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1.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35950245

RESUMO

Quercetin (Qu), a dietary flavonoid, is obtained from many fruits and vegetables such as coriander, broccoli, capers, asparagus, onion, figs, radish leaves, cranberry, walnuts, and citrus fruits. It has proven its role as a nutraceutical owing to numerous pharmacological effects against various diseases in preclinical studies. Despite these facts, Qu and its nanoparticles are less explored in clinical research as a nutraceutical. The present review covers various neuroprotective actions of Qu against various neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A literature search was conducted to systematically review the various mechanistic pathways through which Qu elicits its neuroprotective actions and the challenges associated with raw Qu that compromise therapeutic efficacy. The nanoformulations developed to enhance Qu's therapeutic efficacy are also covered. Various ongoing/completed clinical trials related to Qu in treating various diseases, including NDs, are also tabulated. Despite these many successes, the exploration of research on Qu-loaded nanoformulations is limited mostly to preclinical studies, probably due to poor drug loading and stability of the formulation, time-consuming steps involved in the formulation, and their poor scale-up capacity. Hence, future efforts are required in this area to reach Qu nanoformulations to the clinical level.

2.
J Control Release ; 349: 812-830, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914614

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) is a highly diagnosed and topmost cause of death in females worldwide. Drug repurposing (DR) has shown great potential against BC by overcoming major shortcomings of approved anticancer therapeutics. However, poor physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetic performance, stability, non-selectivity to tumors, and side effects are severe hurdles in repurposed drug delivery against BC. The variety of nanocarriers (NCs) has shown great promise in delivering repurposed therapeutics for effective treatment of BC via improving solubility, stability, tumor selectivity and reducing toxicity. Besides, delivering repurposed cargos via theranostic NCs can be helpful in the quick diagnosis and treatment of BC. Localized delivery of repurposed candidates through apt NCs can diminish the systemic side effects and improve anti-tumor effectiveness. However, breast tumor variability and tumor microenvironment have created several challenges to nanoparticulate delivery of repurposed cargos. This review focuses on DR as an ingenious strategy to treat BC and circumvent the drawbacks of approved anticancer therapeutics. Various nanoparticulate avenues delivering repurposed therapeutics, including non-oncology cargos and vaccines to target BC effectively, are discussed along with case studies. Moreover, clinical trial information on repurposed medications and vaccines for the treatment of BC is covered along with various obstacles in nanoparticulate drug delivery against cancer that have been so far identified. In a nutshell, DR and drug delivery of repurposed drugs via NCs appears to be a propitious approach in devastating BC.

3.
J Food Biochem ; : e14357, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35945911

RESUMO

Liver cancer (L.C.) is the most common cause of cancer death in the United States and the fifth most common globally. The overexpression of nuclear factor E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) caused by oxidative stress has been associated with tumor growth, aggressiveness, treatment resistance, and poor prognosis. Nutraceuticals that inhibit Nrf2/HO-1 signaling may become the most effective strategy to treat liver cancer. Phytochemicals found in fruits and vegetables, also known as nutraceuticals, tend to emerge as chemopreventive agents, with the added benefit of low toxicity and high nutritional values. This paper reviews the present scientific knowledge of the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling as a possible target molecule for chemotherapeutic agents, its basic control mechanisms, and Nrf2/HO-1 inducers produced from natural products that might be employed as cancer chemopreventive drugs. The growing interest in the contribution of the Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 signaling in the development of liver cancer and the Use of nutraceuticals to treat liver cancer by targeting Nrf2/ARE/HO-1. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: An increase in Nrf2 expression indicates that Nrf2 is the most important player in liver cancer. Cancer patients are more resistant to chemotherapy because of this erroneous Nrf2 signaling. Furthermore, an increasing body of evidence indicates that activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway results in the production of phase II detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes, which serve a defense purpose in cells. As a consequence, treating liver cancer. This master regulator may be a possibility. Nutraceuticals that reduce Nrf2/HO-1 signaling may be the most effective strategy for preventing liver cancer. The methods of action of numerous natural substances are examined in this article.

