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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411282

RESUMO

The loss regularity of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and chemical oxygen demand (CODMn) of runoff under different rainfall intensity and different management practices in Phyllostachys praecox cv. prevernalis forest land was studied. The total nitrogen (TN) and CODMn concentration in runoff were significantly correlated with the rainfall intensity under the three management modes named as control, fertilization, and cover. Moreover, N mainly lost in the form of nitrate (NO3--N). Generally, the relationship between total and dissolved phosphorus (TP and DP) loss in the three management modes was estimated in following orders: coverage > fertilization > control. The loss of P was mainly in the granular state, and the loss of DP only accounted negligible amount of the TP loss. The loss of CODMn was closely related to the magnitude of rainfall intensity. Results revealed that CODMn concentration in runoff under fertilization and cover management was significantly correlated with the rain fall intensity.

2.
Vet Q ; 41(1): 107-136, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509059

RESUMO

Mastitis (intramammary inflammation) caused by infectious pathogens is still considered a devastating condition of dairy animals affecting animal welfare as well as economically incurring huge losses to the dairy industry by means of decreased production performance and increased culling rates. Bovine mastitis is the inflammation of the mammary glands/udder of bovines, caused by bacterial pathogens, in most cases. Routine diagnosis is based on clinical and subclinical forms of the disease. This underlines the significance of early and rapid identification/detection of etiological agents at the farm level, for which several diagnostic techniques have been developed. Therapeutic regimens such as antibiotics, immunotherapy, bacteriocins, bacteriophages, antimicrobial peptides, probiotics, stem cell therapy, native secretory factors, nutritional, dry cow and lactation therapy, genetic selection, herbs, and nanoparticle technology-based therapy have been evaluated for their efficacy in the treatment of mastitis. Even though several strategies have been developed over the years for the purpose of managing both clinical and subclinical forms of mastitis, all of them lacked the efficacy to eliminate the associated etiological agent when used as a monotherapy. Further, research has to be directed towards the development of new therapeutic agents/techniques that can both replace conventional techniques and also solve the problem of emerging antibiotic resistance. The objective of the present review is to describe the etiological agents, pathogenesis, and diagnosis in brief along with an extensive discussion on the advances in the treatment and management of mastitis, which would help safeguard the health of dairy animals.

3.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-6, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270497

RESUMO

The rapid worldwide spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in tens of millions of infections and over one million deaths. SARS-CoV-2 infection affects all age groups; however, those over 60 years old are affected more severely. Moreover, pre-existing co-morbidities result in higher COVID-19-associated mortality in the geriatric population. This article highlights the associated risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 infection in older people and progress in developing COVID-19 vaccines, especially for efficient vaccination of the older population. There is also a summary of immunomodulatory and immunotherapeutic approaches to ameliorate the outcome of COVID-19 in older individuals.

4.
Bioresour Technol ; 320(Pt A): 124285, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130542

RESUMO

In this study, a microbial fuel cell coupled with constructed wetland (CW-MFC) was built to demonstrate that integration of MFC can enhance antibiotics (sulfadiazine (SDZ) and ciprofloxacin (CIP)) removal in CWs and control CH4 emissions. Better COD and antibiotics removal performance was obtained in CW-MFC. Notably, both reactors can remove more than 90.00% of CIP. A decline in methane fluxes (by 15.29%) was also observed in CW-MFC compared with CW. The presence of Acorus tatarinowii had no obvious effect on antibiotics removal but the application of manganese ore substrate reduced methane emissions. Further study showed that Proteobacteria was enriched on the Mn substrate anode and the relative abundance of Methanothrix was declined. The results suggested that suppression of methanogenesis may be contributed to a low methane flux in CW-MFC. This study will facilitate the application of CW-MFC to treat antibiotics wastewater and control the ecological risks of greenhouse gas emissions.

