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1.
Pediatrics ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Most young infants presenting to the emergency department (ED) with a brief resolved unexplained event (BRUE) are hospitalized. We sought to determine the rate of explanatory diagnosis after hospitalization for a BRUE. METHODS: This was a multicenter retrospective cohort study of infants hospitalized with a BRUE after an ED visit between October 1, 2015, and September 30, 2018. We included infants without an explanatory diagnosis at admission. We determined the proportion of patients with an explanatory diagnosis at the time of hospital discharge and whether diagnostic testing, consultation, or observed events occurring during hospitalization were associated with identification of an explanatory diagnosis. RESULTS: Among 980 infants hospitalized after an ED visit for a BRUE without an explanatory diagnosis at admission, 363 (37.0%) had an explanatory diagnosis identified during hospitalization. In 805 (82.1%) infants, diagnostic testing, specialty consultations, and observed events did not contribute to an explanatory diagnosis, and, in 175 (17.9%) infants, they contributed to the explanatory diagnosis (7.0%, 10.0%, and 7.0%, respectively). A total of 15 infants had a serious diagnosis (4.1% of explanatory diagnoses; 1.5% of all infants hospitalized with a BRUE), the most common being seizure and infantile spasms, occurring in 4 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Most infants hospitalized with a BRUE did not receive an explanation during the hospitalization, and a majority of diagnoses were benign or self-limited conditions. More research is needed to identify which infants with a BRUE are most likely to benefit from hospitalization for determining the etiology of the event.

2.
BMJ Open Qual ; 10(Suppl 1)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unintended pregnancies have a negative impact on the health and economy of a nation, which can be prevented by effective family planning (FP) services. Postpartum intrauterine device (PPIUCD) is a safe and effective FP method which allows women to obtain long-acting contraception before discharge from the point of delivery. We observed poor coverage of deliveries with PPIUCD at our facility. This was the trigger to initiate a quality improvement (QI) initiative to increase the PPIUCD coverage from current rate of 4.5%-10% in 3-month period. METHOD: A fishbone analysis of the problem was done and the following causes were identified: lack of focused counselling for FP, lack of sensitisation and training of resident doctors and inconsistent supply of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs). A QI team was constituted with representatives from faculty members, residents, interns, nursing officers and FP counsellors. The point of care quality improvement methodology was used. INTERVENTIONS: Daily counselling of antenatal women was started by the counsellors and interns in antenatal wards. A WhatsApp group of residents was made initially to sensitise them; and later for parking of problems and trouble shooting. The residents were provided hands-on training at skills lab. Uninterrupted supply of IUCDs was ensured by provision of buffer stock of IUCDs with respective store keepers. RESULT: The PPIUCD insertion rates improved from 4.5% to 19.2% at 3 months and have been sustained to a current 30%-35% after 1 ½ years of initiation of the project tiding through the turbulence during the COVID-19 pandemic using QI techniques. CONCLUSION: Sensitisation and training of residents as well as creation of awareness among antenatal women through targeted counselling helped improve PPIUCD coverage at the facility. QI initiatives have the potential to facilitate effective implementation of the FP programmes by strategic utilisation of the resources.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Dispositivos Intrauterinos , Período Pós-Parto , Melhoria de Qualidade , Adulto , COVID-19 , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Pandemias , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Alta do Paciente , Gravidez
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 796: 148769, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274660

