toxicity reduced overall growth and yield by suppressing grain development. Fluoride stress alarmingly increased the accumulation of cobalt, which together with fluoride triggered electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde, methylglyoxal and hydrogen peroxide accumulation and NADPH oxidase activity. The overall photosynthesis was compromised due to chlorosis and inhibited Hill activity. Nano-Si-priming efficiently ameliorated molecular injuries and restored yield by reducing fluoride bioaccumulation particularly in the grains. The level of non-enzymatic antioxidants like anthocyanins, flavonoids, phenolics and glutathione was stimulated upon SiNP-priming. Nano-Si-pulsing removed fluoride-mediated inhibition of glutathione synthesis by activating glutathione reductase. Glutathione was utilized to activate glyoxalases and associated enzymes like glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase. Uptake of nutrients like silicon, potassium, zinc, copper, iron, nickel, manganese, selenium and vanadium improved seedling health even during prolonged fluoride stress. Nano-Si-pulsing produced a nanozymatic effect, since high level of crucial co-factors like copper, zinc and iron stimulated the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase, which synergistically with other enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants scavenged reactive oxygen species and promoted fluoride tolerance. Overall, the study supported by statistical modelling using principal component analysis, t-distributed stochastic neighbour embedding and multidimensional scaling, established the potential of SiNP to promote safe rice cultivation and precision farming even in fluoride-infested environments.


Assuntos
Fluoretos/toxicidade , Oryza/fisiologia , Silício/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ascorbato Peroxidases , Catalase , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Malondialdeído , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidase , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase
5.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115378, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254681

RESUMO

The fluoride-sensitive indica rice cultivar, IR-64 was subjected to NaF-treatment for 25 days, following which RNA-Seq analysis identified significant up and down regulation of 1,303 and 93 transcripts respectively. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis classified transcripts into groups related to 'cellular part', 'membrane', 'catalytic activity', 'transporter activity', 'binding', 'metabolic processes' and 'cellular processes'. Analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed fluoride-mediated suppression of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and signaling. Instead, the gibberellin-dependent pathway and signaling via ABA-independent transcription factors (TFs) was activated. Comparative profiling of selected DEGs in IR-64 and fluoride-tolerant variety, Khitish revealed significant cytoskeletal and nucleosomal remodelling, accompanied with escalated levels of autophagy in stressed IR-64 (unlike that in stressed Khitish). Genes associated with ion, solute and xenobiotic transport were strongly up regulated in stressed IR-64, indicating potential fluoride entry through these channels. On the contrary, genes associated with xenobiotic mobility were suppressed in the tolerant cultivar, which restricted bioaccumulation and translocation of fluoride. Pairwise expression profile analysis between stressed IR-64 and Khitish, supported by extensive statistical modelling predicted that fluoride susceptibility was associated with high expression of genes like amino acid transporter, ABC transporter2, CLCd, MFS monosaccharide transporter, SulfT2.1 and PotT2 while fluoride tolerance with high expression of Sweet11.

6.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199883

RESUMO

Infectious diseases, including the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that has brought the world to a standstill, are emerging at an unprecedented rate with a substantial impact on public health and global economies. For many life-threatening global infectious diseases, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, malaria and influenza, effective vaccinations are still lacking. There are numerous roadblocks to developing new vaccines, including a limited understanding of immune correlates of protection to these global infections. To induce a reproducible, strong immune response against difficult pathogens, sophisticated nanovaccine technologies are under investigation. In contrast to conventional vaccines, nanovaccines provide improved access to lymph nodes, optimal packing and presentation of antigens, and induction of a persistent immune response. This Review provides a perspective on the global trends in emerging nanoscale vaccines for infectious diseases and describes the biological, experimental and logistical problems associated with their development, and how immunoengineering can be leveraged to overcome these challenges.