5.
Front Public Health ; 8: 574198, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072713

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic wreaked havoc worldwide, with more than 20 million confirmed cases and nearly 0. 75 million deaths as of 10th August 2020. Various factors determine the severity and symptoms of this infection. Older age and underlying diseases are the challenges being faced in controlling and treating COVID-19. In 2019, 703 million of the global population was older than 65 years of age. The estimated mortality due to COVID-19 in people older than 76 years of age is reportedly 18%. Frequent infections in older people, higher disease severity, and increased mortality are major challenges in the implementation of appropriate preventive measures and future strategies to protect against this disease in geriatric population. Poor health status, weak immune function, lowered organ function, increased probability of multiple underlying diseases, and poor attention to personal health can increase the susceptibility to various diseases in the geriatric population. Concerning inadequate immunity, the decrease expression of receptors and exaggerated pathophysiologic responses can be debilitating. However, future studies will reveal the hidden facets in these aspects in this COVID-19 catastrophe. In this article, we reviewed the main concerns of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the geriatric population, including the risk of acquiring severe COVID-19 resulting in mortality, variation in clinical manifestations, and other pandemic-related concerns. We also discussed the need for increasing attention toward the elderly, taking appropriate prevention and control measures, and considering geriatric-related adjustments in vaccine design and development.

6.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; : 1-7, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092469

RESUMO

Hamartoma is a developmental disorder characterized by the presence of well-differentiated tissue, of multiple types, in excess at its normal location. The present study describes a fibrous tissue pulmonary hamartoma in two buffaloes. Grossly, there were large pale white masses present on the left diaphragmatic lobe in both cases. Microscopic examination of the lungs revealed that the bronchioles were dilated and showed many terminal respiratory bronchioles lined by a single layer of cuboidal epithelium supported by thick bands of collagenous tissue. Alveoli were distorted and separated by wide bands of connective tissues. Interalveolar septa were greatly expanded by collagen fiber proliferation and subsequent fibrosis. Fibrous connective tissues were demonstrated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Masson's Trichrome staining (MTS). Based on gross and histological examination, coupled with IHC and MTS, it was possible to confirm a case of hamartoma, which is rarely reported worldwide and is the first reported case from India.

7.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 8(4)2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114776

RESUMO

Indigenous breeds of young chickens in India are believed to be resistant to the classical strain of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). However, the mechanism underlying this resistance is obscure. Innate immunity is a key factor in defining the clinical course and pathology of microbial infections. The present study is aimed to compare the pathology of very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) and immunological host response in experimentally infected - vaccinated and unvaccinated indigenous Aseel and commercial White Leghorn chickens. The viral loads and innate immune gene expression profiles of MDA-5, Mx, IFN-α, and IFN-ß in different lymphoid organs were analyzed by quantitative PCR. The histopathological scores in Aseel birds were lower than in White Leghorns despite comparable viral loads. The degrees of histopathological lesions were fewer in vaccinated birds than in unvaccinated birds of both breeds. Analysis of innate immune response genes revealed that the cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptor MDA-5 gene was overexpressed mainly in the cecal tonsils of both vaccinated and nonvaccinated White Leghorn chickens. An increase in the expression of the IFN-α gene was seen in the cecal tonsils of Aseels, and an increase in IFN-ß gene expression was seen in the thymuses of White Leghorns following vvIBDV challenge both in vaccinated and nonvaccinated birds. In addition, we observed that the Mx gene plays a minimal role, if any, in vvIBDV infection of the breeds under study. It remains interesting and important that although vvIBDV causes disease in indigenous Aseel birds, the faster clearance and reduced pathology of the virus in Aseel birds compared to White Leghorn chicken indicate some unidentified innate immune factors that are limiting IBDV in this breed. Further studies will be required to correlate kinetics of humoral and cellular immune response in relation to the virus load in different organs to illuminate the mechanism of genetic resistance in native breeds of chicken.

8.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(19)2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007881

RESUMO

1H and 19F spin-lattice relaxation studies for 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide in bulk and mesoporous MCM-41 silica matrix confinement were performed under varying temperatures in a broad range of magnetic fields, corresponding to 1H resonance frequency from 5Hz to 30MHz.A thorough analysis of the relaxation data revealed a three-dimensional translation diffusion of the ions in the bulk liquid and two-dimensional diffusion in the vicinity of the confining walls in the confinement. Parameters describing the translation dynamics were determined and compared. The rotational motion of both kinds of ions in the confinement was described by two correlation times that might be attributed to anisotropic reorientation of these species.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16098, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999335