RESUMO

The effects of climate on infectious diseases could influence the health impacts, particularly in children in countries with the unfair socioeconomic conditions. In a prospective cohort of 461 children under 16-years-of-age in Varanasi city, India, the association of maximum-temperature (Tmax), relative humidity (RH), absolute humidity (AH), rainfall (RF), wind-speed (WS), and solar radiation (SLR) with prevalent infectious diseases (Diarrhea, Common cold and flu, Pneumonia, Skin-disease and Malaria, and Dengue) was examined using binomial-regression, adjusting for confounders and effect modifiers (socioeconomic-status; SES and child anthropometry), from January 2017 to January 2020. Attributable-fraction (AFx) was calculated due to each climate variable for each infectious disease. The result showed that each unit (1 °C) rise in Tmax was associated with an increase in diarrhea and skin-disease cases by 3.97% (95% CI: 2.92, 5.02) and 3.94% (95% CI: 1.67, 6.22), respectively, whereas, a unit decline in Tmax was associated with an increase in cold and flu cases by 3.87% (95% CI: 2.97, 4.76). Rise in humidity (RH) was associated with increase in cases of cold and flu by 0.73% (95% CI: 0.38, 1.08) and malaria (AH) by 7.19% (95% CI: 1.51, 12.87) while each unit (1 g/m3) decrease in humidity (AH) observed increase in pneumonia cases by 3.02% (95% CI: 0.75, 5.3). WS was positively associated with diarrhea (14.16%; 95% CI: 6.52, 21.80) and negatively with dengue (17.40%; 12.32, 22.48) cases for each unit change (kmph). RF showed marginal association while SLR showed no association at all. The combined AFx due to climatic factors ranged from 9 to 18%. SES and anthropometric parameters modified the climate-morbidity association in children with a high proportion of children found suffering from stunting, wasting, and underweight conditions. Findings from this study draw the attention of government and policymakers to prioritize effective measures for child health as the present association may increase disease burden in the future under climate-change scenarios in already malnourished paediatric population through multiple pathways.


Assuntos
Clima , Doenças Transmissíveis , Criança , Cidades , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Temperatura
4.
J Mol Biol ; 433(19): 167175, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303721

RESUMO

Virulence-associated type III secretion systems (T3SS) are utilized by Gram negative bacterial pathogens for injection of effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. The transmembrane export apparatus at the core of T3SS is composed of a unique helical complex of the hydrophobic proteins SctR, SctS, SctT, and SctU. These components comprise a number of highly conserved charged residues within their hydrophobic domains. The structure of the closed state of the core complex SctR5S4T1 revealed that several of these residues form inter- and intramolecular salt bridges, some of which have to be broken for pore opening. Mutagenesis of individual residues was shown to compromise assembly or secretion of both, the virulence-associated and the related flagellar T3SS. However, the exact role of these conserved charged residues in the assembly and function of T3SS remains elusive. Here we performed an in-depth mutagenesis analysis of these residues in the T3SS of Salmonella Typhimurium, coupled to blue native PAGE, in vivo photocrosslinking and luciferase-based secretion assays. Our data show that these conserved salt bridges are not critical for assembly of the respective protein but rather facilitate the incorporation of the following subunit into the assembling complex. Our data also indicate that these conserved charged residues are critical for type III-dependent secretion and reveal a functional link between SctSE44 and SctTR204 and the cytoplasmic domain of SctU in gating the T3SS injectisome. Overall, our analysis provides an unprecedented insight into the delicate requirements for the assembly and function of the machinery at the core of T3SS.

5.
Plant Cell Rep ; 2021 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250550

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Overexpression of finger millet calmodulin imparts drought and salt tolerance in plants. Drought and salinity are major environmental stresses which affect crop productivity and therefore are major hindrance in feeding growing population world-wide. Calcium (Ca2+) signaling plays a crucial role during the plant's response to these stress stimuli. Calmodulin (CaM), a crucial Ca2+sensor, is involved in transducing the signal downstream in various physiological, developmental and stress responses by modulating a plethora of target proteins. The role of CaM has been well established in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana for regulating various developmental processes, stress signaling and ion transport. In the current study, we investigate the CaM of Eleusine coracana (common name finger millet, known especially for its drought tolerance and superior Ca2+ content). In-silico analysis showed that Eleusine CaM (EcCaM) has greater similarity to rice CaM as compared to Arabidopsis CaM due to the presence of highly conserved four EF-hand domains. To decipher the in-planta function of EcCaM, we have adopted the gain-of-function approach by generating the 35S::EcCaM over-expression transgenic in Arabidopsis. Overexpression of EcCaM in Arabidopsis makes the plant tolerant to polyethylene glycol (PEG) induced drought and salt stress (NaCl) as demonstrated by post-germination based phenotypic assay, ion leakage, MDA and proline estimation, ROS detection under stressed and normal conditions. Moreover, EcCaM overexpression leads to hypersensitivity toward exogenously applied ABA at the seed germination stage. These findings reveal that EcCaM mediates tolerance to drought and salinity stress. Also, our results indicate that EcCaM is involved in modulating ABA signaling. Summarizing our results, we report for the first time that EcCaM is involved in modulating plants response to stress and this information can be used for the generation of future-ready crops that can tolerate a wide range of abiotic stresses.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331647

