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1.
Nano Lett ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544602

RESUMO

Semiconductor nanoplatelets, which offer a compelling combination of the flatness of two-dimensional semiconductors and the inherent richness brought about by colloidal nanostructure synthesis, form an ideal and general testbed to investigate fundamental physical effects related to the dimensionality of semiconductors. With low temperature scanning tunnelling spectroscopy and tight binding calculations, we investigate the conduction band density of states of individual CdSe nanoplatelets. We find an occurrence of peaks instead of the typical steplike function associated with a quantum well, that rule out a free in-plane electron motion, in agreement with the theoretical density of states. This finding, along with the detection of deep trap states located on the edge facets, which also restrict the electron motion, provides a detailed picture of the actual lateral confinement in quantum wells with finite length and width.

2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111621, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396141

RESUMO

The study explored the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon tolerance of indigenous biosurfactant producing microorganisms. Three bacterial species were isolated from crude oil contaminated sites of Haldia, West Bengal. The three species were screened for biosurfactant production and identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Brevundimonas sp. IITISM 11, Pseudomonas sp. IITISM 19 and Pseudomonas sp. IITISM 24. The strains showed emulsification activities of 51%, 57% and 63%, respectively. The purified biosurfactants were characterised using FT-IR, GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy and found to have structural similarities to glycolipopeptides, cyclic lipopeptides and glycolipids. The biosurfactants produced were found to be stable under a wide range of temperature (0-100 °C), pH (4-12) and salinity (up to 20% NaCl). Moreover, the strains displayed tolerance to high concentrations (275 mg/L) of anthracene and fluorene and showed a good amount of cell surface hydrophobicity with different hydrocarbons. The study reports the production and characterisation of biosurfactant by Brevundimonas sp. for the first time. Additionally, the kinetic parameters of the bacterial strains grown on up to 300 mg/L concentration of anthracene and fluorene, ranged between 0.0131 and 0.0156 µmax (h-1), while the Ks(mg/L) ranged between 59.28 and 102.66 for Monod's Model. For Haldane-Andrew's model, µmax (h-1) varied between 0.0168 and 0.0198. The inhibition constant was highest for Pseudomonas sp. IITISM 19 on anthracene and Brevundimonas sp. IITISM 11 on fluorene. The findings of the study suggest that indigenous biosurfactant producing strains have tolerance to high PAH concentrations and can be exploited for bioremediation purposes.


Assuntos
Antracenos/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Fluorenos/metabolismo , Tensoativos/metabolismo , Antracenos/química , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fluorenos/química , Glicolipídeos , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Cinética , Petróleo/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Tensoativos/química
3.
Cancer Rep (Hoboken) ; : e1332, 2020 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patterns of failure following definitive CRT (dCRT) are different as compared to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) with increased locoregional failures documented with dCRT. AIM: To document failure patterns in patients with esophageal carcinoma treated with neoadjuvant and definitive intent radiation strategies. METHODS: Subjects were 123 patients treated with two chemoradiotherapy strategies. Group 1 (n = 99) underwent dose escalated definitive chemoradiotherapy (dCRT), Group 2 (n = 24) received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) followed by surgery. Cumulative incidence of locoregional failure (LRF), local failure (LF), regional lymph node failure (RLNF), and distant metastasis (DM) were computed; differences between the groups was evaluated using log rank test. Univariable and multivariable predictors of failure were identified using Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: Cumulative LRF: 64% in Group 1 vs 35% in Group 2 (P = .050). Cumulative LF: 59% in Group 1 vs 12% in Group 2 (P = .000). Cumulative RLNF: 30% in Group 1 vs 24% in Group 2 (P = .592). Most common RLNF: mediastinum for both groups (6% vs 12.5%, respectively). Distant metastasis: 40.4% Group 1 vs 17% Group 2 (P = .129), predominantly lung (Group 1, 5%), and nonregional nodes (Group 2, 8.3%). Univariate analysis identified age ≤50, absence of concurrent chemotherapy, dose ≤50 Gy, and incomplete radiotherapy to predict higher odds of LRF and DM for Group 1; absence of comorbidities predicted for lower odds of LRF for Group 2. Age ≤50 predicted for higher odds of RNLR for Group 1, while absence of comorbidities predicted for lower odds of RNLR in Group 2. Multivariate analysis identified age ≤50, incomplete radiotherapy, and absence of concurrent chemotherapy to predict higher odds of LRF for Group 1. Age ≤50, absence of concurrent chemotherapy predicted higher odds of DM for Group 1. Absence of comorbidity predicted lower odds of LRF in Group 2. CONCLUSION: LRF is common in both groups, with LF being predominant in dCRT as opposed to RNLF in NACRT. Age ≤50, absence of concurrent chemotherapy is a predictor of LRF and DM in dCRT.

