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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203662

RESUMO

Chromism-based optical filters are a niche field of research, due to only a handful of electrochromic materials. Typically, electrochromic transition metal oxides such as MoO3 and WO3 are utilized in applications such as smart windows and electrochromic devices (ECD). Herein, we report MoO3-x based electrically activated ultra-violet (UV) filters. The MoO3-x grown on Indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate is mechanically assembled onto an electrically activated proton exchange membrane. Reversible H+ injection/extraction in MoO3-x is employed to switch the optical transmittance, enabling an electrically activated optical filter. The devices exhibit broadband transmission modulation (325-800 nm) with a peak of ~60% in the UV-A range (350-392 nm). Comparable switching times of 8 s and a coloration efficiency of up to 116 cm2 C-1 are achieved.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017642

RESUMO

Background: Medical management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) includes nebulized therapy as an option for inhalational drug delivery. A broad variety of short- and long-acting bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids in the nebulized form are available. Despite this, limited information exists on the pattern and predictors of nebulized prescription. We examined the trend and factors associated with prescription of nebulized therapy among Medicare beneficiaries with COPD. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study of 5% Medicare beneficiaries with COPD (n = 66,032) who were enrolled in parts A, B, and D and received nebulized prescription from 2008 to 2015 was conducted. This sample has shown to be representative of the entire fee-for-service Medicare population. The primary outcome was a prescription of nebulized medications. Reliever nebulized medications included short-acting beta agonist (SABA), short-acting muscarinic agents (SAMAs), and a combination of SABA and SAMA, while maintenance nebulized medications included long-acting beta agonists, long-acting muscarinic agents, and corticosteroid solutions as well as combinations of these agents. The secondary outcome was prescription of other inhaler respiratory medications not administered with a nebulizer. Results: Overall, 38.9% patients were prescribed nebulized medication and their prescription significantly declined from 42.4% in 2008 to 35.1% in 2015, majority of which was related to decreased prescriptions of nebulized relievers. Factors associated with the prescription of nebulized medications include female gender (odds ratio [OR] = 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-1.09), dual eligibility or low-income subsidy beneficiaries (OR = 1.49; CI = 1.44-1.53), hospitalization for COPD in the previous year (OR = 1.29; CI = 1.25-1.34), home oxygen therapy (OR = 2.29; CI = 2.23-2.36), pulmonary specialist visit (OR = 1.24; CI = 1.20-1.27), and moderate (OR = 1.61; CI = 1.57-1.65) or high (OR = 1.52; CI = 1.46-1.59) severity of COPD. Conclusion: Between 2008 and 2015, prescriptions for nebulized therapy for COPD declined among Medicare beneficiaries, probably related to increase in use of maintenance non-nebulized medications.

4.
Mol Ther ; 28(3): 830-844, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027843

RESUMO

The authors describe retinal reconstruction and restoration of visual function in heritably blind mice missing the rhodopsin gene using a novel method of ex vivo gene therapy and cell transplantation. Photoreceptor precursors with the same chromosomal genetic mutation were treated ex vivo using minicircle DNA, a non-viral technique that does not present the packaging limitations of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors. Following transplantation, genetically modified cells reconstructed a functional retina and supported vision in blind mice harboring the same founder gene mutation. Gene delivery by minicircles showed comparable long-term efficiency to AAV in delivering the missing gene, representing the first non-viral system for robust treatment of photoreceptors. This important proof-of-concept finding provides an innovative convergence of cell and gene therapies for the treatment of hereditary neurodegenerative disease and may be applied in future studies toward ex vivo correction of patient-specific cells to provide an autologous source of tissue to replace lost photoreceptors in inherited retinal blindness. This is the first report using minicircles in photoreceptor progenitors and the first to transplant corrected photoreceptor precursors to restore vision in blind animals.