4.
Chem Biol Interact ; 365: 110048, 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932910

RESUMO

Mucus gel constitutes of heavily cross-linked mucin fibers forming a viscoelastic, dense porous network that coats all the exposed epithelia not covered with the skin. The layer provides protection to the underlying gastrointestinal, respiratory, and female reproductive tracts, in addition to the organs such as the surface of eye by trapping the pathogens, irritants, environmental fine particles, and potentially hazardous foreign matter. However, this property of mucus gel poses a substantial challenge for realizing the localized and sustained drug delivery across the mucosal surfaces. The mucus permeating particles that spare the protective properties of mucus gel improve the therapeutic potency of the drugs aimed at the management of diseases, including sexually transmitted infections, lung cancer, irritable bowel disease, degenerative eye diseases and infections, and cystic fibrosis. As such, the mucoadhesive materials conjugated with drug molecules display a prolonged retention time in the mucosal gel that imparts a sustained release of the deliberated drug molecules across the mucosa. The contemporarily developed mucus penetrating materials for drug delivery applications comprise of a finer size, appreciable hydrophilicity, and a neutral surface to escape the entrapment within the cross-inked mucus fibers. Pertaining to the mucus secretion as a first line of defence in respiratory tract in response to the invading physical, chemical, and biological pathogens, the development of mucus penetrating materials hold promise as a stalwart approach for revolutionizing the respiratory drug delivery paradigm. The present review provides an epigrammatic collation of the mucus penetrating/mucoadhesive materials for achieving a controlled/sustained release of the cargo pharmaceutics and drug molecules across the respiratory mucus barrier.

5.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 931: 175173, 2022 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35940236

RESUMO

Advances in biotechnology have led to improving human health with number of novel approaches to mitigate life-threatening diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. In the case of HIV, the damage caused by the retrovirus to the immune system leads to opportunistic infection as well as an elevated risk of autoimmune disease and cancer. Furthermore, clinical symptoms associated with the virus itself may arise. Antiretroviral drug therapy using reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, fusion inhibitor, chemokine receptor 5 antagonist and integrase strand transfer inhibitors have shown promising results in treating HIV infection and available in market in the form of various dosage forms. However, they are unable to completely cure the disease because of complexity in pathogenesis of HIV. In addition, these drugs have some limitations of poor solubility, permeability or, poor receptor binding capacity. To overcome these drawbacks, many novel drug delivery systems for the drugs belonging to above mentioned categories have been developed. The possibility of treating HIV infection using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing has been found in 2015. This provided a new area of research to the scientists who are working towards alternative treatment strategies for HIV infections. The present article describes about various treatment strategies used to treat HIV infections with special emphasis on the role of CRISPR/Cas9 gene-based technology. The potential benefits of specific epigenetic modification in the c-c chemokine receptor 5 gene (CCR5) via various delivery methods are also highlighted.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35831776

RESUMO

Thymoquinone (TQ) is an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective compound obtained from the black seed oil of Nigella sativa. However, high hydrophobicity, instability at higher pH levels, photosensitivity, and low oral bioavailability hinder its delivery to the target tissues. A self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) was fabricated using the microemulsification technique to address these issues. Its physicochemical properties, thermodynamic stability studies, drug release kinetics, in vivo pharmacokinetics, and hepatoprotective activity were evaluated. The droplet size was in the nano-range (< 90 nm). Zeta potential was measured to be -11.35 mV, signifying the high stability of the oil droplets. In vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation showed a fourfold increase in the bioavailability of TQ-SNEDDS over pure TQ. Furthermore, in a PCM-induced animal model, TQ-SNEDDS demonstrated significant (p < 0.05) hepatoprotective activity compared to pure TQ and silymarin. Reduction in liver biomarker enzymes and histopathological examinations of liver sections further supported the results. In this study, SNEDDS was demonstrated to be an improved oral delivery method for TQ, since it potentiates hepatotoxicity and enhances bioavailability.

