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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833203

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To summarize the literature on prevalence, impact, and contributing factors related to diagnostic error in the PICU. DATA SOURCES: Search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library up to December 2019. STUDY SELECTION: Studies on diagnostic error and the diagnostic process in pediatric critical care were included. Non-English studies with no translation, case reports/series, studies providing no information on diagnostic error, studies focused on non-PICU populations, and studies focused on a single condition/disease or a single diagnostic test/tool were excluded. DATA EXTRACTION: Data on research design, objectives, study sample, and results pertaining to the prevalence, impact, and factors associated with diagnostic error were abstracted from each study. DATA SYNTHESIS: Using independent tiered review, 396 abstracts were screened, and 17 studies (14 full-text, 3 abstracts) were ultimately included. Fifteen of 17 studies (88%) had an observational research design. Autopsy studies (autopsy rates were 20-47%) showed a 10-23% rate of missed major diagnoses; 5-16% of autopsy-discovered diagnostic errors had a potential adverse impact on survival and would have changed management. Retrospective record reviews reported varying rates of diagnostic error from 8% in a general PICU population to 12% among unexpected critical admissions and 21-25% of patients discussed at PICU morbidity and mortality conferences. Cardiovascular, infectious, congenital, and neurologic conditions were most commonly misdiagnosed. Systems factors (40-67%), cognitive factors (20-3%), and both systems and cognitive factors (40%) were associated with diagnostic error. Limited information was available on the impact of misdiagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of diagnostic errors in the PICU is limited. Future work to understand diagnostic errors should involve a balanced focus between studying the diagnosis of individual diseases and uncovering common system- and process-related determinants of diagnostic error.

2.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(3): e23483, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than 17 million people worldwide, including 360,000 people in the United Kingdom, were diagnosed with cancer in 2018. Cancer prognosis and disease burden are highly dependent on the disease stage at diagnosis. Most people diagnosed with cancer first present in primary care settings, where improved assessment of the (often vague) presenting symptoms of cancer could lead to earlier detection and improved outcomes for patients. There is accumulating evidence that artificial intelligence (AI) can assist clinicians in making better clinical decisions in some areas of health care. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to systematically review AI techniques that may facilitate earlier diagnosis of cancer and could be applied to primary care electronic health record (EHR) data. The quality of the evidence, the phase of development the AI techniques have reached, the gaps that exist in the evidence, and the potential for use in primary care were evaluated. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, SCOPUS, and Web of Science databases from January 01, 2000, to June 11, 2019, and included all studies providing evidence for the accuracy or effectiveness of applying AI techniques for the early detection of cancer, which may be applicable to primary care EHRs. We included all study designs in all settings and languages. These searches were extended through a scoping review of AI-based commercial technologies. The main outcomes assessed were measures of diagnostic accuracy for cancer. RESULTS: We identified 10,456 studies; 16 studies met the inclusion criteria, representing the data of 3,862,910 patients. A total of 13 studies described the initial development and testing of AI algorithms, and 3 studies described the validation of an AI algorithm in independent data sets. One study was based on prospectively collected data; only 3 studies were based on primary care data. We found no data on implementation barriers or cost-effectiveness. Risk of bias assessment highlighted a wide range of study quality. The additional scoping review of commercial AI technologies identified 21 technologies, only 1 meeting our inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis was not undertaken because of the heterogeneity of AI modalities, data set characteristics, and outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS: AI techniques have been applied to EHR-type data to facilitate early diagnosis of cancer, but their use in primary care settings is still at an early stage of maturity. Further evidence is needed on their performance using primary care data, implementation barriers, and cost-effectiveness before widespread adoption into routine primary care clinical practice can be recommended.