5.
Cell ; 180(5): 878-894.e19, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059783

RESUMO

Pathogenic autoantibodies arise in many autoimmune diseases, but it is not understood how the cells making them evade immune checkpoints. Here, single-cell multi-omics analysis demonstrates a shared mechanism with lymphoid malignancy in the formation of public rheumatoid factor autoantibodies responsible for mixed cryoglobulinemic vasculitis. By combining single-cell DNA and RNA sequencing with serum antibody peptide sequencing and antibody synthesis, rare circulating B lymphocytes making pathogenic autoantibodies were found to comprise clonal trees accumulating mutations. Lymphoma driver mutations in genes regulating B cell proliferation and V(D)J mutation (CARD11, TNFAIP3, CCND3, ID3, BTG2, and KLHL6) were present in rogue B cells producing the pathogenic autoantibody. Antibody V(D)J mutations conferred pathogenicity by causing the antigen-bound autoantibodies to undergo phase transition to insoluble aggregates at lower temperatures. These results reveal a pre-neoplastic stage in human lymphomagenesis and a cascade of somatic mutations leading to an iconic pathogenic autoantibody.

6.
Carbohydr Polym ; 234: 115827, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070555

RESUMO

Waste biomass of two major milk weeds was separately given combination of chemical-mechanical treatments in order to expose natural cellulosic micro and nano-fibrillated structures (MFCs and NFCs). Compositional and FTIR analysis were initially used to confirm the removal of impurities. WA-XRD and FESEM analysis of MFCs further revealed presence of highly crystalline, fine-shaped materials that resemble carbonaceous structures. HR-TEM analysis further exposed morphology of the two nanofibrils possessing a well entangled network (diameter ≤80 nm) comprising coil shaped fine spots of size up to 80 nm-220 nm. Morphology even got clearer when STEM and EDX mapping of the NFCs assured that observed fine-spots are integral and possibly due to certain biosynthetic process. Presence of calcium elements in two types of NFCs provided important evidence of exposure of nanocellulose-xyloglucan-pectin configuration responsible for coil-shaped fine-spots resembling "biomechanical hot spots".

7.
Curr Drug Deliv ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rifampicin is known to degrade at the acidic pH of the stomach, especially in the presence of isoniazid. Although isoniazid also degrades partially, but its degradation is reversible. OBJECTIVE: Presently we provide a proof of the fact that the simultaneous oral administration of rifampicin (RIF), upon incorporation into solid lipid nanoparticles (RIF-SLNs), with isoniazid (INH) overcomes its INH-induced degradation and improves its oral bioavailability in rats. METHODS: Solid lipid nanoparticles of RIF (RIF-SLNs) were prepared using a novel and patented method. The effect of INH was investigated on in vivo bioavailability of RIF both in its free and encapsulated (RIF-SLNs) form, after oral administration to rats. RESULTS: Cmax and AUC0-∞ of RIF increased 158 % and 125 %, respectively, upon incorporation into SLNs versus free RIF when combined with INH. The Tmax decreased from 5.67 h to 3.3 h, and plasma concentration of RIF remained above its MIC (8 µg/ml) at all the tested time points starting with 15 min, when administered as RIF-SLNs in combination with INH. CONCLUSIONS: Results confirm the scope of combining RIF-SLNs with INH to overcome bioavailability of free RIF when combined with INH especially in fixed dose combinations.

8.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(1): 136-156, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902409