RESUMO

Urban water management is a growing concern in India's rapidly urbanizing cities. Population growth and climatic variability are exuberating the impact on surface and underground water supply. Understanding the causes and the extent of water vulnerability is required for developing effective strategies for water insecurities. This study attempts to assess the water vulnerability across different wards of a touristic city of Himalaya-Nainital using IPCC approach considering the three dimensions: exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. Seven indicators, mostly spatial, i.e. edaphic (aspect, elevation) and climatic (land surface temperature) besides some water infrastructural (distance to water distribution) and population, were considered for development of vulnerability index using Analytical Hierarchy Process for assigning weights. These indicators were simple to extract and easy to obtain and mostly available from secondary sources and were capable to account the variability at micro-level. Moreover, the current adaptation mechanisms for water security were also derived through conducting surveys by randomly selecting households across the wards. Staff House and Harinagar wards were the most vulnerable. The survey results that the adaptation mechanism should be managed at individual and organization level. Policy measures such as optimum use of water, grey water recycling, spring rejuvenation, rain water harvesting, and leakage proof infrastructure with intervention of new technologies, may be adopted and implemented for reducing the water vulnerability in the city along with the public participation. The appropriate measures for water vulnerability would further provide support for improving the facilities to the tourists in the city thereby improved economic opportunities to the locals.

7.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 65(9): e0069221, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152820

RESUMO

Antibiotic combinations, including ceftazidime/avibactam (CAZ/AVI), are frequently employed to combat KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp), though such combinations have not been rationally optimized. Clinical KPC-Kp isolates with common genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs), aac(6')-Ib' or aac(6')-Ib, were used in static time-kill assays (n = 4 isolates) and the hollow-fiber infection model (HFIM; n = 2 isolates) to evaluate the activity of gentamicin, amikacin, and CAZ/AVI alone and in combinations. A short course, one-time aminoglycoside dose was also evaluated. Gentamicin plus CAZ/AVI was then tested in a mouse pneumonia model. Synergy with CAZ/AVI was more common with amikacin for aac(6')-Ib'-containing KPC-Kp but more common with gentamicin for aac(6')-Ib-containing isolates in time-kill assays. In the HFIM, although the isolates were aminoglycoside-susceptible at baseline, aminoglycoside monotherapies displayed variable initial killing, followed by regrowth and resistance emergence. CAZ/AVI combined with amikacin or gentamicin resulted in undetectable counts 50 h sooner than CAZ/AVI monotherapy against KPC-Kp with aac(6')-Ib'. CAZ/AVI monotherapy failed to eradicate KPC-Kp with aac(6')-Ib and a combination with gentamicin led to undetectable counts 70 h sooner than with amikacin. A one-time aminoglycoside dose with CAZ/AVI provided similar killing to aminoglycosides dosed for 7 days. In the mouse pneumonia model (n = 1 isolate), gentamicin and CAZ/AVI achieved a 6.0-log10 CFU/lung reduction at 24 h, which was significantly greater than either monotherapy (P < 0.005). Aminoglycosides in combination with CAZ/AVI were promising for KPC-Kp infections; this was true even for a one-time aminoglycoside dose. Selecting aminoglycosides based on AME genes or susceptibilities can improve the pharmacodynamic activity of the combination.