3.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-10, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789064

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Therapists play a key role in delivering fall prevention/management education to individuals with spinal cord injury/disease, yet their perspectives on this topic remain understudied. Here, we described the perspectives of physical and occupational therapists who routinely provided rehabilitation to patients with spinal cord injury/disease on: (1) how fall risk was assessed, (2) what fall prevention education, interventions or strategies were provided, and (3) opportunities to improve fall risk assessment and the delivery of fall prevention education, strategies and interventions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one therapists completed an individual interview or focus group that was analyzed using an inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Four main themes were identified: (1) policy and procedures impact practice (i.e., policy and procedures positively and negatively impact practice), (2) assessing and managing fall risk/falls in patients with spinal cord injury/disease (i.e., discipline-specific roles in fall risk assessments and fall management processes in rehabilitation), (3) fall prevention and management education (i.e., helicopter therapists and challenges with fall prevention and management education), (4) building insight into fall risk and management (e.g., building insight into fall risk for patients and therapists). CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed opportunities to improve the delivery of fall prevention education and training to individuals with spinal cord injury/disease.IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATIONFall prevention education should be initiated in spinal cord injury rehabilitation and then reinforced in community rehabilitation.Barriers and challenges faced by therapists when delivering fall prevention and management education/training in spinal cord injury rehabilitation include their perceptions of a patient's readiness to receive fall prevention education, short length of stay in rehabilitation, organization's expectations of zero falls and a lack of spinal cord injury-specific fall prevention resources.Therapists who work in spinal cord injury rehabilitation may benefit from information about fall risk factors encountered by individuals with spinal cord injury/disease in the community.

4.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33564945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnostic errors are a major source of preventable harm but the science of reducing them remains underdeveloped. OBJECTIVE: To identify and prioritize research questions to advance the field of diagnostic safety in the next 5 years. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-seven researchers and 42 stakeholders were involved in the identification of the research priorities. DESIGN: We used systematic prioritization methods based on the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methodology. We first invited a large international group of expert researchers in various disciplines to submit research questions while considering five prioritization criteria: (1) usefulness, (2) answerability, (3) effectiveness, (4) potential for translation, and (5) maximal potential for effect on diagnostic safety. After consolidation, these questions were prioritized at an in-person expert meeting in April 2019. Top-ranked questions were subsequently reprioritized through scoring on the five prioritization criteria using an online questionnaire. We also invited non-research stakeholders to assign weights to the five criteria and then used these weights to adjust the final prioritization score for each question. KEY RESULTS: Of the 207 invited researchers, 97 researchers responded and 78 submitted 333 research questions which were then consolidated. Expert meeting participants (n = 21) discussed questions in different breakout sessions and prioritized 50, which were subsequently reduced to the top 20 using the online questionnaire. The top 20 questions addressed mostly system factors (e.g., implementation and evaluation of information technologies), teamwork factors (e.g., role of nurses and other health professionals in the diagnostic process), and strategies to engage patients in the diagnostic process. CONCLUSIONS: Top research priorities for advancing diagnostic safety in the short-term include strengthening systems and teams and engaging patients to support diagnosis. High-priority areas identified using these systematic methods can inform an actionable research agenda for reducing preventable diagnostic harm.

