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1.
Mol Biol Rep ; 2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35359235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetics driven interventions if adopted in conservation breeding projects may enhance the overall success by prioritizing breeding among genetically most competent individuals and delaying or completely diminishing the ill effects of inbreeding. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the present study, we investigated genetic make-up of 15 tigers housed at five different captive facilities of West Bengal in India and report the moderate level of genetic variation. We identified five tigers based on individual genetic attributes that may be prioritized for future breeding or animal exchange programmes. The occurrence of first and second order related individuals in captivity require management attention and they should be paired considering their immediate genetic background. CONCLUSION: Considering tiger as a case study, we highlight the use of genetic assessment and necessity to validate the studbook records in formulating adaptive management strategies for long-term conservation and management of species of interest.

2.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35105287

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 enters the human airways and comes into contact with the mucous membranes lining the mouth, nose, and eyes. The virus enters the healthy cells and uses cell machinery to make several copies of the virus. Critically ill patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 may have damaged lungs, air sacs, lining, and walls. Since COVID-19 causes cytokine storm, it damages the alveolar cells of the lungs and fills them with fluid, making it harder to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. The SARS-CoV-2 infection causes a range of complications, including mild to critical breathing difficulties. It has been observed that older people suffering from health conditions like cardiomyopathies, nephropathies, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes instigate severe symptoms. Many people who died due to COVID-19 had impaired metabolic health [IMH], characterized by hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia, i.e., diabetes, cardiovascular system, and renal diseases making their retrieval challenging. Jeopardy stresses for increased mortality from COVID-19 include older age, COPD, ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and immunosuppression. However, no targeted therapies are available as of now. Almost two-thirds of diagnosed coronavirus patients had cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, out of which 37% were under 60. The NHS audit revealed that with a higher expression of ACE-2 receptors, viral particles could easily bind their protein spikes and get inside the cells, finally causing COVID-19 infection. Hence, people with IMH are more prone to COVID-19 and, ultimately, comorbidities. This review provides enormous information about tissue [lungs, heart and kidneys] damage, pathophysiological changes, and impaired metabolic health of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Moreover, it also designates the possible therapeutic targets of COVID-19 and drugs which can be used against these targets.

3.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(2): 187-198, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979337

RESUMO

The COVID-19 lockdown resulted in improved air quality in many cities across the world. With the objective of what could be the new learning from the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent lockdowns for better air quality and human health, a critical synthesis of the available evidence concerning air pollution reduction, the population at risk and natural versus anthropogenic emissions was conducted. Can the new societal norms adopted during pandemics, such as the use of face cover, awareness regarding respiratory hand hygiene, and physical distancing, help in reducing disease burden in the future? The use of masks will be more socially acceptable during the high air pollution episodes in lower and middle-income countries, which could help to reduce air pollution exposure. Although post-pandemic, some air pollution reduction strategies may be affected, such as car-pooling and the use of mass transit systems for commuting to avoid exposure to airborne infections like coronavirus. However, promoting non-motorized modes of transportation such as cycling and walking within cities as currently being enabled in Europe and other countries could overshadow such losses. This demand focus on increasing walkability in a town for all ages and populations, including for a differently-abled community. The study highlighted that for better health and sustainability there. is also a need to promote other measures such as work-from-home, technological infrastructure, the extension of smart cities, and the use of information technology.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Cidades , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Material Particulado/análise , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(1): 811-816, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The sambar (Rusa unicolor) is one of the largest deer distributed across diverse habitats of India and threatened due to habitat loss, changes in the land-use patterns, illegal poaching, and anthropogenic disturbances. Here, we report the first population genetics account of sambar deer from the Western Himalayas. METHODS AND RESULTS: We observed relatively compromised genetic diversity (π = 0.0008 ± 0.0006 at mtDNA and Ho = 0.499 ± 0.056 at nDNA). We identified 60 unique individuals using a select panel of seven loci (PID sib cum 1.60E-03). Bayesian skyline plot showed a stable demographic history since the past 8 kyr with a decline in recent years. The population lacked genetic structuring, likely due to the contiguous distribution and large dispersal patterns of sambar. CONCLUSION: The preliminary findings are valuable in exploring the utility of genetic diversity in monitoring the sambar population, estimating density following capture-recapture analysis, and aid to the conservation planning of sambar in large landscapes.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Cervos/genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Polimorfismo Genético , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , DNA Mitocondrial/isolamento & purificação , Ecossistema , Fezes/química , Loci Gênicos , Genótipo , Índia , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética
5.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(2): 1573-1579, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The common leopard (Panthera pardus fusca), which persists in most of its historic range, is experiencing steady population decline due to habitat loss, anthrophonic disturbances, illegal poaching for their body parts, and retaliatory killings in response to the leopard-human conflicts. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed 143 scats samples and identified 32 unique leopards following a selected panel of seven loci with cumulative PID sibs 5.30E-04. We observed moderate genetic diversity at nuclear (Ho = 0.600 ± 0.06) and mitochondrial markers (Hd = 0.569 ± 0.009; π = 0.001 ± 0.0002) and found sub-structuring in the leopard population at Uttarkashi, Western Himalayas. CONCLUSIONS: The present study exhibits the utility of non-invasive genetics in monitoring the leopard population and paves the path to investigate population genetic parameters in further studies.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Genética Populacional/métodos , Panthera/genética , Animais , Ásia , Crime/tendências , Ecossistema , Fezes/química , Variação Genética/genética
6.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 102, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34712599