7.
Blood Adv ; 4(20): 5226-5231, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104794

RESUMO

Molecular alterations in the histone methyltransferase EZH2 and the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 frequently co-occur in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Because DLBCL tumors with these characteristics are likely dependent on both oncogenes, dual targeting of EZH2 and Bcl-2 is a rational therapeutic approach. We hypothesized that EZH2 and Bcl-2 inhibition would be synergistic in DLBCL. To test this, we evaluated the EZH2 inhibitor tazemetostat and the Bcl-2 inhibitor venetoclax in DLBCL cells, 3-dimensional lymphoma organoids, and patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). We found that tazemetostat and venetoclax are synergistic in DLBCL cells and 3-dimensional lymphoma organoids that harbor an EZH2 mutation and an IGH/BCL2 translocation but not in wild-type cells. Tazemetostat treatment results in upregulation of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members and priming of mitochondria to BH3-mediated apoptosis, which may sensitize cells to venetoclax. The combination of tazemetostat and venetoclax was also synergistic in vivo. In DLBCL PDXs, short-course combination therapy resulted in complete remissions that were durable over time and associated with superior overall survival compared with either drug alone.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114716

RESUMO

The importance of health-promoting neighborhoods has long been recognized, and characteristics of local built environments are among the social determinants of health. People with disability are more likely than other population groups to experience geographic mobility and cost restrictions, and to be reliant on 'opportunity structures' available locally. We conducted an ecological analysis to explore associations between area-level disability prevalence for people aged 15-64 years and area-level built environment characteristics in Australia's 21 largest cities. Overall, disability was more prevalent in areas with lower walkability and lower local availability of various neighborhood amenities such as public transport, healthier food options, public open space, physical activity and recreation destinations and health and mental health services. These patterns of lower liveability in areas of higher disability prevalence were observed in major cities but not in regional cities. Our findings suggest that geographically targeted interventions to improve access to health-enhancing neighborhood infrastructure could reduce disability-related inequalities in the social determinants of health.

9.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038892

RESUMO

Burden of Disease studies-such as the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study-quantify health loss in disability-adjusted life-years. However, these studies stop short of quantifying the future impact of interventions that shift risk factor distributions, allowing for trends and time lags. This methodology paper explains how proportional multistate lifetable (PMSLT) modelling quantifies intervention impacts, using comparisons between three tobacco control case studies [eradication of tobacco, tobacco-free generation i.e. the age at which tobacco can be legally purchased is lifted by 1 year of age for each calendar year) and tobacco tax]. We also illustrate the importance of epidemiological specification of business-as-usual in the comparator arm that the intervention acts on, by demonstrating variations in simulated health gains when incorrectly: (i) assuming no decreasing trend in tobacco prevalence; and (ii) not including time lags from quitting tobacco to changing disease incidence. In conjunction with increasing availability of baseline and forecast demographic and epidemiological data, PMSLT modelling is well suited to future multiple country comparisons to better inform national, regional and global prioritization of preventive interventions. To facilitate use of PMSLT, we introduce a Python-based modelling framework and associated tools that facilitate the construction, calibration and analysis of PMSLT models.

10.
J Biotechnol ; 324: 220-232, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068698

RESUMO

The objective of the present investigation was to understand the impact of exogenously applied melatonin on mitochondrial respiration and sugar metabolism in two contrasting rice cultivars, viz., Khitish (arsenic-susceptible) and Muktashri (arsenic-tolerant) under arsenic-stress. Melatonin effectively restored the level of organic acids like pyruvic acid, malic acid and more particularly citric acid by 33 % in Khitish which were lowered during arsenic-stress, whereas their levels were further elevated in Muktashri to provide energy for defence against arsenic-induced injury. Arsenic-exposure led to a significant inhibition in enzyme activities as well as corresponding transcript level of key respiratory enzymes, viz., pyruvate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase, intriguingly more prominently in case of Khitish. Conversely, melatonin supplementation, irrespective of cultivars, considerably improved the activity of the above enzymes and corresponding gene expressions during stress, indicating acceleration in the rate of Krebs cycle. Melatonin supplementation also stimulated the accumulation of total soluble sugars by 62 % and 25 %, reducing sugars by 50 % and 44 % and non-reducing sugars by 75 % and 14 % in Khitish and Muktashri respectively, concomitant with higher activities of acid invertase, sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase enzymes, along with the expression of corresponding genes. Enhanced starch accumulation via regulation of alpha amylase and starch phosphorylase activities and gene expression, by melatonin also contributed towards better stress tolerance. Overall, this work illustrated the efficacy of melatonin in the regulation of representative organic acids and enzymes of respiratory cycle along with starch and sugar metabolism in rice cultivars under arsenic toxicity.