5.
BMJ Qual Saf ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient complaints are associated with adverse events and malpractice claims but underused in patient safety improvement. OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the use of patient complaint data to identify safety concerns related to diagnosis as an initial step to using this information to facilitate learning and improvement. METHODS: We reviewed patient complaints submitted to Geisinger, a large healthcare organisation in the USA, from August to December 2017 (cohort 1) and January to June 2018 (cohort 2). We selected complaints more likely to be associated with diagnostic concerns in Geisinger's existing complaint taxonomy. Investigators reviewed all complaint summaries and identified cases as 'concerning' for diagnostic error using the National Academy of Medicine's definition of diagnostic error. For all 'concerning' cases, a clinician-reviewer evaluated the associated investigation report and the patient's medical record to identify any missed opportunities in making a correct or timely diagnosis. In cohort 2, we selected a 10% sample of 'concerning' cases to test this smaller pragmatic sample as a proof of concept for future organisational monitoring. RESULTS: In cohort 1, we reviewed 1865 complaint summaries and identified 177 (9.5%) concerning reports. Review and analysis identified 39 diagnostic errors. Most were categorised as 'Clinical Care issues' (27, 69.2%), defined as concerns/questions related to the care that is provided by clinicians in any setting. In cohort 2, we reviewed 2423 patient complaint summaries and identified 310 (12.8%) concerning reports. The 10% sample (n=31 cases) contained five diagnostic errors. Qualitative analysis of cohort 1 cases identified concerns about return visits for persistent and/or worsening symptoms, interpersonal issues and diagnostic testing. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of patient complaint data and corresponding medical record review identifies patterns of failures in the diagnostic process reported by patients and families. Health systems could systematically analyse available data on patient complaints to monitor diagnostic safety concerns and identify opportunities for learning and improvement.

6.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e045596, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632755

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Older adults may experience challenges during the hospital to home transitions that could be mitigated by digital health solutions. However, to promote adoption in practice and realise benefits, there is a need to specify how digital health solutions contribute to hospital to home transitions, particularly pertinent in this era of social distancing. This rapid review will: (1) elucidate the various roles and functions that have been developed to support hospital to home transitions of care, (2) identify existing digital health solutions that support hospital to home transitions of care, (3) identify gaps and new opportunities where digital health solutions can support these roles and functions and (4) create recommendations that will inform the design and structure of future digital health interventions that support hospital to home transitions for older adults (eg, the pre-trial results of the Digital Bridge intervention; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04287192). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A two-phase rapid review will be conducted to meet identified aims. In phase 1, a selective literature review will be used to generate a conceptual map of the roles and functions of individuals that support hospital to home transitions for older adults. In phase 2, a search on MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL will identify literature on digital health solutions that support hospital to home transitions. The ways in which digital health solutions can support the roles and functions that facilitate these transitions will then be mapped in the analysis and generation of findings. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol is a review of the literature and does not involve human subjects, and therefore, does not require ethics approval. This review will permit the identification of gaps and new opportunities for digital processes and platforms that enable care transitions and can help inform the design and implementation of future digital health interventions. Review findings will be disseminated through publications and presentations to key stakeholders.

7.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-risk medications pose serious safety risks to older adults, including increasing the risk of falls. Deprescribing potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in older adults who have experienced a fall is a key element of fall reduction strategies. However, continued use of PIMs in older adults is common, and clinicians may face substantial deprescribing barriers. OBJECTIVE: Explore patient and clinician experiences with and perceptions of deprescribing PIMs in patients with a history of falls. DESIGN: We led guided patient feedback sessions to explore deprescribing scenarios with patient stakeholders and conducted semi-structured interviews with primary care physicians (PCPs) to explore knowledge and awareness of fall risk guidelines, deprescribing experiences, and barriers and facilitators to deprescribing. PARTICIPANTS: PCPs from Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) and patient members of the KPSC Regional Patient Advisory Committee. APPROACH: We used maximum variation sampling to identify PCPs with patients who had a fall, then categorized the resulting PIM dispense distribution for those patients into high and low frequency. We analyzed the data using a hybrid deductive-inductive approach. Coders applied initial deductively derived codes to the data, simultaneously using an open-code inductive approach to capture emergent themes. KEY RESULTS: Physicians perceived deprescribing discussions as potentially contentious, even among patients with falls. Physicians reported varying comfort levels with deprescribing strategies: some felt that the conversations might be better suited to others (e.g., pharmacists), while others had well-planned negotiation strategies. Patients reported lack of clarity as to the reasons and goals of deprescribing and poor understanding of the seriousness of falls. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that key barriers to deprescribing include PCP trepidation about raising a contentious topic and insufficient patient awareness of the potential seriousness of falls. Findings suggest the need for multifaceted, multilevel deprescribing approaches with clinician training strategies, patient educational resources, and a focus on building trusting patient-clinician relationships.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340326