RESUMO

Background: Nipah virus (NiV) first emerged in 1998 in Malaysia, causing an outbreak of respiratory illness and encephalitis in pigs. Pig-to-human transmission of NiV associated with severe febrile encephalitis was described, and it was thought to occur through close contact with infected animals. The first outbreak was reported in India in Siliguri, West Bengal in 2001 followed by Nadia, West Bengal and adjoining areas of Bangladesh in 2007, where an intermediate animal host was not identified, suggesting bat-to-human and human-to-human transmissions. Although it is extremely difficult to document the spillover event and ascertain crossing of trans-natural boundaries by bats and bringing new viruses in an unexposed population, efforts for source identification are important to understand the epidemiology of disease. As the disease transcends beyond one species and has shown to infect humans, it therefore requires the 'One Health approach' in which multiple sectors coordinate and work together to achieve better public health outcomes. Objective: We summarize the re-emergence and response of the Nipah virus outbreaks (NiVD) in Kerala, India, about 1800 kms away, a decade later in 2018 and 2019. The paper recapitulates involvement of various stakeholders from the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Directorate of Health Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, State Health Department, State Animal Husbandry, District Administration, and multidisciplinary response mechanism during the NiVD outbreaks of 2018 and 2019. Methods: Information was collected from the Press Information Bureau (PIB), media/weekly alerts from the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP), news articles from print and electronic media, newsletters, advisories from the National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), Disease Outbreak News (DON), World Health Organization (WHO), and published papers from various stakeholders. Findings & Conclusion: The evidence of NiV in humans and bats, with samples collected from the outbreak sites, was laboratory confirmed. The multidisciplinary response mechanisms during the 2018 outbreak helped in further understanding the importance of the One Health approach for systemic and streamlined response utilizing existing surveillance systems. This was of utmost help in the subsequent outbreak of the disease that occurred during 2019, wherein there was no documented spread of disease from the index case and no mortality was observed. This success reiterates the need for institutionalizing the involvement and cooperation of various departments and organizations during public health emergencies, especially of Zoonotic diseases, using the One Health approach.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Infecções por Henipavirus , Vírus Nipah , Saúde Única , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Infecções por Henipavirus/epidemiologia , Suínos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
7.
Science ; 374(6570): 995-999, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648303