11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 165(Pt A): 1431-1437, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058969

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the effects of pregelatinization in improving delayed release characteristics of native chapparada avare starch. Physicochemical properties and drug release characteristics were evaluated for the native and pregelatinized starches using established methods. The moisture content decreased from 12.13 ± 0.15% to 8.73 ± 0.12%, whereas amylose content (6.91 ± 0.06-21.13 ± 0.03), swelling power and water holding capacity (211.04 ± 0.03-513.03 ± 0.03) showed steady rise with pregelatinization time. The result of X ray diffraction pattern for pregelatinized starch, showed absence of 18.4° and 23.2° 2θ peaks thereby indicating reducing crystallinity, compared to native starch, whereas FESEM micrograph showed complete disruption of granular structure due to pregelatinization of native starch. The in vitro dissolution studies conducted in gastric and intestinal pH showed that tablets prepared with both native (NPL) and modified starch (PG15, PG20, PG 25), are gastro protective with less than 25% drug release in pH 1.2. In pH 6.8, PG 20 and PG 25 showed optimum drug release of 21.23 ± 0.54% and 19.40 ± 0.48% respectively in 6 h compared to 42.52 ± 0.21% release of NPL formulation, thereby indicating time based delayed drug release characteristics of over its native counterpart.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893344

RESUMO

AIMS: Disability is a key social determinant of health. The objective of this study was to test the association between disability status and irregular dental attendance among the Australian population, and to examine whether the observed association varied among adolescents. METHODS: Data on 17 501 participants from The Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) were analysed. The main outcome examined was irregular dental attendance (two or more years since last dental visit) with disability as the primary exposure. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to test the associations between disability and dental attendance pattern. Models were adjusted for age, gender, country of birth, region of residence, education and income. Analysis was repeated among adolescents (15- to 24-year-old) to examine for variations in observed association. RESULTS: One in four participants reported having a disability. Unadjusted model showed that the odds for irregular dental attendance were 1.40 times greater (95%; CI, 1.30-1.51) in those with disability than those without disability. After adjusting for all covariates, participants with disability had 1.20 times higher odds (95%; CI 1.10-1.30) of irregular dental attendance than those without disability. Irregular dental attendance was 1.41 times greater (95%; CI 1.10-1.80) in those with disability aged 15-24 years than those without disability. CONCLUSIONS: Australian individuals with disability are more likely to have irregular dental attendance than those without.

13.
Aust Dent J ; 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral health behaviours are significant determinants of oral health. There is evidence that socioeconomic position influences oral health behaviours, but little is known about this association during adolescence. This study aims to investigate the association between social disadvantage (individual and area level) and oral health behaviours among Australian adolescents. METHODS: This study utilized data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). The sample consisted of 2877 adolescents. Exposure measures were area-level social disadvantage (Socioeconomic Indexes for Areas) and parent-reported household income from Wave 5. Outcomes, measured in Wave 6, were three different adolescent-reported oral health behaviours: frequency of brushing, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and dental visits. Associations between quintiles of each exposure and each oral health behaviour were tested by fitting multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: Household income and area-level disadvantage were associated with dental visits and brushing frequency. Associations between social disadvantage and consumption of SSBs were less apparent, with only the least disadvantaged adolescents having lower odds of consumption of SSBs compared to the most disadvantaged group. CONCLUSION: Individual and area-level socioeconomic factors are associated with dental visits, and frequency of brushing.Broad population-based strategies must be adopted to reduce intake of SSBs, however, targeted strategies are needed among more disadvantaged populations to address infrequent toothbrushing and irregular dental visits among adolescents.

14.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959111

RESUMO

A large number of scientific works have been published on whole-cell heavy metal biosensing based on optical transduction. The advances in the application of biotechnological tools not only have continuously improved the sensitivity, selectivity, and detection range for biosensors but also have simultaneously unveiled new challenges and restrictions for further improvements. This review highlights selected aspects of whole-cell biosensing of heavy metals using optical transducers. We have focused on the progress in genetic modulation in regulatory and reporter modules of recombinant plasmids that has enabled improvement of biosensor performance. Simultaneously, an attempt has been made to present newer platforms such as microfluidics that have generated promising results and might give a new turn to the optical biosensing field.

