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3.
Indian Pediatr ; 57(3): 232-234, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198863

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if vitamin D status is affected in term neonates with early onset sepsis and its association with outcome. METHODS: Study was done at a level 3 neonatal unit on 140 neonates. Term neonates with early onset sepsis (study group, 70 patients) and without sepsis (control group, 70 patients) were enrolled. RESULTS: Mean neonatal vitamin D level in the study group was 16.00 (10.49) ng/mL and in the control group, was 29.07(8.36) ng/mL (P =0.061). In the study group 80% (n=56) babies had low vitamin D levels (<32 ng/mL) among whom 51.7% (n=29) had severe vitamin D deficiency (<11ng/mL). In the control group, 58.5% (n=41) had low vitamin D levels of whom, 9.8% (n=4) had severe vitamin D deficiency (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Mortality and highly probable sepsis were more common with vitamin D levels <11ng/mL in the study group (P= 0.005 and P=0.006, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D is deficient in neonates with early onset sepsis and is associated with increased sepsis severity and mortality.

4.
J Hazard Mater ; 390: 122122, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006842

RESUMO

Arsenic (As), a chronic poison and non-threshold carcinogen, is a food chain contaminant in rice, posing yield losses as well as serious health risks. Selenium (Se), a trace element, is a known antagonist of As toxicity. In present study, RNA seq. and proteome profiling, along with morphological analyses were performed to explore molecular cross-talk involved in Se mediated As stress amelioration. The repair of As induced structural deformities involving disintegration of cell wall and membranes were observed upon Se supplementation. The expression of As transporter genes viz., NIP1;1, NIP2;1, ABCG5, NRAMP1, NRAMP5, TIP2;2 as well as sulfate transporters, SULTR3;1 and SULTR3;6, were higher in As + Se compared to As alone exposure, which resulted in reduced As accumulation and toxicity. The higher expression of regulatory elements like AUX/IAA, WRKY and MYB TFs during As + Se exposure was also observed. The up-regulation of GST, PRX and GRX during As + Se exposure confirmed the amelioration of As induced oxidative stress. The abundance of proteins involved in photosynthesis, energy metabolism, transport, signaling and ROS homeostasis were found higher in As + Se than in As alone exposure. Overall, present study identified Se responsive pathways, genes and proteins involved to cope-up with As toxicity in rice.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria outbreaks due to Plasmodium falciparum have been reported from various parts of India. Rainfall is considered as one of the major determinants for malaria outbreaks, however, an estimate of rainfall threshold for malaria is not known. Owing to the vast geographic area, the present study was planned to determine the amount of rainfall required for malaria outbreaks and the lag period between outbreak and rainfall in different Indian climatic regions. METHODS: Simple statistical methods of overall mean and moving mean (case/mean ratio, CMR) were used to identify the districts with P. falciparum malaria outbreak due to rainfall and the amount of rainfall required for outbreaks. Of 120 districts reporting P. falciparum malaria outbreaks, 99 districts having substantially low number of cases (<100); <3 CMR in any year from 2009 to 2012 and districts having stable malaria transmission were excluded. Finally, analysis of outbreak month, lag period and the threshold of rainfall were determined in respect of 21 districts which represent different agro-climatic zones in the country. Whenever the moving mean of cases attained the value ≥3 in any month, that month was identified as P. falciparum malaria outbreak. The threshold amount of rainfall critical for malaria outbreak was calculated by the average mean of previous months (i.e., lag period). RESULTS: The rainfall cutoff ranged from >70 to >600mm in different districts. The month of outbreak varied with the climatic zones viz. arid, semi-arid, humid and per-humid districts. In humid and per-humid districts, outbreaks occurred during monsoon period whereas in arid and semi-arid regions outbreaks occurred during the post monsoon period. The lag period varied from 1-3 months; long lag period was observed in arid, semi-arid region, while short lag period in humid and per-humid regions. CONCLUSION: Malaria outbreaks can occur in post monsoon in arid and semi-arid region whereas in summer/monsoon in humid and per-humid regions. The lag period between rainfall and outbreak differs from one month with short lag (humid and per-humid) to long lag (arid and semi-arid). Based on the determined threshold of rainfall, the findings would be helpful in forewarning of imminent outbreak of malaria for the timely preparedness of malaria outbreaks not only in 21 studied districts, but also in several other districts of different climatic regions of India.