RESUMO

Delhi, the national capital of India, experienced multiple severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreaks in 2020 and reached population seropositivity of >50% by 2021. During April 2021, the city became overwhelmed by COVID-19 cases and fatalities, as a new variant, B.1.617.2 (Delta), replaced B.1.1.7 (Alpha). A Bayesian model explains the growth advantage of Delta through a combination of increased transmissibility and reduced sensitivity to immune responses generated against earlier variants (median estimates: 1.5-fold greater transmissibility and 20% reduction in sensitivity). Seropositivity of an employee and family cohort increased from 42% to 87.5% between March and July 2021, with 27% reinfections, as judged by increased antibody concentration after a previous decline. The likely high transmissibility and partial evasion of immunity by the Delta variant contributed to an overwhelming surge in Delhi.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Genoma Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Criança , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Índia/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Reinfecção , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(11): 7609-7615, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Himalayan goral (Naemorhedus goral), solitary cliff-dwelling species and are distributed throughout the Indian Himalayan region. Its populations across the range are facing severe threats due to habitat loss, fragmentation and changes in the land-use patterns by various anthropogenic activities. METHODS AND RESULTS: We carried out genetic analyses of Himalayan goral using the mitochondrial control regions and microsatellite loci (n = 10) in the Uttarkashi district of Uttarakhand. We reported a moderate genetic diversity at nuclear (Ho 0.602 ± 0.057) and mitochondrial markers (Hd-0.6931 ± 0.053; π-0.0048 ± 001). Bayesian skyline plot indicates a sharp decline in the goral population in the last 100 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate the population of Himalayan goral in Uttarkashi is under panmictic condition, plausibly due to long-ranging behaviour. The present study laid the foundation for future non-invasive genetics monitoring and detailed population genetic assessment of goral from the entire range in the Western Himalayas.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Ruminantes/genética , Animais , Genética Populacional , Índia
12.
Nature ; 599(7883): 114-119, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488225

RESUMO

The B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first identified in the state of Maharashtra in late 2020 and spread throughout India, outcompeting pre-existing lineages including B.1.617.1 (Kappa) and B.1.1.7 (Alpha)1. In vitro, B.1.617.2 is sixfold less sensitive to serum neutralizing antibodies from recovered individuals, and eightfold less sensitive to vaccine-elicited antibodies, compared with wild-type Wuhan-1 bearing D614G. Serum neutralizing titres against B.1.617.2 were lower in ChAdOx1 vaccinees than in BNT162b2 vaccinees. B.1.617.2 spike pseudotyped viruses exhibited compromised sensitivity to monoclonal antibodies to the receptor-binding domain and the amino-terminal domain. B.1.617.2 demonstrated higher replication efficiency than B.1.1.7 in both airway organoid and human airway epithelial systems, associated with B.1.617.2 spike being in a predominantly cleaved state compared with B.1.1.7 spike. The B.1.617.2 spike protein was able to mediate highly efficient syncytium formation that was less sensitive to inhibition by neutralizing antibody, compared with that of wild-type spike. We also observed that B.1.617.2 had higher replication and spike-mediated entry than B.1.617.1, potentially explaining the B.1.617.2 dominance. In an analysis of more than 130 SARS-CoV-2-infected health care workers across three centres in India during a period of mixed lineage circulation, we observed reduced ChAdOx1 vaccine effectiveness against B.1.617.2 relative to non-B.1.617.2, with the caveat of possible residual confounding. Compromised vaccine efficacy against the highly fit and immune-evasive B.1.617.2 Delta variant warrants continued infection control measures in the post-vaccination era.


Assuntos
Evasão da Resposta Imune , SARS-CoV-2/crescimento & desenvolvimento , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Replicação Viral/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Fusão Celular , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Cinética , Masculino , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Vacinação
15.
Microorganisms ; 9(7)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361977

