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1.
Respir Med Case Rep ; 29: 100970, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828009

RESUMO

Intraoperative tracheobronchial injury (TBI) may manifest clinically as pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema, cyanosis, and respiratory insufficiency and has serious implications if it remains undetected or is managed improperly. The outcome of such injuries is affected by the extent of the lesion, pulmonary status & the surgical reconstruction undertaken. The recommended airway management of an intraoperative tracheal tear is to bypass the injured side by intubating the healthy bronchus with a single lumen endotracheal tube (ETT) and the use of a bronchial blocker or double lumen endotracheal tube (DLT) and becomes a very challenging situation. We report successful anaesthetic management of an accidental traumatic rupture of the left main bronchus during surgical dissection in an elderly lady of Carcinoma Oesophagus who underwent a Video Assisted Thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), and was managed by one lung ventilation of the contralateral (right) side manipulating the same DLT and lung protective ventilation.

2.
Med J Armed Forces India ; 75(4): 429-436, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719738

RESUMO

Background: Sepsis is a major global healthcare concern. Platelets and leucocytes play a key role in sepsis. Whole blood flow cytometry (FCM) is a powerful new technique for the assessment of leucocyte and platelet parameters and their functional state. In the present study, we have used FCM to examine platelet and leucocyte functions and parameters in sepsis patients. Methods: Prospective, non-interventional cohorts of all adult patients with sepsis and history of intensive care unit stay for more than 24 h at mixed surgical- medical ICU were evaluated. The Simplified Acute Physiology Score-3 (SAPS 3) admission score was obtained, and whole blood FCM analysis of select platelets and leukocyte parameters were performed using a combination of monoclonal antibodies in a predefined panel. We also evaluated the correlation between these parameters and the severity of the illness, based on SAPS 3 admission score. Results: Total leucocyte count (TLC) was statistically and significantly different between all the study samples, but platelet count was not. SAPS 3 acted as the best discriminant between the study groups. With a cut-off score of 55.5, SAPS 3 score predicted hospital mortality with a sensitivity of 82.8% and a specificity of 83.9%, with an area under receiver operating curves (AUROC) of 0.888 (95% CI = 0.807-0.969, p < 0.000). Parameters for CD62P, platelet-leucocyte aggregates (PLAs) and CD11b showed statistically significant differences between the patients and healthy volunteers. CD62P expression was positively correlated to PLA variables in severe sepsis patients. The median fluorescence intensity was found to be more informative than mean fluorescence intensity. New "62P adhesion index (62P AI)" and "PLA adhesion index" are proposed and is likely to be more informative. Conclusion: SAPS 3 score was the most robust of the parameters evaluated. Our study suggest the idea that the incorporation of platelet and leucocyte activation parameters, rather than mere static counts, will add the existing prognostic model though we could not conclusively prove the same in this study.

3.
Med J Armed Forces India ; 74(4): 397-399, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30449932
4.
J Maxillofac Oral Surg ; 16(1): 85-89, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28286390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous emphysema is defined as presence of air or gas in subcutaneous tissue layer. It may be localized or generalized due to various aetiological factors. Although SE and pneumomediastinum are self-limiting conditions, life-threatening complications may develop. Escape of air into both pleural cavity causing bilateral pneumothorax and tension pneumothorax can be termed as malignant emphysema. PURPOSE: To report a case of malignant generalized subcutaneous emphysema in early postoperative phase following palatoplasty. CASE REPORT: A 25 year old female patient was operated for closure of residual oronasal communication using an anteriorly based tongue flap. The patient was reversed from general anesthesia and shifted to the post-operative room with the endotracheal tube in situ. Sudden swelling of the face and periorbital area was noticed which spread all over the body. A diagnosis of malignant post-operative subcutaneous emphysema was made and the patient was shifted back to the operation theatre. She was managed successfully by bilateral tube thoracotomy and tracheostomy. CONCLUSION: Close observation of the patient in early postoperative stage having endotracheal tube in situ is crucial to avoid such complication. Regardless of aetiology, early recognition of the clinical features of tension pneumothorax and timely intervention are necessary for the survival of the patient.

5.
Med J Armed Forces India ; 72(4): 325-331, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27843178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was done to compare the accuracy of the Lactate Pro LT 1710 (Arkray Inc., Kyoto, Japan) with the Combiline Plus (Eschweiler GmbH & Co. KG Holzkoppelweg, Kiel, Germany), and also, to analyze the prognostic significance of serum lactates and Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 (SAPS 3) in patients of severe sepsis. METHODS: 106 patients of severe sepsis admitted to the ICU were screened. The serum lactate from an arterial sample analyzed in both the machines was recorded at admission and at 48 h. These patients were then followed up to the 28th day for mortality. RESULTS: The Lactate Pro LT 1710 handheld point of care lactate meter provides consistent results comparable to the Eschweiler Combiline blood gas analyser. Serum lactate concentration was significantly higher in nonsurvivors at the time of admission (3.30 ± 1.26) and at 48 h (4.34 ± 1.73). Lactate clearance at 48 h appears to be a better predictor of mortality than the lactate levels at 0 h and 48 h. The mean SAPS 3 at admission amongst survivors was significantly less as compared to nonsurvivors. The SAPS 3 had improved to 47.44 (±11.79) in survivors at 48 h, while in nonsurvivors it had worsened to 81.98 (±12.32) (p = 0.00); thus, a worsening SAPS 3 at 48 h had a poorer prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: The Lactate Pro LT 1710 provides similar results to the Combiline Eschweiler blood gas analyser and is a cheaper alternative. It would prove to be a boon in peripheral hospitals in the aggressive management of critically ill patients.