Assuntos
Ceftazidima , Infecções por Klebsiella , Aminoglicosídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Azabicíclicos/farmacologia , Ceftazidima/farmacologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Genótipo , Infecções por Klebsiella/tratamento farmacológico , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , beta-Lactamases/genética
8.
Ann Emerg Med ; 78(3): 331-339, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33867179

RESUMO

STUDY HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that sucralfate along with oral analgesics (acetaminophen or ibuprofen) administered in the emergency department leads to a clinically significant improvement in oral intake in children with acute infectious oral ulcers. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of sucralfate versus placebo conducted between 2017 and 2018 in an urban pediatric emergency department. Children aged 6 months to 5 years with acute, infectious oral ulcers and poor oral intake received either acetaminophen at 15 mg/kg or ibuprofen at 10 mg/kg and were then randomized to receive sucralfate at 20 mg/kg per dose up to 1 g or a placebo solution. The primary outcome was oral fluid intake within 60 minutes of medication administration. The secondary outcomes were repeat ED visits, length of stay in ED, intravenous hydration rate, admission rate, adverse event rate, and emergency physician's determination of the adequacy of oral intake. RESULTS: One hundred subjects with mild dehydration (clinical dehydration score of 1) and a median age of 1.38 years were enrolled and analyzed (49 in the sucralfate group and 51 in the placebo group). Oral intake 1 hour after drug administration was similar in both the groups: the median intake in the sucralfate group was 9.7 mL/kg and 10.7 mL/kg in the placebo group (difference -1 mL/kg; 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.0 to 4.8). According to the emergency physician's report, the secondary outcomes were significant only for adequate oral intake: 71% in the sucralfate group versus 88% in the placebo group (difference -16.8%; 95% CI -32.2 to -1.4). CONCLUSION: Sucralfate as an adjunct to oral analgesics was not superior to placebo in improving oral intake in children with acute oral infectious ulcers.


Assuntos
Analgésicos não Narcóticos/administração & dosagem , Antiulcerosos/administração & dosagem , Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Úlceras Orais/tratamento farmacológico , Sucralfato/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
9.
Braz J Anesthesiol ; 71(3): 292-294, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766683

RESUMO

Catatonic patients may develop deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) due to prolonged periods of immobility. These life-threatening conditions demand prompt recognition and management. We describe the case of a patient with catatonia who presented to anesthesia for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) at the outset of the current coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. She complained of breathing difficulty and was suspected to have COVID-19 infection. On further evaluation, she was found to have DVT and PE and required oxygen therapy and intensive care management. The diagnostic delay in our patient would have probably not occurred, had it not been for the existing pandemic situation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Catatonia/complicações , Diagnóstico Tardio , Eletroconvulsoterapia , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico , Anestesia , Catatonia/terapia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/uso terapêutico , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Trombose Venosa/terapia
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2824, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531550

RESUMO

Early-stage diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is difficult due to non-specific symptoms. Circulating miRNAs in body fluids have been emerging as potential non-invasive biomarkers for diagnosis of many cancers. Thus, this study aimed to assess a panel of miRNAs for their ability to differentiate PDAC from chronic pancreatitis (CP), a benign inflammatory condition of the pancreas. Next-generation sequencing was performed to identify miRNAs present in 60 FFPE tissue samples (27 PDAC, 23 CP and 10 normal pancreatic tissues). Four up-regulated miRNAs (miR-215-5p, miR-122-5p, miR-192-5p, and miR-181a-2-3p) and four down-regulated miRNAs (miR-30b-5p, miR-216b-5p, miR-320b, and miR-214-5p) in PDAC compared to CP were selected based on next-generation sequencing results. The levels of these 8 differentially expressed miRNAs were measured by qRT-PCR in 125 serum samples (50 PDAC, 50 CP, and 25 healthy controls (HC)). The results showed significant upregulation of miR-215-5p, miR-122-5p, and miR-192-5p in PDAC serum samples. In contrast, levels of miR-30b-5p and miR-320b were significantly lower in PDAC as compared to CP and HC. ROC analysis showed that these 5 miRNAs can distinguish PDAC from both CP and HC. Hence, this panel can serve as a non-invasive biomarker for the early detection of PDAC.

12.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 24(9): 857-862, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132573

RESUMO

Disposable filtering face piece respirators (FFRs) are usually not approved for routine practice of decontamination and reuse. However, such practice of decontamination and reuse may be needed only as a crisis capacity strategy to ensure continued availability. The current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic would help us enlighten about more effective and efficient ways of decontamination and reuse. Based on the limited research available, ultraviolet irradiation, vapors of hydrogen peroxide, and moist heat showed the most promising potential methods to decontaminate FFRs. This article summarizes available research about decontamination of FFRs before reuse. How to cite this article: Singh R, Azim A, Singh N. Should We or Should We Not Reuse Filtering Face Piece Masks? A Review. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020;24(9):857-862.