4.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(6): 743-750, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142190

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: The relationship of thyroid dysfunction and autoimmunity with breast cancer (BC) continues to be contentious. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions and autoimmunity in BC patients, and the secondary aims were to investigate the relationship of thyroid dysfunction with the clinicopathological profile of and therapy received by BC patients. Materials and methods: This was a single-center prospective case-control study (March 2015-May 2017). Women with BC (n = 191), age-matched healthy controls (n = 166) and malignant controls (patients with cervical cancer, n = 87) were enrolled. Basal serum free thyroxin (fT4), thyrotropin (TSH) and anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody levels were measured in all three groups; fT4, TSH and TPO measures were repeated after chemotherapy and at the 1-year follow-up (one year after diagnosis) in the BC patients. Results: The prevalence of overall hypothyroidism and autoimmunity (p = 0.106) did not differ significantly between the three groups, but the rate of clinical hypothyroidism was significantly higher in the BC group than in the healthy control group and the malignant control group (12.2% vs. 3.0% vs. 4.6%, respectively; p = 0.001). BC patients had significantly lower mean basal TSH concentrations than the healthy controls (p = 0.017). The postchemotherapy TSH concentrations were significantly lower (p = 0.001), and the fT4 concentrations were higher, albeit not significantly (p = 1.00), than the respective basal concentrations. The reverse was true for the follow-up values, in which the TSH (p = 1.00) values were higher and the fT4 (p = 0.03) concentrations were lower than the respective basal concentrations. An additional 6% of the BC patients developed clinical hypothyroidism during follow-up. Hypothyroid (p = 0.02) and TPO-positive (p = 0.004) patients had significantly smaller tumors, but their other clinicopathological features were comparable to those without thyroid dysfunction. Conclusions: The prevalence of clinical hypothyroidism requiring thyroxine replacement was significantly high in BC patients and increased further during follow-up. Hence, BC patients should be considered a high-risk group that should receive routine screening for hypothyroidism.

5.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 260, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Integrated care is a people-centered health delivery approach that ensures the comprehensiveness, quality, and continuity of service across the settings and levels of health systems. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends integration across levels and building-blocks of health systems as a prerequisite of Universal Health Coverage (UHC). While health systems of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are often fragmented and led by siloed service delivery structure, several LMICs-including India-have attempted health system integration. Several systematic reviews of evidence on healthcare integration from developed countries exist, but no synthesis from LMICs was reported to date. This review will overview the existing evidence of primary-secondary care integration (PSI) in the context of LMICs, aiming to support policy decisions for the effective integration of health delivery systems in India. METHODS: The review will be conducted following the six steps recommend by Arksey and O'Malley. Scientific and grey literature will be systematically selected from PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, Global Index Medicus, and electronic repositories (such as WHO, World Bank, Health Policy Plus, and OpenGrey). Using a comprehensive search strategy, literature written in English and published between 2000 and 2020 will be selected, and two independent authors will screen their titles and abstracts. The result will be charted using a data extraction form and reported using tables, figures, and narrative forms. DISCUSSION: No ethical approval is necessary for the review. The final report will be developed with the consultation of other stakeholders and disseminated through workshops, conference papers, and peer review articles. The review will serve as a guiding tool to approach, implement, and test the PSI models in India and other LMICs. SCOPING REVIEW REGISTRATION: https://osf.io/kjhzt .

6.
Curr Eye Res ; : 1-6, 2020 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171054

RESUMO

Macular Corneal Dystrophy is an autosomal recessive form of corneal dystrophy due to a mutation in CHST6 gene, which results in abnormal proteoglycan synthesis. There is accumulation of abnormal glycosaminoglycans in the corneal stroma and endothelium. The deposition results in progressive loss of corneal transparency and visual acuity. The histopathology shows characteristic alcian blue positive deposits. Management in the cases with visual loss requires keratoplasty either full thickness or lamellar. The decision about the ideal type of keratoplasty depends on age and pre-operative clinical features. Although prognosis after keratoplasty is good, recurrences can occur. Future research should be targeted towards gene therapy in this condition.