RESUMO

Globally, cardiovascular disease remains a major cause of adverse outcomes in young individuals, unlike its decline in other age groups. This group is not well studied and has a unique risk profile with less traditional cardiovascular risk factors compared with older populations. Plaque rupture still remains the most common etiology of myocardial infarction, but unique syndromes such as plaque erosion, coronary microvascular dysfunction, spontaneous coronary artery dissection, and coronary spasm related to drug use are more prevalent in this age group. Such diversity of diagnosis and presentation, along with therapeutic implications, underscore the need to study the profile of myocardial infarction in young persons. We searched PubMed for articles published from 1980 to 218 using the terms acute myocardial infarction, young, plaque rupture, plaque erosion, spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD), coronary vasospasm, variant or Prinzmetal angina, drug-induced myocardial infarction, myocarditis, coronary embolism, microvascular dysfunction, MINOCA, and myocardial infarction in pregnancy and reviewed all the published studies. With the data from this search, we aim to inform readers of the prevalence, risk factors, presentation, and management of acute myocardial infarction in young patients and elaborate on special subgroups with diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. We also outline a parsimonious method designed to simplify management of these complex patients.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Adulto , Idade de Início , Causalidade , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
9.
Anesthesiology ; 132(4): 702-712, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrathecal morphine is commonly and effectively used for analgesia after joint arthroplasty, but has been associated with delayed respiratory depression. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea may be at higher risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. However, data is limited regarding the safety of intrathecal morphine in this population undergoing arthroplasty. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study aimed to determine the safety of intrathecal morphine in 1,326 patients with documented or suspected obstructive sleep apnea undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty. Chart review was performed to determine clinical characteristics, perioperative events, and postoperative outcomes. All patients received neuraxial anesthesia with low-dose (100 µg) intrathecal morphine (exposure) or without opioids (control). The primary outcome was any postoperative pulmonary complication including: (1) respiratory depression requiring naloxone; (2) pneumonia; (3) acute respiratory event requiring consultation with the critical care response team; (4) respiratory failure requiring intubation/mechanical ventilation; (5) unplanned admission to the intensive care unit for respiratory support; and (6) death from a respiratory cause. The authors hypothesized that intrathecal morphine would be associated with increased postoperative complications. RESULTS: In 1,326 patients, 1,042 (78.6%) received intrathecal morphine. The mean age of patients was 65 ± 9 yr and body mass index was 34.7 ± 7.0 kg/m. Of 1,326 patients, 622 (46.9%) had suspected obstructive sleep apnea (Snoring, Tired, Observed, Pressure, Body Mass Index, Age, Neck size, Gender [STOP-Bang] score greater than 3), while 704 of 1,326 (53.1%) had documented polysomnographic diagnosis. Postoperatively, 20 of 1,322 (1.5%) patients experienced pulmonary complications, including 14 of 1,039 (1.3%) in the exposed and 6 of 283 (2.1%) in the control group (P = 0.345). Overall, there were 6 of 1 322 (0.5%) cases of respiratory depression, 18 of 1,322 (1.4%) respiratory events requiring critical care team consultation, and 4 of 1,322 (0.3%) unplanned intensive care unit admissions; these rates were similar between both groups. After adjustment for confounding, intrathecal morphine was not significantly associated with postoperative pulmonary complication (adjusted odds ratio, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.24 to 1.67]; P = 0.308). CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose intrathecal morphine, in conjunction with multimodal analgesia, was not reliably associated with postoperative pulmonary complications in patients with obstructive sleep apnea undergoing joint arthroplasty.