7.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2022 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779231

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between blood eosinophil and neutrophil counts with asthma control. METHODS: This retrospective study, conducted in tertiary care hospital of western India, evaluated the hospital electronic medical record (HEMR) of children aged 5 to 18 y who were diagnosed with asthma as per the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines in the pediatric chest clinic (PCC). Eosinophil and neutrophil counts were recorded from HEMR and asthma control was determined as per the GINA guidelines on follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 742 children attended the PCC in the last 2 y from March 2017 to February 2019; out of which, blood eosinophil and neutrophil counts were done in 116 children with asthma. The median eosinophil and neutrophil count were 0.46 (0.13, 0.78) × 109/L and 5.08 (3.50, 7.53) × 109/L cells, respectively. Eosinophil count was significantly higher in children with well-controlled asthma as compared to partly/uncontrolled asthma [median eosinophil count 0.46 (0.13, 0.78) vs. 0.40 (0.1, 0.66) × 109/L; p = 0.04]; while the neutrophil count was significantly higher in children with partly/uncontrolled asthma as compared to well-controlled asthma [median neutrophil 6.54 (4.32, 7.92) vs. 4.85 (2.96, 6.86) × 109/L; p = 0.04]. CONCLUSIONS: High lung function is associated with good asthma control. Although not independently associated, the high absolute eosinophil counts (AEC) is associated with better asthma control, while high absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) is associated with poor asthma control.

8.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; : e23174, 2022 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35861662

RESUMO

Respiratory diseases (RDs), such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, asthma, and pneumonia, are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Treatment usually consists of antibiotics and steroids. Relevant published literature reviews, studies, and clinical trials were accessed from institutional and electronic databases. The keywords used were respiratory diseases, steroids, antibiotics, and combination of steroids and antibiotics. Selected articles and literature were carefully reviewed. Antibiotics are often prescribed as the standard therapy to manage RDs. Types of causative respiratory pathogens, spectrum of antibiotics activity, route of administration, and course of therapy determine the type of antibiotics that are prescribed. Despite being associated with good clinical outcome, treatment failure and recurrence rate are still high. In addition, antibiotic resistance has been widely reported due to bacterial mutations in response to the use of antibiotics, which render them ineffective. Nevertheless, there has been a growing demand for corticosteroids (CS) and antibiotics to treat a wide variety of diseases, including various airway diseases, due to their immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. The use of CS is well established and there are different formulations based on the diseases, such as topical administration, tablets, intravenous injections, and inhaled preparations. Both antibiotics and CS possess similar properties in terms of their anti-inflammatory effects, especially regulating cytokine release. Thus, the current review examines and discusses the different applications of antibiotics, CS, and their combination in managing various RDs. Drawbacks of these interventions are also discussed.

9.
Int J Pharm ; 624: 121987, 2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35878873

RESUMO

The co-formulation of glyburide (Gly) and vanillic acid (VA) as such in the form of nanomedicine has never been explored to treat metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus. Both the drugs possess dissolution rate-limited oral bioavailability leading to poor therapeutic efficacy. Hence, co-loading these drugs into a nanocarrier could overcome their poor oral bioavailability related challenges. Owing to this objective, both drugs were co-loaded in amphiphilic polymeric micelles (APMs) and evaluated for their biopharmaceutical outcomes. The APMs were prepared using mPEG-b-PCL/CTAB as a copolymer-surfactant system via the liquid antisolvent precipitation (LAP) method. The design of these APMs were optimized using Box Behnken Design by taking various process/formulation based variables to achieve the desired micellar traits. The release of both the drugs from the optimized co-loaded APMs was compared in different media and displayed a remarkable sustained release profile owing to their hydrophobic interactions with the PCL core. The in vitro cytotoxicity study of co-loaded APMs on Caco-2 cells revealed 70 % cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. The preventive effects of Gly and VA co-loaded in APMs on glucose uptake was studied in insulin-responsive human HepG2 cells treated with high glucose. The co-loading of both the drugs in optimized APMs exhibited synergistic glucose-lowering activity (p < 0.001) than raw drugs with low cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells within the test concentration. This could be attributed to an increase in the relative oral bioavailability of both the drugs in APMs i.e., 868 % for Gly and 87 % for VA respectively.