13.
Case Rep Dent ; 2020: 2806324, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005457

RESUMO

Introduction: Vertical root fracture is a big challenge to dentists for its diagnosis and treatment. As the tooth presents poor prognosis, the most common treatment modality is extraction. One can save the tooth from extraction by the reconstruction of fracture fragments followed by intentional reimplantation. New treatment options have arrived for healing of the fracture site by hard tissue barrier formation with the help of bioceramic materials. Case Report. The present case report describes successful management of complete vertical root fracture of a maxillary left central incisor by trauma in a 35-year-old male with the help of Biodentine, a bonding agent, a fiber post, and dual-cure resin cement without tooth extraction, followed by all ceramic crowns. Up to two years of follow-up, there is no problem in the tooth, and radiographically, there is no radiolucency along the fracture line. Periodontal status and probing depth were within a normal physiological limit. Conclusion: Functional and aesthetic outcomes are achieved by combined therapy in the present case report.

14.
J Chem Neuroanat ; 110: 101874, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091590

RESUMO

COVID-19 has forsaken the world because of extremely high infection rates and high mortality rates. At present we have neither medicine nor vaccine to prevent this pandemic. Lockdowns, curfews, isolations, quarantines, and social distancing are the only ways to mitigate their infection. This is badly affecting the mental health of people. Hence, there is an urgent need to address this issue. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel Betacorona virus named SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) which has emerged in the city of Wuhan in China and declared a pandemic by WHO since it affected almost all the countries the world, infected 24,182,030 people and caused 825,798 death as per data are compiled from John Hopkins University (JHU). The genome of SARS-CoV-2 has a single-stranded positive (+) sense RNA of ∼30 kb nucleotides. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that SARS-CoV-2 shares the highest nucleotide sequence similarity (∼79 %) with SARS-CoV. Envelope and nucleocapsids are two evolutionary conserved regions of SARS-CoV-2 having a sequence identity of about 96 % and 89.6 %, respectively as compared to SARS-CoV. The characterization of SARS-CoV-2 is based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and metagenomic next-generation sequencing. Transmission of this virus in the human occurs through the respiratory tract and decreases the respiration efficiency of lungs. Humans are generally susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 with an incubation period of 2-14 days. The virus first infects the lower airway and bind with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) of alveolar epithelial cells. Due to the unavailability of drugs or vaccines, it is very urgent to design potential vaccines or drugs for COVID-19. Reverse vaccinology and immunoinformatic play an important role in designing potential vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. The suitable vaccine selects for SARS-CoV-2 based on binding energy between the target protein and the designed vaccine. The stability and activity of the designed vaccine can be estimated by using molecular docking and dynamic simulation approaches. This review mainly focused on the brief up to date information about COVID-19, molecular characterization, pathogen-host interaction pathways involved during COVID-19 infection. It also covers potential vaccine design against COVID-19 by using various computational approaches. SARS-CoV-2 enters brain tissue through the different pathway and harm human's brain and causes severe neurological disruption.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/química , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Simulação por Computador , Desenho de Fármacos , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
15.
J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol ; 36(2): 238-243, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013041