RESUMO

Clinicians face competing pressures of being clinically productive while using imperfect electronic health record (EHR) systems and maximizing face-to-face time with patients. EHR use is increasingly associated with clinician burnout and underscores the need for interventions to improve clinicians' experiences. With an aim of addressing this need, we share evidence-based informatics approaches, pragmatic next steps, and future research directions to improve 3 of the highest contributors to EHR burden: (1) documentation, (2) chart review, and (3) inbox tasks. These approaches leverage speech recognition technologies, natural language processing, artificial intelligence, and redesign of EHR workflow and user interfaces. We also offer a perspective on how EHR vendors, healthcare system leaders, and policymakers all play an integral role while sharing responsibility in helping make evidence-based sociotechnical solutions available and easy to use.

10.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-10, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253597

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Rehabilitation clinicians need information about patient activities in the home/community to inform care. Despite active efforts to develop technologies that can meet this need, clinicians' perspectives regarding how information is collected and used in outpatient rehabilitation have not been comprehensively described. Therefore, we aimed to describe: (1) what data pertaining to a patient's health, function and activity in their home/community are currently collected in outpatient rehabilitation, (2) how these data can impact clinical decisions, and (3) what challenges clinicians encounter when they manage the care of outpatients based on this information. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight clinicians working in outpatient rehabilitation programs completed qualitative interviews that were analyzed using an inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Four themes were identified: "Nature of data about a patient's health, function and activity in the home/community and how it is collected by clinicians," "Value of data from the home/community," "Perceived drawbacks of current data collection methods," and "Improving data collection to understand patient trajectory." CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians described the importance of understanding patient activities in the home/community, but perspectives varied regarding the suitability of current methods. These perceptions may inform the design of solutions to bridge the gap between the clinic and the community in outpatient rehabilitation. Implications for rehabilitation Clinical decision-making in outpatient rehabilitation is guided by verbal and written reports about a patient's health and function in the community and adherence to treatment plans. Differing perceptions on the suitability of current data collection methods indicate that the development of new solutions, such as rehabilitation technologies, needs to carefully consider clinician workflows and what data are perceived as meaningful. Potentially impactful directions for new solutions include providing well validated data on adherence, movement quality, or longitudinal progression, presented in formats that match clinical decision criteria.

11.
Diagnosis (Berl) ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180032

RESUMO

Objectives The diagnostic process is a vital component of safe and effective emergency department (ED) care. There are no standardized methods for identifying or reliably monitoring diagnostic errors in the ED, impeding efforts to enhance diagnostic safety. We sought to identify trigger concepts to screen ED records for diagnostic errors and describe how they can be used as a measurement strategy to identify and reduce preventable diagnostic harm. Methods We conducted a literature review and surveyed ED directors to compile a list of potential electronic health record (EHR) trigger (e-triggers) and non-EHR based concepts. We convened a multidisciplinary expert panel to build consensus on trigger concepts to identify and reduce preventable diagnostic harm in the ED. Results Six e-trigger and five non-EHR based concepts were selected by the expert panel. E-trigger concepts included: unscheduled ED return to ED resulting in hospital admission, death following ED visit, care escalation, high-risk conditions based on symptom-disease dyads, return visits with new diagnostic/therapeutic interventions, and change of treating service after admission. Non-EHR based signals included: cases from mortality/morbidity conferences, risk management/safety office referrals, ED medical director case referrals, patient complaints, and radiology/laboratory misreads and callbacks. The panel suggested further refinements to aid future research in defining diagnostic error epidemiology in ED settings. Conclusions We identified a set of e-trigger concepts and non-EHR based signals that could be developed further to screen ED visits for diagnostic safety events. With additional evaluation, trigger-based methods can be used as tools to monitor and improve ED diagnostic performance.