10.
Circulation ; 141(6): 454-463, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 myocardial infarction (T2MI) occurs because of an acute imbalance in myocardial oxygen supply and demand in the absence of atherothrombosis. Despite being frequently encountered in clinical practice, the population-based incidence and trends remain unknown, and the long-term outcomes are incompletely characterized. METHODS: We prospectively recruited residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, who experienced an event associated with a cardiac troponin T >99th percentile of a normal reference population (≥0.01 ng/mL) between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2012. Events were retrospectively classified into type 1 myocardial infarction (T1MI, atherothombotic event), T2MI, or myocardial injury (troponin rise not meeting criteria for myocardial infarction [MI]) using the universal definition. Outcomes were long-term all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and recurrent MI. T2MI was further subclassified by the inciting event for supply/demand mismatch. RESULTS: A total of 5460 patients had at least one cardiac troponin T ≥0.01 ng/mL; 1365 of these patients were classified as index T1MI (age, 68.5±14.8 years; 63% male) and 1054 were classified as T2MI (age, 73.7±15.8 years; 46% male). The annual incidence of T1MI decreased markedly from 202 to 84 per 100 000 persons between 2003 and 2012 (P<0.001), whereas the incidence of T2MI declined from 130 to 78 per 100 000 persons (P=0.02). In comparison with patients with T1MI, patients with T2MI had higher long-term all-cause mortality after adjustment for age and sex, driven by early and noncardiovascular death. Rates of cardiovascular death were similar after either type of MI (hazard ratio, 0.8 [95% CI, 0.7-1.0], P=0.11). Subclassification of T2MI by cause demonstrated a more favorable prognosis when the principal provoking mechanism was arrhythmia, in comparison with postoperative status, hypotension, anemia, and hypoxia. After index T2MI, the most common MI during follow-up was a recurrent T2MI, whereas the occurrence of a new T1MI was relatively rare (estimated rates at 5 years, 9.7% and 1.7%). CONCLUSIONS: There has been an evolution in the type of MI occurring in the community over a decade, with the incidence of T2MI now being similar to T1MI. Mortality after T2MI is higher and driven by early and noncardiovascular death. The provoking mechanism of supply/demand mismatch affects long-term survival. These findings underscore the healthcare burden of T2MI and provide benchmarks for clinical trial design.

11.
Pain ; 161(3): 476-490, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693543

RESUMO

Chronic neuropathic pain (NP) is debilitating and impacts sleep health and quality of life. Treatment with gabapentinoids (GBs) has been shown to reduce pain, but its effects on sleep health have not been systematically evaluated. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the relationship between GB therapy dose and duration on sleep quality, daytime somnolence, and intensity of pain in patients with NP. Subgroup comparisons were planned for high- vs low-dose GBs, where 300 mg per day or more of pregabalin was used to classify high-dose therapy. Trial data were segregated by duration less than 6 weeks and 6 weeks or greater. Twenty randomized controlled trials were included. Primary outcome measures included pain-related sleep interference and incidence of daytime somnolence. Secondary outcomes included daily pain scores (numerical rating scale 0-10) and patient global impression of change. Significant improvement in sleep quality was observed after 6 weeks of GB treatment when compared with placebo (standardized mean difference 0.39, 95% confidence interval 0.32-0.46 P < 0.001). Increased daytime somnolence was observed among all GB-treated groups when compared with placebo. Treated patients were also more likely to report improvement of patient global impression of change scores. Pain scores decreased significantly in patients both after 6 weeks of treatment (P < 0.001) and in trials less than 6 weeks (P = 0.017) when compared with placebo. Our data demonstrate that GBs have a positive impact on sleep health, quality of life, and pain in patients with NP syndromes. However, these benefits come at the expense of daytime somnolence.

12.
J Clin Invest ; 130(3): 1527-1541, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805012

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDIn retinitis pigmentosa (RP), rod photoreceptors degenerate from 1 of many mutations, after which cones are compromised by oxidative stress. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reduces oxidative damage and increases cone function/survival in RP models. We tested the safety, tolerability, and visual function effects of oral NAC in RP patients.METHODSSubjects (n = 10 per cohort) received 600 mg (cohort 1), 1200 mg (cohort 2), or 1800 mg (cohort 3) NAC bid for 12 weeks and then tid for 12 weeks. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), macular sensitivity, ellipsoid zone (EZ) width, and aqueous NAC were measured. Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the rates of changes during the treatment period.RESULTSThere were 9 drug-related gastrointestinal adverse events that resolved spontaneously or with dose reduction (maximum tolerated dose 1800 mg bid). During the 24-week treatment period, mean BCVA significantly improved at 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2-0.6, P < 0.001), 0.5 (95% CI: 0.3-0.7, P < 0.001), and 0.2 (95% CI: 0.02-0.4, P = 0.03) letters/month in cohorts 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There was no significant improvement in mean sensitivity over time in cohorts 1 and 2, but there was in cohort 3 (0.15 dB/month, 95% CI: 0.04-0.26). There was no significant change in mean EZ width in any cohort.CONCLUSIONOral NAC is safe and well tolerated in patients with moderately advanced RP and may improve suboptimally functioning macular cones. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial is needed to determine if oral NAC can provide long-term stabilization and/or improvement in visual function in patients with RP.TRIAL REGISTRATIONNCT03063021.FUNDINGMr. and Mrs. Robert Wallace, Mr. and Mrs. Jonathan Wallace, Rami and Eitan Armon, Marc Sumerlin, Cassandra Hanley, and Nacuity Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