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Both dexmedetomidine and dexamethasone have individually been shown to be beneficial as an adjuvant to ropivacaine. We compared the efficacy of combination of ropivacaine with dexmedetomidine and ropivacaine with dexamethasone in ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus (SCBP) block. Material and Methods: In this prospective randomised double-blind controlled trial, 60 ASA physical status I/II patients undergoing elective upper-limb surgery under ultrasound-guided SCBP block with 30 ml of 0.5% ropivacaine were randomised into three groups. Group 1 (n = 20) received 1 µg/kg of dexmedetomidine, and group 2 (n = 20) received 8 mg of dexamethasone in addition to ropivacaine, while group 3 (n = 20) received only ropivacaine. The primary outcomes studied were onset and duration of sensory and motor block. Secondary outcomes included duration of analgesia, total analgesic consumption in 24 h postoperatively and quality of block. ANOVA and Chi-square test were used to compare results on continuous measurements and categorical measurements, respectively. Results: Onset of sensory and motor block was faster in group 1 (13.5 ± 4.1 and 17.0 ± 4.1 min) and group 2 (15.6 ± 3.6 and 18.5 ± 3.7 min) as compared to group 3 (20.1 ± 5.3 and 24.9 ± 5.6 min; P < 0.001). Block duration was significantly longer in group 1 and group 2 than in group 3. Duration of analgesia was prolonged in group 1 and 2 (1218.0 ± 224.6 and 1128.0 ± 207.5 min, respectively) as compared to group 3 (768.0 ± 273.7 min; P < 0.001). Twenty-four hours analgesic consumption postoperatively was reduced in the two study groups. Conclusion: Both dexmedetomidine and dexamethasone when used as adjuvants to ropivacaine for SCBP block, block onset time, and prolong' block duration.

16.
ACS Omega ; 5(37): 23967-23974, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32984717

RESUMO

This work is mainly focused on the synthesis of an efficient and reusable heterogeneous Au/NiAlTi layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocatalyst and its applications in the preparation of biologically important xanthene, 1,4-dihydropyridine, polyhydroquinoline, and 4H-pyran derivatives. NiAlTi LDH was designed hydrothermally and then gold was supported over the surface of LDH by using ion-exchange and NaBH4 reduction methods. The synthesized nanocatalyst was physicochemically characterized by X-ray diffractrometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM images confirmed the support of gold nanoparticles over the surface of LDH with a size distribution of 7-9 nm. The well-characterized nanocatalyst was tested for the synthesis of biologically important xanthene, 1,4-dihydropyridine, polyhydroquinoline, and 4H-pyran derivatives. The advantages obtained were excellent yields in a lesser reaction time. Stability and reusability were also accessed; the catalyst was stable even after five cycles. High catalytic efficiency, easy fabrication, and recycling ability of Au/NiAlTi LDH make it a potential catalyst for the synthesis of xanthene, 1,4-dihydropyridine, polyhydroquinoline, and 4H-pyran derivatives.

17.
Acta Trop ; 212: 105701, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956640

RESUMO

India and other Southeast Asian countries are severely affected by Japanese encephalitis (JE), one of the deadliest vector-borne disease threat to human health. Several epidemiological observations suggest climate variables play a role in providing a favorable environment for mosquito development and virus transmission. In this study, generalized additive models were used to determine the association of JE admissions and mortality with climate variables in Gorakhpur district, India, from 2001-2016. The model predicted that every 1 unit increase in mean (Tmean;°C), and minimum (Tmin;°C) temperature, rainfall (RF; mm) and relative humidity (RH; %) would on average increase the JE admissions by 22.23 %, 17.83 %, 0.66 %, and 5.22 % respectively and JE mortality by 13.27 %, 11.77 %, 0.94 %, and 3.27 % respectively Conversely, every unit decrease in solar radiation (Srad; MJ/m2/day) and wind speed (WS; Kmph) caused an increase in JE admission by 17% and 11.42% and in JE mortality by 9.37% and 4.88% respectively suggesting a protective effect at higher levels. The seasonal analysis shows that temperature was significantly associated with JE in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon while RF, RH, Srad, and WS are associated with the monsoon. Effect modification due to age and gender showed an equal risk for both genders and increased risk for adults above 15 years of age, however, males and age groups under 15 years outnumbered females and adults. Sensitivity analysis results to explore lag effects in climate variables showed that climate variables show the strongest association at lag 1 to 1.5 months with significant lag effect up tp lag 0-60 days. The exposure-response curve for climate variables showed a more or less linear relationship, with an increase in JE admissions and mortality after a certain threshold and decrease were reported at extreme levels of exposure. The study concludes that climate variables could influence the JE vector development and multiplication and parasite maturation and transmission in the Gorakhpur region whose indirect impact was noted for JE admission and mortality. In response to the changing climate, public health interventions, public awareness, and early warning systems would play an unprecedented role to compensate for future risk.