7.
Nanoscale ; 12(43): 22307-22316, 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146655

RESUMO

Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are gaining increasing interest in the field of lithium ion batteries due to their unique structure. However, previous preparation methods have mainly focused on their growth from substrates or by exfoliation of the bulk materials. Considering colloidal synthesis has many advantages including precision control of morphology and crystal phases, there is significant scope for exploring this avenue for active material formation. Therefore, in this work, we explore the applicability of colloidal TMDs using WSe2 nanocrystals for Li ion battery anodes. By employing colloidal hot-injection protocol, we first synthesize 2D nanosheets in 2H and 1T' crystal phases. After detailed structural and surface characterization, we investigate the performance of these nanosheets as anode materials. We found that 2H nanosheets outperformed 1T' nanosheets exhibiting a higher specific capacity of 498 mA h g-1 with an overall capacity retention of 83.28%. Furthermore, to explore the role of morphology on battery performance, 3D interconnected nanoflowers in 2H crystal phase were also investigated as an anode material. It is worth noting that a specific capacity of 982 mA h g-1 was exhibited after 100 cycles by these nanoflowers. The anode materials were characterized prior to cycling and after 1, 25, and 100 charge/discharge cycles, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), to track the effects of cycling on the material.

8.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 9(7): 3688-3700, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102352

RESUMO

Background: The three most commonly occurring cancers in India are those of the breast, uterine cervix, and lip or oral cavity, together accounting for approximately 34% of all cancers. All the three cancers are amenable to prevention, early detection, and treatment through which the morbidity and mortality due to these cancers can be reduced. This pilot study was conducted to assess the operational feasibility of the national cancer screening guidelines. Method: This study was conducted in the Dibrugarh district of Assam in seven tea garden hospitals which serve as the primary health centers for the tea estate population in the Northeast region of India. The study intervention was a three-day training package designed to train primary care physicians in population-based screening for oral, breast, and cervical cancers. Knowledge evaluation and skill assessment were performed with a validated questionnaire and checklist, respectively. Results: Pre and posttraining knowledge assessment showed significant gain in the knowledge levels of the participants in all topics. The greatest knowledge increase was seen in breast cancer (96.3%), followed by cervical cancer (57.5%), oral cancer (35.5%) and general cancer-related information (16.7%). The skill assessment done for each participant individually at the end of the training indicated a need for retraining all participants in breast cancer screening. Conclusion: The learnings from this study will be of great help in scaling up the capacity building programme for cancer screening when the nation-wide population-based cancer screening programme will be rolled out in the country.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876152

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The relationship of thyroid dysfunction and autoimmunity with breast cancer (BC) continues to be contentious. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions and autoimmunity in BC patients, and the secondary aims were to investigate the relationship of thyroid dysfunction with the clinicopathological profile of and therapy received by BC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a single-center prospective case-control study (March 2015-May 2017). Women with BC (n = 191), age-matched healthy controls (n = 166) and malignant controls (patients with cervical cancer, n = 87) were enrolled. Basal serum free thyroxin (fT4), thyrotropin (TSH) and anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody levels were measured in all three groups; fT4, TSH and TPO measures were repeated after chemotherapy and at the 1-year follow-up (one year after diagnosis) in the BC patients. RESULTS: The prevalence of overall hypothyroidism and autoimmunity (p = 0.106) did not differ significantly between the three groups, but the rate of clinical hypothyroidism was significantly higher in the BC group than in the healthy control group and the malignant control group (12.2% vs. 3.0% vs. 4.6%, respectively; p = 0.001). BC patients had significantly lower mean basal TSH concentrations than the healthy controls (p = 0.017). The postchemotherapy TSH concentrations were significantly lower (p = 0.001), and the fT4 concentrations were higher, albeit not significantly (p = 1.00), than the respective basal concentrations. The reverse was true for the follow-up values, in which the TSH (p = 1.00) values were higher and the fT4 (p = 0.03) concentrations were lower than the respective basal concentrations. An additional 6% of the BC patients developed clinical hypothyroidism during follow-up. Hypothyroid (p = 0.02) and TPO-positive (p = 0.004) patients had significantly smaller tumors, but their other clinicopathological features were comparable to those without thyroid dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of clinical hypothyroidism requiring thyroxine replacement was significantly high in BC patients and increased further during follow-up. Hence, BC patients should be considered a high-risk group that should receive routine screening for hypothyroidism.