12.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 8(9): e3140, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33133979

RESUMO

In this unique case report, we present a patient of left zygomatico maxillary complex reconstruction with a combination of autogenous tissue (osteocutaneous free fibula flap) and alloplastic implant [patient-specific templated polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)]. In such large defects, reconstruction using either autogenous tissue or alloplastic implant alone is inadequate and leads to poor functional and aesthetic outcomes. In this case we used osteocutaneous free fibula flap for left alveolus and patient-specific templated PMMA implant for reconstruction of orbital wall and zygoma. Osseointegrated implants were placed secondarily in the fibula for complete dental rehabilitation. With the use of virtual surgical planning and 3D printing we were able to achieve a good result for a complex defect. Since both autogenous tissue and alloplastic implant were used for complete reconstruction, we have named this as "hybrid reconstruction."

13.
Orthop J Sports Med ; 8(10): 2325967120954417, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110925

RESUMO

Background: A musculocutaneous nerve (MCN) injury is a rare complication of the Latarjet procedure. Most of these injuries are neurapraxias and resolve with time; however, permanent injuries can occur. Understanding the anatomy and relationship of the MCN to the coracoid process is essential to prevent injuries. Purpose: To provide realistic, in situ-referenced measurements for the Latarjet procedure. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: A total of 12 matched-pair cadaveric specimens (24 fresh-frozen shoulders) were dissected. Coracoid osteotomy was performed, and the MCN and its respective twigs were identified. Measurements were made from the coracoid process to the entry site of the nerve twigs and trunk into the coracobrachialis muscle. Results: Overall, 70.8% of specimens had twigs; however, there was a discrepancy in the presence (41.7%) and number (75.0%) of twigs in the paired specimens. The most proximal twigs were, on average, 33.5 ± 8.1 mm (range, 21.9-47.6 mm) from the coracoid process. The main trunk was, on average, 51.1 ± 14.4 mm (range, 16.7-71.9 mm) from the coracoid process. In 33.3% of specimens, the nerve entered the coracobrachialis at a distance shorter than 5 cm below the coracoid process, and this increased to 91.7% when the twigs were accounted for. Conclusion: The previously described safe zone of 5 cm below the coracoid process may not be reliable to protect the MCN or its twigs. Using 3 cm would decrease the chances of damaging a twig or the main trunk. In 33.3% of the specimens, the nerve entered the coracobrachialis at a distance shorter than 5 cm below the coracoid process, and this increased to 91.7% when twigs were accounted for. Clinical Relevance: As the Latarjet procedure is an emerging technique, it is essential to be aware of the anatomic structures and the relation between different neural structures to anatomic points of reference. Therefore, the results of this study add significant information for a safe surgical procedure for the majority of patients suffering from shoulder instability.

14.
Ann Surg ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086325

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency and patterns of postoperative complications and failure to rescue (FTR) after inpatient pediatric surgical procedures and to evaluate the association between number of complications and failure to rescue. SUMMARY AND BACKGROUND: FTR, or a postoperative death after a complication, is currently a nationally endorsed quality measure for adults. While it is a contributing factor to variation in mortality, relatively little is known about FTR after pediatric surgery. METHODS: Cohort study of 200,554 patients within the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric database (2012-2016) who underwent a high (≥1%) or low (<1%) mortality risk inpatient surgical procedures. Patients were stratified based on number of postoperative complications (0, 1, 2, or ≥3) and further categorized as having undergone either a low- or high-risk procedure. The association between the number of postoperative complications and FTR was evaluated with multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Among patients who underwent a low- (89.4%) or high-risk (10.6%) procedures, 14.0% and 12.5% had at least one postoperative complication, respectively. FTR rates after low- and high-risk procedures demonstrated step-wise increases as the number of complications accrued (e.g.: low-risk-9.2% in patients with ≥3 complications; high-risk-36.9% in patients with ≥3 complications). Relative to patients who had no complications, there was a dose-response relationship between mortality and the number of complications after low-risk (1 complication - Odds Ratio [OR] 3.34 [95% CI 2.62-4.27]; 2 - OR 10.15 [95% CI 7.40-13.92]; ≥3-27.48 [95% CI 19.06-39.62]) and high-risk operations (1 - OR 3.29 [2.61-4.16]; 2-7.24 [5.14-10.19]; ≥3-20.73 [12.62-34.04]). CONCLUSIONS: There is a dose-response relationship between the number of postoperative complications after inpatient surgery and FTR, ever after common, 'minor' surgical procedures. These findings suggest FTR may be a potential quality measure for pediatric surgical care.