10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 1659338, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35832856

RESUMO

Diabetic wound (DW) is a secondary application of uncontrolled diabetes and affects about 42.2% of diabetics. If the disease is left untreated/uncontrolled, then it may further lead to amputation of organs. In recent years, huge research has been done in the area of wound dressing to have a better maintenance of DW. These include gauze, films, foams or, hydrocolloid-based dressings as well as polysaccharide- and polymer-based dressings. In recent years, scaffolds have played major role as biomaterial for wound dressing due to its tissue regeneration properties as well as fluid absorption capacity. These are three-dimensional polymeric structures formed from polymers that help in tissue rejuvenation. These offer a large surface area to volume ratio to allow cell adhesion and exudate absorbing capacity and antibacterial properties. They also offer a better retention as well as sustained release of drugs that are directly impregnated to the scaffolds or the ones that are loaded in nanocarriers that are impregnated onto scaffolds. The present review comprehensively describes the pathogenesis of DW, various dressings that are used so far for DW, the limitation of currently used wound dressings, role of scaffolds in topical delivery of drugs, materials used for scaffold fabrication, and application of various polymer-based scaffolds for treating DW.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Pé Diabético , Amputação , Curativos Hidrocoloides , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Pé Diabético/terapia , Humanos , Polímeros/uso terapêutico , Cicatrização
11.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(13)2022 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35808043

RESUMO

In the traditional surface plasmon resonance sensor, the sensitivity is calculated by the usage of angular interrogation. The proposed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor uses a diamagnetic material (Al2O3), nickel (Ni), and two-dimensional (2D) BlueP/WS2 (blue phosphorous-tungsten di-sulfide). The Al2O3 sheet is sandwiched between silver (Ag) and nickel (Ni) films in the Kretschmann configuration. A mathematical simulation is performed to improve the sensitivity of an SPR sensor in the visible region at a frequency of 633 nm. The simulation results show that an upgraded sensitivity of 332°/RIU is achieved for the metallic arrangement consisting of 17 nm of Al2O3 and 4 nm of Ni in thickness for analyte refractive indices ranging from 1.330 to 1.335. The thickness variation of the layers plays a curial role in enhancing the performance of the SPR sensor. The thickness variation of the proposed configuration containing 20 nm of Al2O3 and 1 nm of Ni with a monolayer of 2D material BlueP/WS2 enhances the sensitivity to as high as 374°/RIU. Furthermore, it is found that the sensitivity can be altered and managed by means of altering the film portions of Ni and Al2O3.

12.
J Drug Deliv Sci Technol ; 74: 103541, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35774068

RESUMO

Chronic lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and the recently emerged COVID-19, are a huge threat to human health, and among the leading causes of global morbidity and mortality every year. Despite availability of various conventional therapeutics, many patients remain poorly controlled and have a poor quality of life. Furthermore, the treatment and diagnosis of these diseases are becoming increasingly challenging. In the recent years, the application of nanomedicine has become increasingly popular as a novel strategy for diagnosis, treatment, prevention, as well as follow-up of chronic lung diseases. This is attributed to the ability of nanoscale drug carriers to achieve targeted delivery of therapeutic moieties with specificity to diseased site within the lung, thereby enhancing therapeutic outcomes of conventional therapies whilst minimizing the risks of adverse reactions. For this instance, monoolein is a polar lipid nanomaterial best known for its versatility, thermodynamic stability, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. As such, it is commonly employed in liquid crystalline systems for various drug delivery applications. In this review, we present the applications of monoolein as a novel nanomaterial-based strategy for targeted drug delivery with the potential to revolutionize therapeutic approaches in chronic lung diseases.

13.
Pharmaceutics ; 14(7)2022 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35890297

RESUMO

The present study aims to design, develop and characterize kNGR (Asn-Gly-Arg) peptide-conjugated lipid-polymer-based nanoparticles for the target-specific delivery of anticancer bioactive(s), i.e., Paclitaxel (PTX). The kNGR-PEG-DSPE conjugate was synthesized and characterized by using spectral analysis. The dual-targeted PLGA-lecithin-PEG core-shell nanoparticles (PLNs-kNGR-NPs) were synthesized using a modified nanoprecipitation process, and their physiological properties were determined. The results support that, compared to other NPs, PLNs-kNGR-NPs are highly cytotoxic, owing to higher apoptosis and intracellular uptake. The significance of rational nanoparticle design for synergistic treatment is shown by the higher tumor volume inhibition percentage rate (59.7%), compared to other designed formulations in Balb/c mice in the HT-1080 tumor-induced model. The overall results indicate that the PLNs-kNGR-NPs-based hybrid lipid-polymer nanoparticles present the highest therapeutic efficacy against solid tumor overexpressing the CD13 receptors.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35901811