10.
J Biosoc Sci ; : 1-15, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962795

RESUMO

With simultaneous efforts to address a huge burden of malnutrition, especially among children and younger women, India also encounters a mushrooming prevalence of overweight and obesity among the adult population. This study analysed data from two consecutive rounds of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) conducted in 2005-06 and 2015-16, to present the burden of overweight and obesity among adult men and women in India. The findings highlight a rising burden of overweight and obesity, although the level and the extent of change over the study period varied across states. The district-wise analysis revealed geographical clusters of overweight and obesity. Further investigation suggests that overweight or obesity are not exclusive to urban areas, and economically well-off populations are more inclined to be overweight or obese. The trends and patterns of overweight and obesity in India argue for timely public health preparedness and interventions to avoid the rising incidence of non-communicable diseases in India.

11.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 20(1): 377, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a known inherited retinal disease (IRD) associated with severe visual loss, nystagmus, amaurotic pupils, oculo-digital sign and markedly reduced or absent electroretinograms (ERG). Retinal astrocytic hamartomas (RAH) is a benign vascularized glial tumor of the retina. There is no known association of these two entities, more so in siblings. CASE PRESENTATION: A pair of siblings diagnosed as LCA who presented with RAH with no extraocular symptoms or signs of phakomatosis were imaged. Multimodal imaging was performed and are elaborately described in this article. CONCLUSION: LCA in siblings with multiple RAHs is an extremely rare association. Recent advances in retinal imaging tools have aided in diagnosing even subtle and early RAH with high sensitivity using Infrared imaging (IRI) and Optical coherence tomography (OCT).

12.
Nepal J Ophthalmol ; 12(23): 75-82, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799242

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study was conducted to report the refractive and visual outcome after Scleral Fixated Intraocular Lens (SFIOL) implantation in children with nontraumatic ectopia lentis. METHODS: Retrospective review of the medical records of 25 eyes of 15 patients who underwent SFIOL implantation in children with non-traumatic ectopia lentis. RESULTS: The mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) before SFIOL implantation was 1.07 ± 0.9 logMar units [median: 0.9, Interquartile range (ΙQR): 0.415 to 1.555] which improved to 0.41 ± 0.33 logMar units (median: 0.22, ΙQR: 0.180 to 1.555) at two months postoperative follow up. In phakic group, the mean spherical refraction preoperatively was -12.04 ± 7.82 DS (dioptre sphere) (IQR: +16 to -5.875) and postoperatively was +0.93 ± 2.67DS (IQR: -0.375 to +2). In aphakic group, the mean spherical refraction preoperatively was +12.22 ± 2.05 DS and postoperatively was +1.2 ± 1.9 DS. The mean total astigmatism preoperatively was -6.44 ± 4.95 DC (dioptre cylinder) (median: 6, IQR: -10.50 to +2) and postoperatively was -1.47 ± 0.98 DC (median: -1.5, IQR: -2 to - 0.625 ). The mean IOL induced astigmatism was -1.01 ± 0.95 DC (median -0.75, IQR: -1.33 to - 0.25). The spherical refractive equivalent was within 2 Diopter (D) of the target refraction calculated preoperatively in 20 eyes and in five eyes it was more than 2 D. CONCLUSION: SFIOL implantation is associated with good visual outcome with a significant improvement in the refractive error. However, a longer follow up is required to assess the change of refraction and the stability of the SFIOL.