Assuntos
Encefalite Japonesa/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Clima , Encefalite Japonesa/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mosquitos Vetores , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
18.
Indian J Community Med ; 45(2): 209-214, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905180

RESUMO

Introduction: The relationship of tobacco use to dental caries is still unclear. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between smoking and smokeless tobacco usage and prevalence of dental caries and its pattern in the Varanasi population. Materials and Methods: In this study, 472 elderly dentate and consenting individuals were included. Individuals were examined with the aid of mouth mirror, No. 23 explorer, and cotton rolls. The age of the study group ranged from 16 years to 75 years. Individuals were categorized as smoking tobacco users, smokeless tobacco users, and the combination of these two. Frequency and dosage of tobacco usage was recorded. Dental caries was measured using decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index. Oral hygiene practices such as mode, material, and frequency of brushing were also recorded. Data were assessed using SPSS 17.0 using Chi-square, t-test, ANOVA test, and binary regression. Results: Caries rate was similar in both males and females (2.57 and 2.70), and the difference was not statistically significant. Caries was higher in individuals with habits when compared to those who were not having habits. There was no statistically significant association between individuals who were smokers, using smokeless tobacco, frequency, mode, and material of brushing with caries pattern. Among smokers, DMFT increased with frequency and duration of smoking, and it was statistically significant; however, in smokeless tobacco users, this was not the case. There was a positive correlation with DMFT and frequency of smoking. Conclusion: The study has shown that tobacco habit is a risk factor for increased caries activity, and it is higher in smokers as compared to smokeless tobacco chewers.

19.
ACS Omega ; 5(25): 15673-15680, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32637842

RESUMO

This work is generally focused on the synthesis of NiFeTi-layered double hydroxides (LDHs) using a hydrothermal route, which were calcined at various temperatures (varying from 200 to 600 °C). The synthesized materials were physicochemically characterized. X-ray diffraction results revealed the loss of the layered structure on calcination resulting in the formation of layered double oxides (LDOs) or mixed metal oxides, which was also supported by Fourier transform infrared studies. Scanning electron microscopy results also show loss of the layered structure and the creation of LDOs on increasing the temperature. These LDOs were tested as the catalysts for the synthesis of biologically significant xanthene, 1,4-dihydropyridine, and polyhydroquinoline derivatives. Among all, NiFeTi LDH calcined at 600 °C proved to be the best catalyst for the synthesis of these derivative compounds under optimized conditions. The advantages obtained were excellent yields in a lesser reaction time. Stability and reusability were also assessed; the catalyst was stable even after five cycles. Furthermore, the memory effect of the obtained NiFeTi CLDH calcined at 600 °C confirms that the material so formed is a calcined state of LDH itself. High catalytic efficiency, easy fabrication, and recycling ability of NiFeTi CLDH calcined at 600 °C make it a potential catalyst for the synthesis of xanthene, 1,4-dihydropyridine, and polyhydroquinoline derivatives.

20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(13)2020 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635537

RESUMO

Reliable prediction of binding affinities for ligand-receptor complex has been the primary goal of a structure-based drug design process. In this respect, alchemical methods are evolving as a popular choice to predict the binding affinities for biomolecular complexes. However, the highly flexible protein-ligand systems pose a challenge to the accuracy of binding free energy calculations mostly due to insufficient sampling. Herein, integrated computational protocol combining free energy perturbation based absolute binding free energy calculation with free energy landscape method was proposed for improved prediction of binding free energy for flexible protein-ligand complexes. The proposed method is applied to the dataset of various classes of p53-MDM2 (murine double minute 2) inhibitors. The absolute binding free energy calculations for MDMX (murine double minute X) resulted in a mean absolute error value of 0.816 kcal/mol while it is 3.08 kcal/mol for MDM2, a highly flexible protein compared to MDMX. With the integration of the free energy landscape method, the mean absolute error for MDM2 is improved to 1.95 kcal/mol.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/metabolismo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Desenho de Fármacos , Entropia , Ligantes , Camundongos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ligação Proteica/fisiologia , Conformação Proteica , Termodinâmica
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