6.
Med J Armed Forces India ; 72(3): 236-41, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27546962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute renal failure (ARF) is a common entity in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. There is scanty data regarding acute kidney injury (AKI) in ICUs from our country and no data from the service setting. METHODS: All patients admitted to the ICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital for six months were included in the study. They were divided into two groups: surg gr (admitted in surgical ICU) and med gr (admitted in medical ICU). During the stay in ICU, patients were observed for the development of AKI depending on the creatinine values and hourly urine output. Staging was done based upon the Risk Injury Failure Loss and End stage kidney (RIFLE) criteria. Relevant data associated with development of AKI was collected for correlation. RESULTS: 17.15% patients developed AKI after admission to the ICU 40% patients admitted with sepsis developed AKI. An increased susceptibility to develop AKI was found on day 4 of admission in both the groups. Of the patients who developed AKI, the surg gr of patients had a higher sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score both on day of admission (7.85 vs 5.65) and on the day of development of AKI (9.47 vs 6.18) as compared to the medical group. CONCLUSION: The incidence of ARF in our study was 17.2% with the patients of polytrauma/MODS being of major concern. The initial 3-4 days are the most critical and susceptible patients must be intensive monitored during this time for prevention of ARF. Medical ICU patients develop ARF at a low SOFA score in comparison to surgical ICU patients and thus need greater attention.

7.
9.
J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol ; 31(3): 370-4, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26330718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study was carried out to evaluate the difference in efficacy, safety, and complications of performing brachial plexus nerve blocks by using a nerve locator when compared to ultrasound (US) guidance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 102 patients undergoing upper limb surgery under supraclavicular brachial plexus blocks were randomly divided into two groups, one with US and the other with nerve stimulator (NS). In Group US, "Titan" Portable US Machine, Sonosite, Inc. Kensington, UK with a 9.0 MHz probe was used to visualize the brachial plexus and 40 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine solution was deposited around the brachial plexus in a graded manner. In Group (NS), the needle was inserted 1-1.5 cm above mid-point of clavicle. Once hand or wrist motion was detected at a current intensity of less than 0.4 mA 40 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine was administered. Onset of sensory and motor block of radial, ulnar and median nerves was recorded at 5-min intervals for 30-min. Block execution time, duration of block (time to first analgesic), inadvertent vascular puncture, and neurological complications were taken as the secondary outcome variables. RESULTS: About 90% patients in US group and 73.1% in NS group, had successful blocks P = 0.028. The onset of block was faster in the Group US as compared to Group NS and this difference was significant (P 0.007) only in the radial nerve territory. The mean duration of the block was longer in Group US, 286.22 ± 42.339 compared to 204.37 ± 28.54-min in Group NS (P < 0.05). Accidental vascular punctures occurred in 7 patients in the NS group and only 1 patient in the US group. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound guidance for supraclavicular brachial plexus blockade provides a block that is faster in onset, has a better quality and lasts longer when compared with an equal dose delivered by conventional means.

12.
Med J Armed Forces India ; 71(1): 28-32, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25609860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The service setting has some unique strengths and weaknesses that must be kept in mind when organizing Hospital acquired infections (HAI) prevention interventions. METHODS: Following an initial study to gather data regarding HAI in the Surgical intensive care unit (ICU) we put into place various infection control interventions. The present study was carried out to analyse the effect of these interventions on the incidence of HAI in the ICU. RESULTS: The total admissions to the ICU were 253 patients. Eighty eight patients (34.78%) were admitted for more than 48 hr, 165 patients stayed for less than 48 h. The frequency of HAI was 7.95% (95% CI 3.54, 15). Hospital acquired pneumonia was observed in 2 of the 88 patients (2.27%) (95% CI 0.38, 7.30) which amounted to 9.70 infections per 1000 ventilator days. Bloodstream infection was detected in 3 out of 88 patients (3.4%) (95% CI 0.87, 8.99) amounting to 6.54 fresh infections per 1000 Central Venous Catheter days. Urinary tract infection was observed in 2 (2.27%) (95% CI 0.38, 7.30) at 2.86 fresh infections per 1000 catheter days. As compared to the previous study we found that there was a decline of HAI ranging from 60 to 70%. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that by meticulously following infection control protocols especially tailored to the service setting the incidence of HAI's can be reduced. However, the challenge is in maintaining the gains achieved since there is a rapid turnover of manpower in the ICU and a lack of a structured ICU design model.