RESUMO

Flexible and self-powered deep ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors are pivotal for next-generation electronic skins to enrich human life quality. The fabrication of epitaxial ß-Ga2O3 thin films is challenging on flexible substrates due to high-temperature growth requirements. Herein, ß-Ga2O3 ([Formula: see text] 0 1) films are hetero-epitaxially grown on ultra-thin and environment-friendly muscovite mica which is the first time ß-Ga2O3 epitaxy growth on any flexible substrate. Integration of Gallium oxide with muscovite enables high-temperature processing as well as excellent flexibility compared to polymer substrates. Additionally, the metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetector on ß-Ga2O3 layer shows an ultra-low dark current of 800 fA at zero bias. The photovoltaic peak responsivity of 11.6 µA/W is obtained corresponding to very weak illumination of 75 µW/cm2 of 265 nm wavelength. Thermally stimulated current (TSC) measurements are employed to investigate the optically active trap states. Among these traps, trap with an activation energy of 166 meV dominates the persistence photocurrent in the devices. Finally, photovoltaic detectors have shown excellent photocurrent stability under bending induced stress up to 0.32%. Hence, this novel heteroepitaxy opens the new way for flexible deep UV photodetectors.

10.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(5): 715-720, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970224

RESUMO

Genotoxic potential of herbicide bispyribac-sodium was evaluated in fish Clarias batrachus using micronucleus (MN) test and comet assay. Fish were exposed to three environmentally relevant test concentrations of the herbicide for 20, 25 and 30 days. Significant effects (p < 0.05) for both concentration and duration of exposure were observed in herbicide exposed fish. Similar trend of DNA damage was observed through MN test and comet assay. Maximum DNA damage was observed in fish exposed to highest concentration of herbicide at all duration. Maximum damage was observed on day 25 at all concentrations followed by a decline. This study established C. batrachus as an ecotoxicological model for bispyribac-sodium induced genotoxicity testing. It further confirmed that both MN test and comet assay are useful tool for assessment of genotoxicity induced by water pollutants.


Assuntos
Benzoatos/toxicidade , Peixes-Gato/genética , Dano ao DNA , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/induzido quimicamente , Pirimidinas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Ensaio Cometa , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Água Doce/química , Dose Letal Mediana , Testes para Micronúcleos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(2): 373-385, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941178

RESUMO

To evaluate the enhancing of the biological nitrogen removal effectiveness by electromagnetic wave loading on returned sludge in the A/A/O reactor, some experiments were completed with the returned sludge loaded by 2,450 MHz electromagnetic wave. The excess sludge yield and pollutant removal effect of the system were evaluated. Results showed that stronger denitrification effect and less sludge yield were achieved. When 30% of the returned sludge was loaded by electromagnetic wave, the actual denitrification efficiency increased by 7% without dosage. The dissolution of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus from loaded returned sludge was detected, thus providing the system with a supplemental carbon source of 4.6 g/d SCOD. The specific oxygen uptake rate of the oxic activated sludge increased by 14%, and the denitrification rate of the anoxic activated sludge increased by 29%. Illumina MiSeq analysis showed that the microbial richness increased obviously, and denitrifying bacteria (i.e. Dechloromonas, Zoogloea and Azospira, etc.) were accumulated.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Radiação Eletromagnética , Fósforo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
12.
ACS Nano ; 14(10): 13629-13637, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910634

RESUMO

Cluster superlattice membranes consist of a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice of similar-sized nanoclusters sandwiched between single-crystal graphene and an amorphous carbon matrix. The fabrication process involves three main steps, the templated self-organization of a metal cluster superlattice on epitaxial graphene on Ir(111), conformal embedding in an amorphous carbon matrix, and subsequent lift-off from the Ir(111) substrate. The mechanical stability provided by the carbon-graphene matrix makes the membrane stable as a free-standing material and enables transfer to other substrates. The fabrication procedure can be applied to a wide variety of cluster materials and cluster sizes from the single-atom limit to clusters of a few hundred atoms, as well as other two-dimensional layer/host matrix combinations. The versatility of the membrane composition, its mechanical stability, and the simplicity of the transfer procedure make cluster superlattice membranes a promising material in catalysis, magnetism, energy conversion, and optoelectronics.