14.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(1): e008290, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical utility of routine electrocardiographic monitoring following percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) is not well studied. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated the incidence, cost, and the clinical implications of actionable arrhythmia alarms on telemetry monitoring following PCI. One thousand three hundred fifty-eight PCI procedures (989 [72.8%] for acute coronary syndrome and 369 [27.2%] for stable angina) on patients admitted to nonintensive care unit were identified and divided into 2 groups; group 1, patients with actionable alarms (AA) and group 2, patients with non-AA. AA included (1) ≥3 s electrical pause or asystole; (2) high-grade Mobitz type II atrioventricular block or complete heart block; (3) ventricular fibrillation; (4) ventricular tachycardia (>15 beats); (5) atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response; (6) supraventricular tachycardia (>15 beats). Primary outcomes were 30-day all-cause mortality. Cost-savings analysis was performed. RESULTS: Incidence of AA was 2.2% (37/1672). Time from end of procedure to AA was 5.5 (0.5, 24.5) hours. Patients with AA were older, presented with acute congestive heart failure or non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, and had multivessel or left main disease. The 30-day all-cause mortality was significantly higher in patients with AA (6.5% versus 0.3% in non-AA [P<0.001]). Applying the standardized costing approach and tailored monitoring per the American Heart Association guidelines lead to potential cost savings of $622 480.95 for the entire population. CONCLUSIONS: AA following PCI were infrequent but were associated with increase in 30-day mortality. Following American Heart Association guidelines for monitoring after PCI can lead to substantial cost saving.

15.
Int J Cardiol ; 299: 209-214, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MAVD, defined as severe aortic stenosis with moderate or severe aortic regurgitation, is frequently encountered in clinical practice. However, the data regarding TAVR outcomes in MAVD are sparse. We compared Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) outcomes between Mixed Aortic Valve Disease (MAVD) and Predominant Aortic Stenosis (PAS) patients. METHODS: Patients who underwent TAVR at Mayo Clinic from February 7, 2012 to December 16, 2016 were enrolled. The primary end point was all-cause mortality. Secondary end points were central or paravalvular regurgitation, device success, and Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC)-2 defined post TAVR complications (access site complications, bleedings, myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiac arrest). RESULTS: A total of 622 patients were enrolled. Mean age was 81 ±â€¯8.9 years, and 263 (42.3%) were female. Median follow-up duration was 1.5 years. One hundred and sixteen patients (18.6%) had MAVD. Central or paravalvular leak was higher in MAVD patients post-TAVR (15.5% vs 6.7%, P = 0.004). Device success and VARC-2 in-hospital complications were similar between the two groups. The cumulative probability of survival at 3 years was 71.3% in MAVD patients vs. 62.6% in PAS patients (Log-Rank P = 0.024). In a multi-variant logistic regression analysis, MAVD was an independent negative predictor of all-cause mortality (HR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.3-0.89, P = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: A significant number of patients referred for TAVR have MAVD disease. Despite higher rates of paravalvular regurgitation, all-cause mortality at mid-term was lower in patients with MAVD compared with those with PAS. Our results show the safety and efficacy of TAVR in MAVD patients.