8.
Geospat Health ; 14(2)2019 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724378

RESUMO

Mapping the malaria risk at various geographical levels is often undertaken considering climate suitability, infection rate and/or malaria vector distribution, while the ecological factors related to topography and vegetation cover are generally neglected. The present study abides a holistic approach to risk mapping by including topographic, climatic and vegetation components into the framework of malaria risk modelling. This work attempts to delineate the areas of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria transmission risk in India using seven geo-ecological indicators: temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, forest cover, soil, slope, altitude and the normalized difference vegetation index using multi-criteria decision analysis based on geographical information system (GIS). The weight of the risk indicators was assigned by an analytical hierarchical process with the climate suitability (temperature and humidity) data generated using fuzzy logic. Model validation was done through both primary and secondary datasets. The spatio-ecological model was based on GIS to classify the country into five zones characterized by various levels of malaria transmission risk (very high; high; moderate; low; and very low. The study found that about 13% of the country is under very high malaria risk, which includes the malaria- endemic districts of the states of Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Jharkhand, Tripura, Assam, Meghalaya and Manipur. The study also showed that the transmission risk suitability for P. vivax is higher than that for P. falciparum in the Himalayan region. The field study corroborates the identified malaria risk zones and highlights that the low to moderate risk zones are outbreak-prone. It is expected that this information will help the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme in India to undertake improved surveillance and conduct target based interventions.

9.
Cureus ; 11(8): e5343, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602348

RESUMO

Intraocular fungal infections may not present solely as postoperative anterior uveitis or as a focal anterior segment lesion. The present study describes a 50-year-old woman with well-controlled diabetes who presented with postoperative anterior uveitis three months after uncomplicated cataract surgery. A fuzzy lesion was observed on her iris. The patient underwent an anterior chamber wash and removal of the lesion, followed by intracameral treatment with voriconazole. Culture of the lesion showed that it was a species of Penicillium. The patient has remained stable after treatment. Three aspects of this case were unusual: a fungal lesion of unusual etiology and location, inflammation restricted to the anterior segment despite a fungal background, and the excellent response to treatment with a very favorable outcome.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540493

RESUMO

The future implications of climate change on malaria transmission at the global level have already been reported, however such evidences are scarce and limited in India. Here our study aims to assess, identify and map the potential effects of climate change on Plasmodium vivax (Pv) and Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria transmission in India. A Fuzzy-based Climate Suitability Malaria Transmission (FCSMT) model under the GIS environment was generated using Temperature and Relative Humidity data, extracted from CORDEX South Asia for Baseline (1976-2005) and RCP 4.5 scenario for future projection by the 2030s (2021-2040). National malaria data were used at the model analysis stage. Model outcomes suggest that climate change may significantly increase the spatial spread of Pv and Pf malaria with a numerical increase in the transmission window's (TW) months, and a shift in the months of transmission. Some areas of the western Himalayan states are likely to have new foci of Pv malaria transmission. Interior parts of some southern and eastern states are likely to become more suitable for Pf malaria transmission. Study has also identified the regions with a reduction in transmission months by the 2030s, leading to unstable malaria, and having the potential for malaria outbreaks.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Lógica Fuzzy , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Umidade , Malária Vivax/transmissão , Temperatura Ambiente
11.
Indian J Med Res ; 149(4): 517-527, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411176

RESUMO

Background & objectives: To support recent political commitments to end tuberculosis (TB) in the World Health Organization South-East Asian Region (SEAR), there is a need to understand by what measures, and with what investment, these goals could be reached. These questions were addressed by using mathematical models of TB transmission by doing the analysis on a country-by-country basis in SEAR. Methods: A dynamical model of TB transmission was developed, in consultation with each of the 11 countries in the SEAR. Three intervention scenarios were examined: (i) strengthening basic TB services (including private sector engagement), (ii) accelerating TB case-finding and notification, and (iii) deployment of a prognostic biomarker test by 2025, to guide mass preventive therapy of latent TB infection. Each scenario was built on the preceding ones, in successive combination. Results: Comprehensive improvements in basic TB services by 2020, in combination with accelerated case-finding to increase TB detection by at least two-fold by 2020, could lead to a reduction in TB incidence rates in SEAR by 67.3 per cent [95% credible intervals (CrI) 65.3-69.8] and TB deaths by 80.9 per cent (95% CrI 77.9-84.7) in 2035, relative to 2015. These interventions alone would require an additional investment of at least US$ 25 billion. However, their combined effect is insufficient to reach the end TB targets of 80 per cent by 2030 and 90 per cent by 2035. Model projections show how additionally, deployment of a biomarker test by 2025 could end TB in the region by 2035. Targeting specific risk groups, such as slum dwellers, could mitigate the coverage needed in the general population, to end TB in the Region. Interpretation & conclusions: While the scale-up of currently available strategies may play an important role in averting TB cases and deaths in the Region, there will ultimately be a need for novel, mass preventive measures, to meet the end TB goals. Achieving these impacts will require a substantial escalation in funding for TB control in the Region.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Latente/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Latente/microbiologia , Tuberculose Latente/prevenção & controle , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Organização Mundial da Saúde
12.
Mol Pharm ; 16(9): 3744-3759, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441308