15.
Appl Clin Inform ; 11(5): 692-698, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086395

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study demonstrates application of human factors methods for understanding causes for lack of timely follow-up of abnormal test results ("missed results") in outpatient settings. METHODS: We identified 30 cases of missed test results by querying electronic health record data, developed a critical decision method (CDM)-based interview guide to understand decision-making processes, and interviewed physicians who ordered these tests. We analyzed transcribed responses using a contextual inquiry (CI)-based methodology to identify contextual factors contributing to missed results. We then developed a CI-based flow model and conducted a fault tree analysis (FTA) to identify hierarchical relationships between factors that delayed action. RESULTS: The flow model highlighted barriers in information flow and decision making, and the hierarchical model identified relationships between contributing factors for delayed action. Key findings including underdeveloped methods to track follow-up, as well as mismatches, in communication channels, timeframes, and expectations between patients and physicians. CONCLUSION: This case report illustrates how human factors-based approaches can enable analysis of contributing factors that lead to missed results, thus informing development of preventive strategies to address them.

16.
J Crit Care ; 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980235

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The effect of communication between referring and accepting clinicians during patient transitions to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) on diagnostic quality is largely unknown. This pilot study aims to determine the feasibility of using focused ethnography to understand the relationship between referral communication and the diagnostic process for critically ill children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted focused ethnography in an academic tertiary referral PICU by directly observing the referral and admission of 3 non-electively admitted children 0-17 years old. We also conducted 21 semi-structured interviews of their parents and admitting PICU staff (intensivists, fellows/residents, medical students, nurses, and respiratory therapists) and reviewed their medical records post-discharge. RESULTS: Performing focused ethnography in a busy PICU is feasible. We identified three areas for additional exploration: (1) how information transfer affects the PICU diagnostic process; (2) how uncertainty in patient assessment affects the decision to transfer to the PICU; and (3) how the PICU team's expectations are influenced by referral communication. CONCLUSIONS: Focused ethnography in the PICU is feasible to investigate relationships between clinician referral communication and the diagnostic process for critically ill children.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980255

RESUMO

PROBLEM: Reducing diagnostic errors requires improving both systems and individual clinical reasoning. One strategy to achieve diagnostic excellence is learning from feedback. However, clinicians remain uncomfortable receiving feedback on their diagnostic performance. Thus, a team of researchers and clinical leaders aimed to develop and implement a diagnostic performance feedback program for learning that mitigates potential clinician discomfort. APPROACH: The program was developed as part of a larger project to create a learning health system around diagnostic safety at Geisinger, a large, integrated health care system in rural Pennsylvania. Steps included identifying potential missed opportunities in diagnosis (MODs) from various sources (for example, risk management, clinician reports, patient complaints); confirming MODs through chart review; and having trained facilitators provide feedback to clinicians about MODs as learning opportunities. The team developed a guide for facilitators to conduct effective diagnostic feedback sessions and surveyed facilitators and recipients about their experiences and perceptions of the feedback sessions. OUTCOMES: 28 feedback sessions occurred from January 2019 to June 2020, involving MODs from emergency medicine, primary care, and hospital medicine. Most facilitators (90.6% [29/32]) reported that recipients were receptive to learning and discussing MODs. Most recipients reported that conversations were constructive and nonpunitive (83.3% [25/30]) and allowed them to take concrete steps toward improving diagnosis (76.7% [23/30]). Both groups believed discussions would improve future diagnostic safety (93.8% [30/32] and 70.0% [21/30], respectively). KEY INSIGHTS AND NEXT STEPS: An institutional program was developed and implemented to deliver diagnostic performance feedback. Such a program may facilitate learning and improvement to reduce MODs. Future efforts should assess long-term effects on diagnostic performance and patient outcomes.