16.
J Clin Med ; 8(12)2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795241

RESUMO

Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a novel, noninvasive imaging modality that allows depth-resolved imaging of the microvasculature in the retina and the choroid. It is a powerful research tool to study the pathobiology of retinal diseases, including inherited retinal dystrophies. In this review, we provide an overview of the evolution of OCTA technology, compare the specifications of various OCTA devices, and summarize key findings from published OCTA studies in inherited retinal dystrophies including retinitis pigmentosa, Stargardt disease, Best vitelliform macular dystrophy, and choroideremia. OCTA imaging has provided new data on characteristics of these conditions and has contributed to a deeper understanding of inherited retinal disease.

17.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(12): e005929, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly used in acute myocardial infarction (AMI); however, there are limited large-scale national data. METHODS: Using the National Inpatient Sample database from 2000 to 2014, a retrospective cohort of AMI utilizing ECMO was identified. Use of percutaneous coronary intervention, intra-aortic balloon pump, and percutaneous left ventricular assist device (LVAD) was also identified in this population. Outcomes of interest included temporal trends in utilization of ECMO alone and with concomitant procedures (percutaneous coronary intervention, intra-aortic balloon pump, and percutaneous LVAD), in-hospital mortality, and resource utilization. RESULTS: In ≈9 million AMI admissions, ECMO was used in 2962 (<0.01%) and implanted a median of 1 day after admission. ECMO was used in 0.5% and 0.3% AMI admissions complicated by cardiogenic shock and cardiac arrest, respectively. ECMO was used more commonly in admissions that were younger, nonwhite, and with less comorbidity. ECMO use was 11× higher in 2014 as compared with 2000 (odds ratio, 11.37 [95% CI, 7.20-17.97]). Same-day percutaneous coronary intervention was performed in 23.1%; intra-aortic balloon pump/percutaneous LVAD was used in 57.9%, of which 30.3% were placed concomitantly. In-hospital mortality with ECMO was 59.2% overall but decreased from 100% (2000) to 45.1% (2014). Durable LVAD and cardiac transplantation were performed in 11.7% as an exit strategy. Of the hospital survivors, 40.8% were discharged to skilled nursing facilities. Older age, male sex, nonwhite race, and lower socioeconomic status were independently associated with higher in-hospital mortality with ECMO use. CONCLUSIONS: In AMI admissions, a steady increase was noted in the utilization of ECMO alone and with concomitant procedures (percutaneous coronary intervention, intra-aortic balloon pump, and percutaneous LVAD). In-hospital mortality remained high in AMI admissions treated with ECMO.

18.
Resuscitation ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the timing and outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) receiving primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). This study sought to examine the in-hospital mortality, temporal trends and resource utilization in early vs. delayed IHCA in STEMI. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study from the National Inpatient Sample of all STEMI admissions during 2000-2014 receiving pPCI on hospital day zero. Admissions transferred from other hospitals, with do-not-resuscitate status, without information on IHCA timing, and receiving surgical revascularization were excluded. IHCA was classified as early (hospital day zero) and delayed (on/after hospital day 1). The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality and secondary outcomes included prevalence, temporal trends, and resource utilization. RESULTS: During this 15-year period, 19,185 admissions met the inclusion criteria, with 15,404 (80%) experiencing an early IHCA. The cohort with delayed IHCA was on average older, female, with higher comorbidity, and greater prevalence of non-shockable rhythms and acute organ failure. There was a temporal increase in early IHCA (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.67 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.35-2.08]) and a decrease in delayed IHCA (aOR 0.60 [95% CI 0.48-0.74]) in 2014 compared to 2000. Compared to the early IHCA cohort, the delayed IHCA cohort had higher in-hospital mortality (aOR 5.35 [95% CI 4.83-5.94]), higher hospitalization costs ($115,165 ± 109,848 vs. 139,038 ± 142,745) and less frequent discharges to home (74% vs. 52%). CONCLUSIONS: Delayed IHCA (on or after hospital day 1) was associated with higher in-hospital mortality and resource utilization compared to early IHCA.