13.
J Cancer Educ ; 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740859

RESUMO

This study was aimed at a qualitative assessment of a cancer informational website, "India Against Cancer," developed by the ICMR-National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research with the dual purpose of promoting cancer awareness among the general population and providing comprehensive information to healthcare providers. We used the narrative qualitative approach (data collection using in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focused group discussions (FGDs)) and content analysis. Purposive sampling was undertaken for both IDIs and FGDs. Thematic analysis was done on four themes: general cancer awareness, ease of comprehension of the Web portal, the relevance of the website content, and general comments and suggestions. Readability assessment of content of the website was conducted using Flesch-Kincaid Readability methodology. The general cancer awareness was enhanced among the participants after visiting the website. Ease of comprehension of the Web portal content was reported to fare well. The sections on "risk factors," "warning signs," and "diet and cancer" were mentioned as most relevant by the general population, whereas "myths and facts" and "screening guidelines" were most relevant for the healthcare workers. Similarly, references and epidemiology sections were most useful for healthcare researchers/professionals. Readability scores of content in English were appropriate for high school pass audience. The content on "India Against Cancer" website was found to serve its intended purpose of promoting cancer awareness among the general population and providing authentic cancer-related information to the healthcare providers. The suggestions received would enable us to enhance the utility of our website by tailoring it to the needs of the target audience.

14.
Indian J Med Res ; 151(6): 513-521, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719223

RESUMO

Smokeless tobacco (SLT) use is widespread across many nations and populations, and India shares more than three-quarters of the global burden of SLT consumption. Tobacco use in India has been largely viewed as a male-dominant behaviour. However, evidence from medical, social and behavioural sciences show significant SLT use among women and young girls. This paper highlights key dimensions of SLT use among women in India including prevalence and determinants, the health effects arising from SLT use and cessation behaviours. The paper concludes by providing recommendations with the aim of setting research priorities and policy agenda to achieve a tobacco-free society. The focus on women and girls is essential to achieve the national targets for tobacco control under the National Health Policy, 2017, and Sustainable Development Goals 3 of ensuring healthy lives and promote well-being for all.

15.
BMC Med Educ ; 20(1): 220, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Online courses have broken the boundaries in imparting knowledge. While in western countries e-learning in medical education is well accepted, it is still an upcoming field in low- and middle-income countries like India. Attrition is a major threat to online courses world-wide. The objective of this article is to share the experiences in conducting online cancer screening courses, reasons for attrition and ways to improve retention. METHODS: Online training program in preventive oncology for medical professionals is being conducted since 2017, which is 14-week long with weekly one-hour sessions and specific curriculum for healthcare professionals. Since the retention of participants was a major challenge in all the courses, a short online survey was conducted to identify the reason behind quitting the course and suggestions to improve retention. The data was analyzed in November 2019. RESULTS: Among 614 enrolments, 26% (159/614) refused to attend the course and only 55% (252/455) completed the course successfully. Among the attendees 52% (238/455) were females, 71% (325/455) were from the public sector and 71% (324/455) were non-specialists. The attrition was high among non-specialists 49% (160/324), male participants 57% (124/217) and public sector doctors 52% (170/325). The main reasons for quitting the course were high workload in the health facilities 75% (52/69) and poor internet connectivity 12% (8/69). CONCLUSION: The internet connectivity should be strengthened in all the healthcare centers to facilitate e-learning. A dedicated time-slot should be allotted to the providers for e-learning and updating their knowledge in addition to their routine work.

16.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(7)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665375

RESUMO

We examined the magnitude of smokeless tobacco (SLT) use in India and identified policy gaps to ascertain the priorities for SLT control in India and other high SLT burden countries in the Southeast Asia region. We reviewed and analysed the legal and policy framework to identify policy gaps, options and priority areas to address the SLT burden in India and lessons thereof. In India, 21.4% adults, including 29.6% of men, 12.8% of women, use SLT while more than 0.35 million Indians die every year due to SLT use. SLT use remains a huge public health concern for other countries in the region as well. Priority areas for SLT control should include: constant monitoring, increasing taxes and price of SLT products, strengthening and strict enforcement of existing laws, integration of SLT cessation with all health and development programmes, banning of advertisement and promotion of SLT, increasing age of access to tobacco up to 21 years, introducing licensing for the sale of SLT, standardising of SLT packaging and preventing SLT industry interference in the implementation of SLT control policies besides a committed multistakeholder approach for effective policy formulation and enforcement. SLT control in India and the other high SLT burden countries, especially in the Southeast Asia region, should focus on strengthening and implementing the above policy priorities.