13.
J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol ; 30(1): 86-8, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24574600

RESUMO

Two cases of Acquired Methemoglobinemia are presented. The significance of a high index of suspicion for diagnosisis emphasized, especially in the presence of a "saturation gap". The various causes of acquired methemoglobinemia are enumerated and the management reviewed.

14.
J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol ; 29(4): 543-6, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24249995

RESUMO

The number of patients with uncorrected congenital cyanotic heart disease is less but at times some may present for non-cardiac surgery with a high anesthetic risk. Some of these may even be adults with compromised cardiopulmonary physiology posing greater challenges to the anesthesiologist. The authors have used a combination of dexmedetomidine and ketamine for anesthesia for non cardiac surgery in five patients with cyanotic heart disease and right to left shunt (3-Eisenmenger's syndrome, 2-Tetralogy of Fallot). The sympathoinhibitory effects of dexmedetomidine were balanced with the cardiostimulatory effects of ketamine, thereby maintaining good cardiovascular stability. The analgesia was good and there was no postoperative agitation. This drug combination was effective and safe for patients with cyanotic heart disease for non cardiac surgeries.

15.
Indian J Anaesth ; 57(1): 69-71, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23716771

RESUMO

Management of a case of ankylosing spondylitis can be very challenging when the airway and the central neuraxial blockade, both are difficult. Ultrasound-assisted central neuraxial blockade may lead to predictable success in the field of regional anaesthesia. We present a young patient with severe ankylosing spondylitis where conventional techniques failed and ultrasound helped in successful combined spinal-epidural technique for total hip replacement surgery.

16.
Med J Armed Forces India ; 69(2): 124-9, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24600084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare associated infections (HAI) have taken on a new dimension with outbreaks of increasingly resistant organisms becoming common. Protocol-based infection control practices in the intensive care unit (ICU) are extremely important. Moreover, baseline information of the incidence of HAI helps in planning-specific interventions at infection control. METHODS: This hospital-based observational study was carried out from Dec 2009 to May 2010 in the 10-bedded surgical intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital. CDC HAI definitions were used to diagnose HAI. RESULTS: A total of 293 patients were admitted in the ICU. 204 of these were included in the study. 36 of these patients developed HAI with a frequency of 17.6%. The incidence rate (IR) of catheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSI) was 16/1000 Central Venous Catheter (CVC) days [95% C.I. 9-26]. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) 9/1000 urinary catheter days [95% C.I. 4-18] and ventilator-associated pneumonias (VAP) 32/1000 ventilator days [95% confidence interval 22-45]. CONCLUSION: The HAI rates in our ICU are less than other hospitals in developing countries. The incidence of VAP is comparable to other studies. Institution of an independent formal infection control monitoring and surveillance team to monitor & undertake infection control practices is an inescapable need in service hospitals.

17.
Med J Armed Forces India ; 69(4): 361-5, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24600144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The structured labor analgesia programme in our tertiary care hospital has been in place for the past few years. We undertook this study to analyze the programme and to draw conclusions to further improve the outcomes. METHODS: A prospective analysis of the data pertaining to 200 patients participating in an ongoing labor analgesia programme in a tertiary care hospital from Nov 2008 to Aug 2009 was performed. RESULTS: Mean visual analog score (VAS) before epidural block was 8.34 ± 0.79. Post procedure the average VAS score was 2.20 ± 0.79. One hundred and fifty six (78%) parturients delivered vaginally, 18 (9%) required instrumentation with vacuum including 1 forceps delivery in a multiparous parturient. In 17parturients (8.7%) fetal distress led to a decision to perform LSCS for delivery. Multiparous patients were significantly more satisfied as compared to nulliparous patients (p = 0.010). CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated excellent pain relief and patient satisfaction with minimal complications. The safety and efficacy of epidural bupivacaine in concentrations less than 0.625% combined with 25 mcg of fentanyl demonstrated in our study should be considered are commendation for the widespread adoption of the procedure in tertiary care hospitals.

18.
J Anesth ; 27(3): 461-3, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23223916

RESUMO

A combination of dexmedetomidine and ketamine for upper gastrointestinal endoscopies (UGIE) was studied in 46 children aged 2-12 years over a 6-month period. Dexmedetomidine 1 µg/kg and ketamine 2 mg/kg were given as a bolus over 5 min. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), oxygen saturation (SpO2), and sedation scores were noted before induction as baseline and then every 5 min until recovery. The duration and ease of the procedure, time to recovery, and adverse effects, if any, were also recorded. UGIE could be performed with ease in 41 of the 46 cases. The HR, MAP, and SpO2 did not change significantly from the baseline. No airway intervention was required in any patient. There was no laryngospasm or shivering in any of the children, and one, four, and 11 children had hiccup, vomiting, and increased salivation, respectively. The Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium score was <4 in all except for two cases. The results of this case series show that this drug combination not only promises to be clinically effective but also safe for UGIE in children. Further randomized controlled trials with standard sedation protocols will be required to draw definite conclusions.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Dissociativos/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/métodos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Pressão Arterial/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Oxigênio/metabolismo
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