RESUMO

Optical temperature sensing is widely realized by using upconversion (UC) emission in lanthanide-doped phosphors. There are so many various parameters that are responsible for UC intensity of the phosphor like particle shape and size, type of symmetry that exist at the site position, distribution of lanthanide ions in the phosphor, and so on. However, a comparative study of the bulk and nanostructure on the temperature sensing ability of such phosphor is rare. In the present work, we have taken Ca0.79Er0.01Yb0.2MoO4 phosphors as a model system and synthesized its bulk (via solid-state reaction method, named SCEY) and nanostructures (via solution combustion route, named CCEY). We further studied their phase, crystal structure, phonon frequency, optical excitation, and emission (upconversion & downshifting) properties. Finally, the optical temperature sensing behavior of SCEY and CCEY, in the range 305 K - 573 K, have been compared. The maximum relative sensitivity of the phosphor SCEY and CCEY are 0.0061 K-1 at 305 K and 0.0094 K-1 at 299 K, respectively, while, the maximum absolute sensitivities are 0.0150 K-1 at 348 K, and 0.0170 K-1 at 398 K, respectively. We thus conclude that the temperature sensing ability of nanoparticle-based Ca0.79Er0.01Yb0.2MoO4 phosphor is better compared to its bulk phosphor.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35796922

RESUMO

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease primarily characterized by inflammation and reversible bronchoconstriction. It is currently one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Oxidative stress further complicates the pathology of the disease. The current treatment strategies for asthma mainly involve the use of anti-inflammatory agents and bronchodilators. However, long-term usage of such medications is associated with severe adverse effects and complications. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop newer, novel, and safe treatment modalities for the management of asthma. This has therefore prompted further investigations and detailed research to identify and develop novel therapeutic interventions from potent untapped resources. This review focuses on the significance of oxidative stressors that are primarily derived from both mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial sources in initiating the clinical features of asthma. The review also discusses the biological scavenging system of the body and factors that may lead to its malfunction which could result in altered states. Furthermore, the review provides a detailed insight into the therapeutic role of nutraceuticals as an effective strategy to attenuate the deleterious effects of oxidative stress and may be used in the mitigation of the cardinal features of bronchial asthma.

16.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705439

RESUMO

The global pandemic of COVID-19 began in December 2019 and is still continuing. The past 2 years have seen the emergence of several variants that were more vicious than each other. The emergence of Omicron (B.1.1.529) proved to be a huge epidemiological concern as the rate of infection of this particular strain was enormous. The strain was identified in South Africa on November 24, 2021 and was classified as a "Variant of Concern" on November 26, 2021. The Omicron variant possessed mutations in the key RBD region, the S region, thereby increasing the affinity of ACE2 for better transmission of the virus. Antibody resistance was found in this variant and it was able to reduce vaccine efficiency of vaccines. The need for a booster vaccine was brought forth due to the prevalence of the Omicron variant and, subsequently, this led to targeted research and development of variant-specific vaccines and booster dosage. This review discusses broadly the genomic characters and features of Omicron along with its specific mutations, evolution, antibody resistance, and evasion, utilization of CRISPR-Cas12a assay for Omicron detection, T-cell immunity elicited by vaccines against Omicron, and strategies to decrease Omicron infection along with COVID-19 and it also discusses on XE recombinant variant and on infectivity of BA.2 subvariant of Omicron.

17.
Int J Pharm ; 624: 121882, 2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671853

RESUMO

Non-aqueous nanoemulsion (NANE) of Alpinia galanga extract (AGE) was prepared using Palmester 3595 (MCT oil) as oil phase, Cremophor RH 40-Transcutol P® as surfactant-co-surfactant (Smix), and glycerin as non-aqueous polar continuous phase. The composition was optimized by applying three-level, four factor Box-Behnken design (BBD). The mean droplet size and zeta potential of the optimized AGE NANE was found to be 60.81 ± 18.88 nm and -7.99 ± 4.14 mV, respectively. The ex vivo permeation studies of AGE NANE and AGE per se on porcine skin reported flux of 125.58 ± 8.36 µg/cm2 h-1 and 12.02 ± 1.64 µg/cm2 h-1, respectively. Therefore, the enhancement ratio has shown 10-folds increase in the flux for AGE NANE when compared to extract per se. Later, confocal laser scanning microcopy confirmed that AGE NANE were able to penetrate into skin's stratum by trans-follicular transport mechanism. The stability studies of AGE NANE confirmed its stability at 30 ± 2 °C/75 ± 5 % RH and 5 ± 3 °C. The efficacy of AGE NANE was evaluated in vivo on imiquimod (IMQ) induced mouse model. The mice treated with low and high doses of AGE NANE (groups VI and VII) showed significant (p < 0.05) amelioration of psoriasis. Results of histopathology indicated reduction in psoriasis area severity index in AGE NANE treated mice (group VI and group VII).