19.
Anesth Analg ; 129(6): 1673-1691, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perioperative diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has important resource implications as screening questionnaires are overly sensitive, and sleep studies are expensive and time-consuming. Ultrasound (US) is a portable, noninvasive tool potentially useful for airway evaluation and OSA screening in the perioperative period. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the correlation of surface US with OSA diagnosis and to determine whether a point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) for OSA screening may help with improved screening in perioperative period. METHODS: A search of all electronic databases including Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was conducted from database inception to September 2017. Inclusion criteria were observational cohort studies and randomized controlled trials of known or suspected OSA patients undergoing surface US assessment. Article screening, data extraction, and summarization were conducted by 2 independent reviewers with ability to resolve conflict with supervising authors. Diagnostic properties and association between US parameters (index test) and OSA diagnosis using sleep study (reference standard) were evaluated. The US parameters were divided into airway and nonairway parameters. A random-effects meta-analysis was planned, wherever applicable. RESULTS: Of the initial 3865 screened articles, 21 studies (7 airway and 14 nonairway) evaluating 3339 patients were included. Majority of studies were conducted in the general population (49%), respirology (23%), and sleep clinics (12%). No study evaluated the use of US for OSA in perioperative setting. Majority of included studies had low risk of bias for reference standard and flow and timing. Airway US parameters having moderate-good correlation with moderate-severe OSA were distance between lingual arteries (DLAs > 30 mm; sensitivity, 0.67; specificity, 0.59; 1 study/66 patients); mean resting tongue thickness (>60 mm; sensitivity, 0.85; specificity, 0.59; 1 study/66 patients); tongue base thickness during Muller maneuver (MM; sensitivity, 0.59; specificity, 0.78; 1 study/66 patients); and a combination of neck circumference and retropalatal (RP) diameter shortening during MM (sensitivity, 1.0; specificity, 0.65; 1 study/104 patients). Nonairway US parameters having a low-moderate correlation with moderate-severe OSA were carotid intimal thickness (pooled correlation coefficient, 0.444; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.320-0.553; P value = .000, 8 studies/727 patients) and plaque presence (sensitivity, 0.24-0.75; specificity, 0.13-1.0; 4 studies/1183 patients). CONCLUSIONS: We found that a number of airway and nonairway parameters were identified with moderate to good correlation with OSA diagnosis in the general population. In future studies, it remains to be seen whether PoCUS screening for a combination of these parameters can address the pitfalls of OSA screening questionnaires.

20.
EuroIntervention ; 2019 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746759

RESUMO

AIMS: There are limited data on the trends and outcomes of mechanical circulatory support (MCS)-assisted early percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock (AMI-CS). METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the National Inpatient Sample database from 2005-2014 a retrospective cohort of AMI-CS admissions receiving early PCI (hospital day zero) was identified. MCS use was defined as intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP), percutaneous left ventricular assist device (pLVAD) and extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. Outcomes of interest included in-hospital mortality, resource utilization, trends and predictors of MCS-assisted PCI. Of the 110,452 admissions, MCS assistance was used in 55%. IABP, pLVAD and ECMO were used in 94.8%, 4.2% and 1% respectively. During 2009-2014, there was a decrease in MCS-assisted PCI due to a decrease in IABP, despite an increase in pLVAD and ECMO. Younger age, male sex, lower comorbidity, and cardiac arrest independently predicted MCS use. MCS-assisted PCI was predictive of higher in-hospital mortality (31% vs. 26%, adjusted odds ratio 1.23 [1.19-1.27]; p<0.001) and greater resource utilization. IABP-assisted PCI had lower in-hospital mortality and lesser resource utilization compared to pLVAD/ECMO. CONCLUSIONS: MCS-assisted PCI identified a sicker AMI-CS cohort. There was a decrease in IABP and an increase in the pLVAD/ECMO.

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