18.
BMJ Open ; 10(8): e039763, 2020 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study explored: (1) fall circumstances experienced by ambulators with spinal cord injury (SCI) over a 6-month period, (2) the impacts of falls-related injuries and fall risk and (3) their preferences/recommendations for fall prevention. DESIGN: A sequential explanatory mixed-methods design with two phases. SETTING: A Canadian SCI rehabilitation hospital and community setting. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-three ambulators with SCI participated in phase 1 and eight participants that fell in phase 1 participated in phase 2. METHODS: In phase 1, fall circumstances were tracked using a survey that was completed each time a participant fell during the 6-month tracking period. Phase 2 involved photovoice; participants took photographs of factors that influenced their fall risk and how their fall risk impacted their work/recreational activities. Participants discussed the photographs and topics related to fall prevention in an individual interview and a focus group. RESULTS: Of the 33 participants, 21 fell in 6 months. Falls commonly occurred in the home while participants were changing positions or walking. Most falls occurred in the morning or afternoon. In phase 2, interviews and focus group discussion revealed three themes: (1) falls are caused by bodily impairments (eg, impaired reactive response during slips and trips and weakness and altered sensation in legs/feet), (2) impacts of fall-related injuries and fall risk (eg, psychosocial effects of fall-related injuries, limiting community participation due to the risk of falling and activity-dependent concern of falling) and (3) approaches to fall prevention (eg, fall prevention strategies used, components of fall prevention and utility of professional fall prevention strategies/interventions). CONCLUSIONS: Fall prevention interventions/strategies should focus on minimising a person's fall risk within their home as most falls occurred in the home environment. Ambulators with SCI would benefit from education and awareness about common fall circumstances that they may encounter in their daily lives.

19.
J Patient Saf ; 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804871

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Failure to follow-up on laboratory test results can lead to missed diagnoses, diagnostic delays, patient harm, and potential malpractice claims against providers. State-of-the-art tracking technologies such as the radio frequency identification (RFID) can potentially improve laboratory order processing and test result communication. We conducted a comparative evaluation of differences in completion rates for 5 testing process milestones and time to reach these process milestones, with and without RFID order tracking for skin biopsy orders. METHODS: This observational study analyzed 48,515 orders from 20 dermatology providers, sent to 8 pathology laboratories in 2016 to 2017. Descriptive t tests and multiple Cox proportional hazard regressions were used to examine the differences in completion rates and times to the 5 testing process milestones, namely, (1) provider receipt of results, (2) provider review of results, (3) patient notification, (4) follow-up scheduling, and (5) order case closure, for orders processed with and without RFID order tracking. RESULTS: Descriptive statistics illustrated that all 5 testing process milestone completion rates were statistically higher for RFID tracked orders compared with non-RFID tracked orders, and RFID tracked orders took 3 to 5 days lesser than non-RFID tracked orders to reach the 5 testing process milestones. Multiple cox proportional hazard regressions showed that the process milestones were achieved faster if orders were RFID tracked versus not (hazard ratios ranged from 1.3 to 4.9). CONCLUSIONS: The RFID tracking technology considerably improved test result communication timeliness and reliability. Such technologies can be beneficial for laboratory order processing, and their effectiveness should be explored in other practice settings.

20.
BMJ Qual Saf ; 29(12): 961-964, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753410
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