RESUMO

As the global severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic expands, genomic epidemiology and whole genome sequencing are being used to investigate its transmission and evolution. Against the backdrop of the global emergence of "variants of concern" (VOCs) during December 2020 and an upsurge in a state in the western part of India since January 2021, whole genome sequencing and analysis of spike protein mutations using sequence and structural approaches were undertaken to identify possible new variants and gauge the fitness of the current circulating strains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that newly identified lineages B.1.617.1 and B.1.617.2 were predominantly circulating. The signature mutations possessed by these strains were L452R, T478K, E484Q, D614G and P681R in the spike protein, including within the receptor-binding domain (RBD). Of these, the mutations at residue positions 452, 484 and 681 have been reported in other globally circulating lineages. The structural analysis of RBD mutations L452R, T478K and E484Q revealed that these may possibly result in increased ACE2 binding while P681R in the furin cleavage site could increase the rate of S1-S2 cleavage, resulting in better transmissibility. The two RBD mutations, L452R and E484Q, indicated decreased binding to select monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and may affect their neutralization potential. Further in vitro/in vivo studies would help confirm the phenotypic changes of the mutant strains. Overall, the study revealed that the newly emerged variants were responsible for the second wave of COVID-19 in Maharashtra. Lineage B.1.617.2 has been designated as a VOC delta and B.1.617.1 as a variant of interest kappa, and they are being widely reported in the rest of the country as well as globally. Continuous monitoring of these and emerging variants in India is essential.

17.
Indian J Med Res ; 153(5&6): 619-628, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259194

RESUMO

Background & objectives: India witnessed a massive second surge of COVID-19 cases since March 2021 after a period of decline from September 2020. Data collected under the National Clinical Registry for COVID-19 (NCRC) were analysed to describe the differences in demographic and clinical features of COVID-19 patients recruited during these two successive waves. Methods: The NCRC, launched in September 2020, is an ongoing multicentre observational initiative, which provided the platform for the current investigation. Demographic, clinical, treatment and outcome data of hospitalized, confirmed COVID-19 patients were captured in an electronic data portal from 41 hospitals across India. Patients enrolled during September 1, 2020 to January 31, 2021 and February 1 to May 11, 2021 constituted participants of the two successive waves, respectively. Results: As on May 11, 2021, 18961 individuals were recruited in the registry, 12059 and 6903 reflecting in-patients from the first and second waves, respectively. Mean age of the patients was significantly lower in the second wave [48.7 (18.1) yr vs. 50.7 (18.0) yr, P<0.001] with higher proportion of patients in the younger age group intervals of <20, and 20-39 yr. Approximately 70 per cent of the admitted patients were ≥ 40 yr of age in both waves of the pandemic. The proportion of males were slightly lower in second wave as compared to the first [4400 (63.7%) vs. 7886 (65.4%), P=0.02]. Commonest presenting symptom was fever in both waves. In the second wave, a significantly higher proportion [2625 (48.6%) vs. 4420 (42.8%), P<0.003] complained of shortness of breath, developed ARDS [422(13%) vs. 880 (7.9%), P<0.001], required supplemental oxygen [1637 (50.3%) vs. 4771 (42.7%), P<0.001], and mechanical ventilation [260 (15.9%) vs. 530 (11.1%), P<0.001]. Mortality also significantly increased in the second wave [OR: 1.35 (95% CI: 1.19, 1.52)] in all age groups except in <20 yr. Interpretation & conclusions: The second wave of COVID-19 in India was slightly different in presentation than the first wave, with a younger demography, lesser comorbidities, and presentation with breathlessness in greater frequency.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 39(3): 279-285, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This perspective documents the historical aspects of outbreaks of plague of last six decades, establishment of plague surveillance network in India with detailed insights about its activities and recent developments requiring focus on plague surveillance. Human plague was reported in Mulbagal area of Karnataka in 1966-67 only to re-emerge in the country in 1994 in Beed district (Maharashtra) and subsequently in Surat (Gujarat). Later Plague outbreak has been reported in the year 2002 with index case from Village Hatkoti, Shimla District in Himachal Pradesh. The last outbreak reported from India was in 2004 from Village Dangaud, Uttarkashi District in Uttarakhand followed by a period of quiescent since last 17 years. OBJECTIVES: During the last few decades, at least three geographical areas experienced outbreaks of plague after silent period of 28 years. We recapitulate the response mechanism for containing outbreaks during the last three outbreaks of plague held in Maharashtra & Gujarat (1994), Himachal Pradesh (2002) and Uttarakhand (2004). We also document the Plague surveillance network of India and its activities which is a comprehensive surveillance system comprising of rodent, flea, canine and human surveillance whose foundation was started in 1964. The recent developments of last decade in terms of revised Human plague surveillance case definitions, Plague surveillance sites, vector control, novel diagnostics and vaccines in our country are also mentioned. CONCLUSION: The thrust areas in control of plague outbreak are early detection and isolation of cases, timely effective antibiotic treatment, chemoprophylaxis to contacts, strengthening of surveillance system and massive IEC campaign in infected areas. Yersinia pestis (causative agent of Plague) also being an important bioterrorism agent, clinicians need to pay special attention to diagnose and microbiologists must be provided skilled training for laboratory confirmation to this pestilential disease for effective and timely management.