RESUMO

We have devised a nanocarrier using "tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS) conjugated to triphenylphosphonium cation" (TPP-TPGS) for improving the efficacy of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX). Triphenylphosphonium cation (TPP) has affinity for an elevated transmembrane potential gradient (mitochondrial), which is usually high in cancer cells. Consequently, when tested in molecular docking and cytotoxicity assays, TPP-TPGS, owing to its structural similarity to mitochondrially directed anticancer compounds of the "tocopheryl succinate" family, interferes specifically in mitochondrial CII enzyme activity, increases intracellular oxidative stress, and induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells. DOX loaded nanocarrier (DTPP-TPGS) constructed using TPP-TPGS was positively charged, spherical in shape, sized below 100 nm, and had its drug content distributed evenly. DTPP-TPGS offers greater intracellular drug delivery due to its rapid endocytosis and subsequent endosomal escape. DTPP-TPGS also efficiently inhibits efflux transporter P glycoprotein (PgP), which, along with greater cell uptake and inherent cytotoxic activity of the construction material (TPP-TPGS), cumulatively results in 3-fold increment in anticancer activity of DOX in resistant breast cancer cells as well as greater induction of necroapoptosis and arrest in all phases of the cell cycle. DTPP-TPGS after intravenous administration in Balb/C mice with breast cancer accumulates preferentially in tumor tissue, which produces significantly greater antitumor activity when compared to DOX solution. Toxicity evaluation was also performed to confirm the safety of this formulation. Overall TPP-TPGS is a promising candidate for delivery of DOX.

14.
Res Rep Trop Med ; 10: 103-108, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308787

RESUMO

Infantile Tremor Syndrome (ITS) is a self-limiting clinical state characterized by tremors, anemia, pigmentary skin disease, regression of mental development, and hypotonia of muscles in a plump looking child. Tremors are coarse in character, decreased or disappeared in sleep and resolves within 4-6 weeks in its natural course. Various etiological factors as infectious, metabolic, nutritional have been hypothesized but none is conclusive. Consensus is developing on the role of Vitamin B12 deficiency in children with ITS but is still debatable. Empirical management of ITS children has been tried in the absence of exact etiology considering child as undernourished. Nutritional management includes supplementation of Iron, Calcium, Magnesium, Vitamin B12 and other multivitamins. Tremors can be managed with administration of propranolol most commonly or phenobarbitone, phenytoin, and carbamazepine.

15.
J Plant Physiol ; 240: 153010, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352021

RESUMO

Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) improve plant growth by altering the root architecture, although the mechanisms underlying this alteration have yet to be unravelled. Through microarray analysis of PGPR-treated rice roots, a large number of differentially regulated genes were identified. Ectopic expression of one of these genes, OsASR6 (ABA STRESS RIPENING6), had a remarkable effect on plant growth in Arabidopsis. Transgenic lines over-expressing OsASR6 had larger leaves, taller inflorescence bolts and greater numbers of siliques and seeds. The most prominent effect was observed in root growth, with the root biomass increasing four-fold compared with the shoot biomass increase of 1.7-fold. Transgenic OsASR6 over-expressing plants showed higher conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis rates, leading to an ˜30% higher seed yield compared with the control. Interestingly, OsASR6 expression led to alterations in the xylem structure, an increase in the xylem vessel size and altered lignification, which correlated with higher conductance. OsASR6 is activated by auxin and, in turn, increases auxin responses and root auxin sensitivity, as observed by the increased expression of auxin-responsive genes, such as SAUR32 and PINOID, and the key auxin transcription factor, ARF5. Collectively, these phenomena led to an increased root density. The effects of OsASR6 expression largely mimic the beneficial effects of PGPRs in rice, indicating that OsASR6 activation may be a key factor governing PGPR-mediated changes in rice. OsASR6 is a potential candidate for the manipulation of rice for improved productivity.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Xilema/anatomia & histologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Oryza/química , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
16.
Microbiol Res ; 223-225: 110-119, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178043

RESUMO

Nutrient deficiency in soil is one of the limiting factors responsible for stunted growth and poor flowering/fruiting of crops which result in decline in overall agricultural productivity. However, one important strategy to overcome the problem of nutrient deficiency and to avoid use of chemical fertilizers is the use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Paenibacillus lentimorbus NRRL B-30488 (hereafter B-30488), an efficient PGPR has been reported to have various plant growth promoting traits that help crops to mitigate various environmental stresses. Therefore, the present work was designed to examine the application of B-30488 on chickpea growth under nutrient stress condition. Plants inoculated with B-30488 showed positive modulation in physio-biochemical behaviour and mineral nutrient uptake for better growth and development. Alteration in gene expression and metabolic profile under nutrient stress condition in chickpea also supported the stress amelioration capability of B-30488. Principal component analysis statistically proved that improved growth performance of chickpea plants under nutrient stress was mainly due to B-30488 induced modulation of metabolic pathways. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study for analysis of growth promotion and stress alleviation in chickpea plants subjected to nutrient stress in presence of PGPR B-30488.