15.
Indian J Community Med ; 45(2): 139-144, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905194

RESUMO

Background: The simultaneous occurrence of health-compromising behaviors can accentuate the risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). This study aimed to examine the existence and patterns of clustering of four NCD risk behaviors among adolescents and its association with social position. In addition, socioeconomic inequalities in the occurrence of clustering of NCD risk behaviors were also assessed. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 1218 adolescents (14-19 years old) in the city of New Delhi, India. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to assess health-compromising behaviors (tobacco and alcohol use, fruit/vegetable intake, and physical inactivity). Clustering was assessed using pairwise correlations, counts of clustering of health-compromising behaviors, comparison of observed/expected ratios, and hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to test the associations of clustering with social position (education and wealth). The relative and slope indices of inequalities in the presence of clustering of behaviors according to education and wealth were estimated. Results: Three major clusters of health behaviors emerged: (a) physical inactivity + lower fruit and vegetable intake, (b) tobacco + alcohol use, and (c) lower fruit and vegetable intake + tobacco + alcohol use. Pronounced clustering of health-compromising behaviors was observed with lower educational attainment and wealth. Conclusion: The presence of clustering of health-compromising behaviors was considerably higher among adolescents with lower educational attainment and wealth. The area of residence has an important influence on socioeconomic inequalities in clustering of NCD risk factors.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930987

RESUMO

Ingestion of fluoride through consumption of contaminated food grains has been regarded to be hazardous for consumer health. The current study indicated the possible occurrence of such biohazard due to fluoride bioaccumulation in rice grains and straw (cattle feed). The effects of fluoride toxicity at three stages of grain development in three rice genotypes, viz., IR-64, Gobindobhog (aromatic), and Khitish, were also studied. Irrigation with fluoride-infested water inhibited grain formation in IR-64 and reduced grain yield in Gobindobhog. Fluoride toxicity promoted seed sterility in IR-64 by triggering reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cellular necrosis, suppressing genes like GIF1, DEP1, and SPL14 (positively controlling seed formation) and inducing GW2 (negatively mediating grain development). Gobindobhog showed intermediate fluoride sensitivity and accumulated high levels of proline, anthocyanins, flavonoids, and phenolics due to the induction of genes like P5CS, ANS, and PAL in developing grains. The agronomic attributes in Khitish were unaffected by fluoride stress due to regulated fluoride uptake and high expression of GIF1, DEP1, and SPL14 along with an increased synthesis of anthocyanins, flavonoids, and phenolics. Khitish also accumulated low ROS as a result of which lowest lipoxygenase expression (among selected cultivars) was observed in developing grains. Fluoride entry was accelerated in the straw of Khitish, possibly due to the absence of regulated uptake mechanism in dead seedlings. Furthermore, the ecological concerns regarding fluoride bioaccumulation and reduced grain yield at the varietal level were also established, based on statistical modelling.

17.
Blood ; 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785655

RESUMO

MALT1 inhibitors are promising therapeutic agents for B-cell lymphomas dependent on constitutive or aberrant signaling pathways. However, a potential limitation for signal transduction targeted therapies is the occurrence of feedback mechanisms that enable escape from the full impact of such drugs. Here, we used a functional genomics screen in ABC-DLBCL cells treated with a small molecule irreversible inhibitor of MALT1 to identify genes that might confer resistance or enhance the activity of MALT1 inhibition. We find that loss of BCR and PI3K activating proteins enhanced sensitivity, while loss of negative regulators of these pathways (e.g. TRAF2, TNFAIP3) promoted resistance. These findings were validated by knockdown of individual genes and a combinatorial drug screen focused on BCR and PI3K pathway targeting drugs. Among these, the most potent combinatorial effect was observed with PI3Kd inhibitors against ABC-DLBCLs in vitro and in vivo, but which led to an adaptive increase in p-S6 and eventual disease progression. Along these lines, MALT1 inhibition promoted increased MTORC1 activity and phosphorylation of S6K1-T389 and S6-S235/6, an effect that was only partially blocked by PI3Kd inhibition in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, simultaneous inhibition of MALT1 and MTORC1 prevented S6 phosphorylation, yielded potent activity against DLBCL cell lines and primary patient specimens, and resulted in more profound tumor regression and significantly improved survival of ABC-DLBCLs in vivo as compared to PI3K inhibitors. These findings provide a basis for maximal therapeutic impact of MALT1 inhibitors in the clinic, by disrupting feedback mechanisms that might otherwise limit their efficacy.