17.
Public Health Nutr ; 23(15): 2671-2686, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605672

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite a reduction in maternal mortality in recent years, a high rate of anaemia and other nutrient inadequacies during pregnancy pose a serious threat to mothers and their children in the Global South. Using the framework of the WHO-Commission on Social Determinants of Health, this study examines the socioeconomic, programmatic and contextual factors associated with the consumption of iron and folic acid (IFA) tablets/syrup for at least 100 d (IFA100) and receiving supplementary food (SF) by pregnant women in India. DESIGN: We analysed a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of over 190 898 ever-married women aged 15-49 years who were interviewed as part of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) conducted during 2015-16, who had at least one live birth preceding 5 years of the survey. SETTING: All twenty-nine states and seven union territories of India. PARTICIPANTS: Ever-married women aged 15-49 years. RESULTS: Less than one-third of women were found to be consuming IFA100, and a little over half received SF during their last pregnancy. The consumption of IFA100 was likely to improve with women's education, household wealth, early and more prenatal visits, and in a community with high pregnancy registration. Higher parity, early and more prenatal visits, contact with community health workers during pregnancy, belonging to a poor household and living in an aggregated poor community and rural area positively determine whether a woman might receive SF during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous monitoring and evaluation of provisioning IFA and SF in targeted groups and communities is a key to expanding the coverage and reducing the burden of undernutrition during pregnancy.

18.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 6: 1147-1154, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697666

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Currently available human papillomavirus (HPV) detection devices are expensive, requiring a continuous power supply, high-priced reagents, skilled laboratory personnel, and infrastructure. These make it difficult to implement primary HPV screening in high-risk (HR) populations, particularly in low-income settings such as in India. The objective of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a point-of-care, portable, battery-operated device called Truenat, which detects 4 HR HPV genotypes (16, 18, 31, and 45), as a potentially cost-effective alternative to conventional HPV diagnostic tests. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a single-site, blinded, cross-sectional study that evaluated the performance of the Trunat HPV-HR using cervical samples collected from nonpregnant women > 30 years old via consecutive sampling. The comparison was conducted against the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) method. All the positive samples were validated by 14 Real-TM Quant Kit. RESULTS: Of 615 cervical samples, the HR-HPV DNA test was positive in 78 women (12.7%) by HC2 and in 49 (8%) by Truenat. With the consideration of limited genotype inclusivity, the sensitivity and specificity of Truenat HPV-HR were 97.7% and 98.9%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The performance of Truenat HPV-HR test was comparable to that of HC2 in the 4 HPV genotypes and would be appropriate to consider for use in primary HR cervical cancer screening and particularly in low-income settings.

19.
Cancer Invest ; 38(7): 375-393, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673136

RESUMO

mtDNA is the closed circular, ds-DNA present in mitochondria of eukaryotic cells and are inherited maternally. Besides being the power house of the cell, mitochondria are also responsible for the regulation of redox homeostasis, signaling, metabolism, immunity, survival and apoptosis. Lack of a 'Systematic Review' on mtDNA variations and cancers encouraged us to perform the present study. Pubmed', 'Embase' and 'Cochrane Library' databases were searched using keywords 'Mitochondrial DNA' OR 'mtDNA' OR 'mDNA' AND 'polymorphism' AND 'cancer' AND 'risk' to retrieve literature. Polymorphisms occupy first rank among mtDNA variations followed by CNV, MSI, mutations and hold a great potential to emerge as key predictors for human cancers.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Mutação
20.
Eur Endocrinol ; 16(1): 21-24, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32595765

RESUMO

The management of painful diabetic neuropathy poses a tough clinical challenge. Although opioid analgesics are considered as second- or third-line agents in the management of moderate-to-severe neuropathic pain, prescription of opioids for this indication is higher than expected. This narrative review is a recommendation on how to ensure pragmatic use of opioids for those with painful diabetic neuropathy while avoiding complications such as opioid overdose, opioid diversion and the development of opioid-use disorder. Risk mitigation strategies at the level of the clinician include periodic assessment and documentation of clinical details, treatment history and psychosocial status. Using a multimodal approach to pain management, medication counselling, adherence monitoring programmes, evidence-based opioid dosing strategies and empowering patients to make treatment decisions are effective strategies in reducing risk associated with prolonged opioid use. At the organisational and policy level, using prescription drug monitoring programmes, carrying out periodic opioid utilisation reviews and providing training to patients and physicians on safe opioid use are useful, implementable strategies.

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