Assuntos
Cicer/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cicer/metabolismo , Cicer/microbiologia , Nutrientes , Paenibacillus/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Agricultura , Antioxidantes , Cicer/citologia , Produtos Agrícolas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hidroponia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Nutrientes/química , Estresse Oxidativo , Pigmentos Biológicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Raízes de Plantas/citologia , Prolina/análise , Solo/química , Estresse Fisiológico , Açúcares/análise
17.
Indian J Dermatol ; 64(3): 251, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148875

RESUMO

Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the commonest form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Many clinical subtypes and variants of MF have been described, one of which is poikilodermatous MF variant. Erosions and bullous lesions in a patient with poikilodermatous MF is a rare presentation. We present one such rare case of poikilodermatous MF with erosive lesions in a 40-year-old male.

18.
Indian Pediatr ; 56(5): 374-380, 2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102379

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To derive normative data of the distance between optimally placed endotracheal tube tip and arch of aorta by ultrasound in neonates across different weight and gestation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Tertiary care neonatal intensive care unit from April 2015 to May 2016. PARTICIPANTS: All neonates requiring endotracheal intubation were eligible for the study. METHODS: During intubation, insertional length was determined using weight-based formula. The distance between endotracheal tube tip and arch of aorta was measured by ultrasound. Endotracheal tube position was confirmed by chest radiograph. RESULTS: Out of 133 enrolled infants, 101 (75.9%) had optimally placed endotracheal tubes. The mean (SD) distance between endotracheal tube tip and arch of aorta by ultrasound was 0.78 (0.21) cm in infants <1500 g and 1.04 (0.32) cm in infants ≥1500 g. The regression equation to estimate insertional length from weight, crown heel length (CHL), occipito-frontal circumference (OFC), nasal tragus length (NTL) and sternal length (SL) were Wt(kg)+4.95, 0.15×CHL(cm)+0.57, 0.22×OFC(cm)+0.49, 0.82× NTL(cm)+1.24 and 0.75×SL(cm)+2.26, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reports normative data of the distance between optimally placed endotracheal tube tip and arch of aorta by ultrasound in neonates. The distance between endotracheal tube tip and arch of aorta increases with increase in weight and gestation. Insertional length correlates strongly with all the anthropometric parameters.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Intubação Intratraqueal , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Traqueia/diagnóstico por imagem , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Ultrassonografia
19.
J Vector Borne Dis ; 56(1): 46-52, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070165

RESUMO

Background & objectives: Climate change is an emerging issue particularly in the context of vector-borne diseases. A study was undertaken in Nainital and Almora districts of Uttarakhand to provide evidences of changing climatic conditions, abundance of vectors, and knocking of malaria in hilly areas. Material and methods: Longitudinal data on temperature and relative humidity were procured from Tussar Silk Centre, Bhimtal, India as well as generated using HOBO device. Monthly density of malaria vectors, their positivity for sporozoite proteins of malaria parasite and fever surveys were conducted as per the standard procedures from 2010 to 2013. Epidemiological data were procured from the State Programme Officer of Uttarakhand state. Results: It was found that the temperature has increased since 1990 resulting in extension in windows of malaria transmission, temporal distribution as well as man hour density of Anopheles culicifacies and An. fluviatilis in hilly districts of Uttarakhand state. Both the vectors were found in high density up to a maximum man hour density of 110 (An. culicifacies) and 69 (An. fluviatilis) as compared to 32 and 33, respectively during 1998. The field collected vector species were also found positive for sporozoite proteins of malaria parasites in the month of October and November. Evidence of occurrence of malaria cases was also found in areas hitherto free from malaria. Interpretation & conclusion: The findings reveal that Himalayan region needs attention to strengthen surveillance for malaria to identify emerging new foci of malaria transmission in view of climate change. Health education to communities about preventive measures to contain breeding of vectors and seeking timely treatment should be imparted so as to achieve the goal of malaria elimination in category-1 in the first instance.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Temperatura Ambiente , Animais , Anopheles/parasitologia , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Umidade , Índia/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium vivax , Estações do Ano , Esporozoítos
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