Assuntos
Peste/epidemiologia , Sifonápteros , Yersinia pestis , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/história , Cães/microbiologia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Índia/epidemiologia , Peste/história , Sifonápteros/microbiologia
19.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(3): 1082-1085, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041133

RESUMO

Significant public health events of the 21st century include epidemic prone diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), influenza A (H1N1), Ebola virus disease, and coronavirus (SARS-COV-2). Preparedness as well as risk mitigation strategies play an integral role for the success of responses to such health emergencies. An extraordinary cluster of cases of respiratory disease of unknown cause triggered a series of events that constituted a public health risk across the globe through international spread from China and was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) on 30 January, 2020 by the World Health Organization (WHO). To monitor implementation of activities in order to contain the local transmission of COVID-2019 in India, a control room was established at the National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), New Delhi on 23rd January, 2020 under the Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP). The main objectives of the control room were to alleviate the concerns and address queries of passengers arriving from the affected countries and also to provide the general public information regarding the measures to be taken as well as the contact details of the respected district health authorities for further necessary action. A total of 183 hunting lines were established at the NCDC, Noida, TB Centre, and the National Health Authority (NHA) Hyderabad and Bengaluru by March 2020. A total of 79,013 calls, 1,04,779 emails, and 1,787 international calls were received w.e.f. 23 January to 30 March, 2020 at the NCDC control room. The NHA Bengaluru and Hyderabad Control room received 3,52,176 calls w.e.f. 15 March to 30 March and TB Noida control room received 55,018 calls w.e.f. 16 March to 30 March, 2020. This prompt action of the center to set up a control room at the NCDC gave the states enough grace period to train their staff and start their individual help lines for addressing people's queries and allay fears.

20.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(3): 1479-1484, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In India, laboratory diagnosis of SARS - CoV-2 infection has been mostly based on real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Studies have shown that Viral titres peak within the first week of symptoms but may decline later hampering RT-PCR-based diagnostic strategies. Exact estimate is difficult under high-risk screening strategy with evidences of having large number of asymptomatic cases. This has prompted a call for adoption of antibody testing as potential source of data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study with a sample size of 7000 was conducted for 15 days including all the 85 wards under Indore Municipal Corporation. Stratified Random Sampling was used to collect the samples. Trained teams collected basic sociodemographic information and serum samples which were tested for the presence of specific antibodies to COVID-19 using ICMR-Kavach IgG ELISA kits. The data collected was compiled and analysed using appropriate statistical software. RESULTS: Overall weighted seroprevalence of the study population was found to be 7.75%. The prevalence in males and females was comparable (7.91% vs 7.57%). Highest seropositivity (10.04%) was seen among individuals aged more than 60 years. Total number of infections in the population were estimated to be 2,03,160. Overall Case Infection Ratio was found to be 27.43. CONCLUSION: The current seroprevalence study provides information on proportion of the population exposed, but the correlation between presence and absence of antibodies is not a marker of total or partial immunity. It must also be noted that more than 90 percent of the population is still susceptible for COVID-19 infection. Hence, non-pharmaceutical interventions like respiratory hygiene, physical distancing, hand sanitization, usage of personal protective equipment such as masks and implementation of public health measures need to be continued.

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