18.
Carbohydr Polym ; 292: 119689, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725179

RESUMO

Among women, breast cancer (B·C.) is a common form of cancer that can strike either developed or developing countries. In addition to pregnancy-related variables, hormone therapy lifestyle factors (e.g., physical inactivity, smoking, and alcohol use) may all influence the progression of B·C. The creation of anti-B·C. medication carriers with better stability, controlled and targeted administration, and the goal of minimizing unwanted effects has taken a lot of time and effort. Naturally generated biopolymers-based pharmaceutical delivery techniques have attracted attention for their potential use in treating B·C. It's been shown that natural polymers can deliver high medication concentrations to the desired place and provide prolonged release of pharmaceuticals useful in treating B.C. Alginate is one of the most commonly used drug carriers for delayed and targeted release. In present review will discuss the utilization of sodium alginate as an carrier of anticancer drug, such as paclitaxel, doxorubicin, tamoxifen, curcumin, and others.


Assuntos
Alginatos , Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Portadores de Fármacos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos
19.
Chem Biol Interact ; 363: 110020, 2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750223

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) has a poor clinical prognosis and increases the risk of chronic kidney failure (CKD). It is a common complication of organ failure in hospitalised patients (10-15% of all hospitalizations) and in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, with an incidence of up to 50%. Concerning ICU, AKI has a mortality rate ranging from 27% to 35%, rising to 60%-65% when dialysis is needed, with roughly 5%-20% of survivors requiring dialysis on discharge. AKI is believed to cause over 7 million deaths per year worldwide. Currently, there is no treatment for AKI or its progression to CKD. When activated by AKI, numerous pathways have been suggested as possible contributors to CKD progression. Wnt/ß-catenin is a crucial regulator of kidney development that increases following the injury. Despite the overwhelming evidence that Wnt/ß-catenin promotes AKI, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, a hallmark of CKD progression, is also promoted by this pathway. The therapeutic potential of Wnt/ß-catenin in the treatment of AKI and the progression from AKI to CKD is being studied. This hypothesis aims to determine whether the Wnt/ß-catenin inhibitor pyrvinium has a beneficial effect on the renal dysfunction and damage caused by Gentamicin.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Injúria Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Cálcio , Gentamicinas , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Compostos de Pirvínio , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , beta Catenina/metabolismo
20.
Expert Opin Drug Deliv ; 19(7): 771-793, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35695697

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most common metabolic disease and multifactorial, harming patients worldwide. Extensive research has been carried out in the search for novel drug delivery systems offering reliable control of glucose levels for diabetics, aiming at efficient management of DM. AREAS COVERED: Polymeric micelles (PMs) as smart drug delivery nanocarriers are discussed, focusing on oral drug delivery applications for the management of hyperglycemia. The most recent approaches used for the preparation of smart PMs employ molecular features of amphiphilic block copolymers (ABCs), such as stimulus sensitivity, ligand conjugation, and as a more specific example the ability to inhibit islet amyloidosis. EXPERT OPINION: PMs provide a unique platform for self-regulated or spatiotemporal drug delivery, mimicking the working mode of pancreatic islets to maintain glucose homeostasis for prolonged periods. This unique characteristic is achieved by tailoring the functional chemistry of ABCs considering the physicochemical traits of PMs, including sensing capabilities, hydrophobicity, etc. In addition, the application of ABCs for the inhibition of conformational changes in islet amyloid polypeptide garnered attention as one of the root causes of DM. However, research in this field is limited and further studies at the clinical level are required.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Micelas , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Glucose , Humanos , Polímeros/química
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