13.
Acta Biomater ; 115: 1-28, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818612

RESUMO

Tissue engineering provides great possibilities to manage tissue damages and injuries in modern medicine. The involvement of hard biocompatible materials in tissue engineering-based therapies for the healing of soft tissue defects has impressively increased over the last few years: in this regard, different types of bioceramics were developed, examined and applied either alone or in combination with polymers to produce composites. Bioactive glasses, carbon nanostructures, and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles are among the most widely-proposed hard materials for treating a broad range of soft tissue damages, from acute and chronic skin wounds to complex injuries of nervous and cardiopulmonary systems. Although being originally developed for use in contact with bone, these substances were also shown to offer excellent key features for repair and regeneration of wounds and "delicate" structures of the body, including improved cell proliferation and differentiation, enhanced angiogenesis, and antibacterial/anti-inflammatory activities. Furthermore, when embedded in a soft matrix, these hard materials can improve the mechanical properties of the implant. They could be applied in various forms and formulations such as fine powders, granules, and micro- or nanofibers. There are some pre-clinical trials in which bioceramics are being utilized for skin wounds; however, some crucial questions should still be addressed before the extensive and safe use of bioceramics in soft tissue healing. For example, defining optimal formulations, dosages, and administration routes remain to be fixed and summarized as standard guidelines in the clinic. This review paper aims at providing a comprehensive picture of the use and potential of bioceramics in treatment, reconstruction, and preservation of soft tissues (skin, cardiovascular and pulmonary systems, peripheral nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, skeletal muscles, and ophthalmic tissues) and critically discusses their pros and cons (e.g., the risk of calcification and ectopic bone formation as well as the local and systemic toxicity) in this regard. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Soft tissues form a big part of the human body and play vital roles in maintaining both structure and function of various organs; however, optimal repair and regeneration of injured soft tissues (e.g., skin, peripheral nerve) still remain a grand challenge in biomedicine. Although polymers were extensively applied to restore the lost or injured soft tissues, the use of bioceramics has the potential to provides new opportunities which are still partially unexplored or at the very beginning. This reviews summarizes the state of the art of bioceramics in this field, highlighting the latest evolutions and the new horizons that can be opened by their use in the context of soft tissue engineering. Existing results and future challenges are discussed in order to provide an up-to-date contribution that is useful to both experienced scientists and early-stage researchers of the biomaterials community.

14.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 27(9): 822-828, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719457

RESUMO

The HIV-1 Nef protein suppresses multiple immune surveillance mechanisms to promote viral pathogenesis and is an attractive target for the development of novel therapeutics. A key function of Nef is to remove the CD4 receptor from the cell surface by hijacking clathrin- and adaptor protein complex 2 (AP2)-dependent endocytosis. However, exactly how Nef does this has been elusive. Here, we describe the underlying mechanism as revealed by a 3.0-Å crystal structure of a fusion protein comprising Nef and the cytoplasmic domain of CD4 bound to the tetrameric AP2 complex. An intricate combination of conformational changes occurs in both Nef and AP2 to enable CD4 binding and downregulation. A pocket on Nef previously identified as crucial for recruiting class I MHC is also responsible for recruiting CD4, revealing a potential approach to inhibit two of Nef's activities and sensitize the virus to immune clearance.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD4/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , HIV-1/fisiologia , Produtos do Gene nef do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/metabolismo , Complexo 2 de Proteínas Adaptadoras/química , Complexo 2 de Proteínas Adaptadoras/metabolismo , Antígenos CD4/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Células HeLa , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Produtos do Gene nef do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/química
15.
Bioengineered ; 11(1): 743-758, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631112

RESUMO

This work highlights the potential of corncob biochar (CCBC) and Brevibacillus parabrevis for the decolorization of brilliant green (BG) dye from synthetically prepared contaminated wastewater. The CCBC was characterized by proximate, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis, respectively. Different parameters affecting the adsorption process were evaluated. The experimental results were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Kinetic results were examined by different models; pseudo-second-order model has shown the best fit to the experimental data. Anew positive values of ΔHo (172.58 kJ/mol) and ΔSo (569.97 J/K/mol) in the temperature range of 303-318 K revealed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The present investigation showed that the bacteria immobilized with CCBC showed better BG dye degradation. The kinetic parameters, µmax, Ks, and µ max, were found to be 0.5 per day, 39.4 mg/day, and 0.012 L/mg/day using Monod model, respectively. The adsorbent with bacteria showed good potential for the removal of cationic BG dye and can be considered for the remediation of industrial effluent.