18.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 154: 758-769, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801080

RESUMO

The objective of this manuscript was to demonstrate the efficacy of silicon supplementation in relieving the fluoride-induced damages in rice cultivar, Khitish. The exposure of seedlings to two different concentrations of fluoride, viz., 25 and 50 mg L-1 NaF caused increase in fluoride accumulation, as a result of which the seedlings suffered severe oxidative stress, as evident from growth inhibition, reduction in seed germination, tissue biomass, root and shoot length, decline in chlorophyll content, increases in electrolyte leakage, H2O2 content, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde content and lipoxygenase activity), protein carbonylation and protease activity. The extent of damage was more at higher fluoride concentration. Silicon amendment, irrespective of fluoride concentrations, led to large build-up of endogenous silicon level and brought considerable improvement in all the parameters examined with respect to fluoride stress. The fluoride-mediated enhancement in methylglyoxal level was lowered by silicon, because of the prominent activation of glyoxalase I and glyoxalase II. While the stress-mediated induction in antioxidative enzymes like GPOX, APX, SOD, GPX and GR was lowered by silicon, the inhibition in CAT activity was relieved. The antioxidative defense mechanism was also boosted up via enhanced content of total phenolics and carotenoids. However, the fluoride-mediated increase in anthocyanins, flavonoids, xanthophyll, ascorbate and reduced glutathione, and osmolytes like total amino acids, proline and glycine-betaine, were all lowered in presence of silicon, together with reduced PAL and P5CS activity. Overall, silicon reduced oxidative damages to develop fluoride-tolerant rice plants through augmentation of different antioxidant and osmolyte defense and methylglyoxal detoxification system.

19.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 23(3): 303-307, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606516

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Brain abscess is a serious and dreadful disease presenting at tertiary centre. The objective of this study was to look into the clinical profile, predisposing conditions, microbiology and outcome of children suffering from brain abscess. Methods: 30 children up to 18 years with clinical and imaging evidence of brain abscess were taken for study. Patients were stabilized as per unit protocol. Necessary investigations were carried out. Neuroimaging (CT or MRI) was used to confirm the diagnosis. All parameters (clinical, investigation, outcome) were recorded in predesigned performa. Neurosurgery consultation was sought in patients with multiple abscesses, posterior fossa abscesses, abscess with air-fluid level and causing midline shift. Results: There were 16 males with 13 patients in age group (5-10 years). Mean duration of stay in hospital was 14.8 days. Most common predisposing factor was chronic suppurative otitis media (n-15). Typically, patients presented with fever, headache and seizures. On examination, motor deficits were the most common followed by signs of meningitis. Computerized tomography confirmed the diagnosis in most cases. Temporal lobe (n-11) was the commonest intracranial site for the abscess. Methicillin resistant staphylococcus and proteus mirabilis were the common pathogen isolated from blood and pus. Blood culture positivity rate was 16.7% and pus culture positivity rate was 25%. All cases were managed with intravenous antibiotics and aspiration (n-10) and excision (n-6). There were 5 deaths. There was complete immediate recovery in 13 cases with residual motor deficit in 12 cases. Conclusion: Brain abscess is a rare but serious entity in children. Late diagnosis and improper management leads to poor outcome. Early surgical intervention is helpful. Threshold for diagnosis should be low in children with chronic ear infection and congenital heart diseases.

20.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1112, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improving breastfeeding practice is important for reducing child health inequalities and achieving several Sustainable Development Goals. Indonesia has enacted legislation to promote optimal breastfeeding practices in recent years. We examined breastfeeding practices among Indonesian women from 2002 to 2017, comparing trends within and across sociodemographic subgroups. METHODS: Data from four waves of the Indonesia Demographic and Health Surveys were used to estimate changes in breastfeeding practices among women from selected sociodemographic groups over time. We examined three breastfeeding outcomes: (1) early initiation of breastfeeding; (2) exclusive breastfeeding; and (3) continued breastfeeding at 1 year. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess changes in time trends of each outcome across population groups. RESULTS: The proportion of women reporting early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding increased significantly between 2002 to 2017 (p < 0.05), with larger increases among women who: were from higher wealth quintiles; worked in professional sectors; and lived in Java and Bali. However, 42.7% of women reported not undertaking early initiation of breastfeeding, and 48.9% of women reported not undertaking exclusive breastfeeding in 2017. Women who were employees had lower exclusive breastfeeding prevalence, compared to unemployed or self-employed women. Women in Java and Bali had higher increase in early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding compared to women in Sumatra. We did not find statistically significant decline in continued breastfeeding at 1 year over time for the overall population, except among women who: were from the second poorest wealth quintile; lived in rural areas; did not have a health facility birth; and lived in Kalimantan and Sulawesi (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There were considerable improvements in breastfeeding practices in Indonesia during a period of sustained policy reform to regulate breastfeeding and community support of breastfeeding, but these were not distributed uniformly across socioeconomic, occupation and geographic subgroups. Concerted efforts are needed to further reduce inequities in breastfeeding practice through both targeted and population-based strategies.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/tendências , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Prevalência , Fatores de Tempo , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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