17.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 37: 101755, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479816

RESUMO

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), emerged in early December 2019 in China and became a pandemic situation worldwide by its rapid spread to more than 200 countries or territories. Bats are considered as the reservoir host, and the search of a probable intermediate host is still going on. The severe form of the infection is associated with death is mainly reported in older and immune-compromised patients with pre-existing disease history. Death in severe cases is attributed to respiratory failure associated with hyperinflammation. Cytokine storm syndrome associated with inflammation in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is considered as the leading cause of mortality in COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 patients have thus higher levels of many proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. The blood laboratory profile of the COVID-19 patients exhibits lymphopenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and RNAaemia, along with increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase. SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women does not lead to fetus mortality, unlike other zoonotic coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, and there is, to date, no evidence of intrauterine transmission to neonates. Rapid diagnostics have been developed, and significant efforts are being made to develop effective vaccines and therapeutics. In the absence of any virus-specific therapy, internationally, health care authorities are recommending the adoption of effective community mitigation measures to counter and contain this pandemic virus. This paper is an overview of this virus and the disease with a particular focus on SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 clinical pathology, pathogenesis, and immunopathology, along with recent research developments.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
18.
J Hazard Mater ; 399: 123012, 2020 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544766

RESUMO

Environmental fate, behavior and effects of hazardous organic compounds have recently received great attention in diverse environmental phases, including water, atmosphere, soil and sediment. Considering polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fibers were validated for the wide application in the determination of partition behavior in passive sampling, in this work, several in silico models were established to predict PDMS-water (KPDMS-w), PDMS-air (KPDMS-a) and PDMS-seawater partition coefficients (KPDMS-sw) of diverse chemicals. This is an attempt to combine conventional linear method and popular nonlinear algorithm for the estimation of partition coefficients between PDMS and different environmental media. All of the developed models showed satisfactory goodness-of-fit with high adjusted correlation coefficient (R2adj) and were validated to be robust, stable and predictable by various internal and external validation techniques, deriving a wide series of statistical checks. Moreover, it was found that hydrophobicity, polarizability, charge distribution and molecular size of compounds contributed significantly to the model development by interpreting the selected descriptors. Based on the broad applicability domains (ADs), the current study provides suitable tools to fill the experimental data gap for other compounds and to help researchers better understand the mechanistic basis of adsorption behavior of PDMS.

19.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 10(5)2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32403245

RESUMO

Interest in newborn screening for mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) is growing, due in part to ongoing efforts to develop new therapies for these disorders and new screening assays to identify increased risk for the individual MPSs on the basis of deficiency in the cognate enzyme. Existing tests for MPSs utilize either fluorescence or mass spectrometry detection methods to measure biomarkers of disease (e.g., enzyme function or glycosaminoglycans) using either urine or dried blood spot (DBS) samples. There are currently two approaches to fluorescence-based enzyme function assays from DBS: (1) manual reaction mixing, incubation, and termination followed by detection on a microtiter plate reader; and (2) miniaturized automation of these same assay steps using digital microfluidics technology. This article describes the origins of laboratory assays for enzyme activity measurement, the maturation and clinical application of fluorescent enzyme assays for MPS newborn screening, and considerations for future expansion of the technology.

20.
Vet Q ; 40(1): 169-182, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393111

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has spread over 210 countries and territories beyond China shortly. On February 29, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) denoted it in a high-risk category, and on March 11, 2020, this virus was designated pandemic, after its declaration being a Public Health International Emergency on January 30, 2020. World over high efforts are being made to counter and contain this virus. The COVID-19 outbreak once again proves the potential of the animal-human interface to act as the primary source of emerging zoonotic diseases. Even though the circumstantial evidence suggests the possibility of an initial zoonotic emergence, it is too early to confirm the role of intermediate hosts such as snakes, pangolins, turtles, and other wild animals in the origin of SARS-CoV-2, in addition to bats, the natural hosts of multiple coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The lessons learned from past episodes of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV are being exploited to retort this virus. Best efforts are being taken up by worldwide nations to implement effective diagnosis, strict vigilance, heightened surveillance, and monitoring, along with adopting appropriate preventive and control strategies. Identifying the possible zoonotic emergence and the exact mechanism responsible for its initial transmission will help us to design and implement appropriate preventive barriers against the further transmission of SARS-CoV-2. This review discusses in brief about the COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 with a particular focus on the role of animals, the veterinary and associated zoonotic links along with prevention and control strategies based on One-health approaches.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Saúde Única , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Camelus , Gatos , Quirópteros , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cães , Eutérios , Furões , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Modelos Animais , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Serpentes , Tigres , Vacinas Virais , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Viverridae , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Zoonoses/virologia
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