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1.
Mov Disord ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several reports have identified different patterns of Parkinson's disease progression in individuals carrying missense variants in GBA or LRRK2 genes. The overall contribution of genetic factors to the severity and progression of Parkinson's disease, however, has not been well studied. OBJECTIVES: To test the association between genetic variants and the clinical features of Parkinson's disease on a genomewide scale. METHODS: We accumulated individual data from 12 longitudinal cohorts in a total of 4093 patients with 22,307 observations for a median of 3.81 years. Genomewide associations were evaluated for 25 cross-sectional and longitudinal phenotypes. Specific variants of interest, including 90 recently identified disease-risk variants, were also investigated post hoc for candidate associations with these phenotypes. RESULTS: Two variants were genomewide significant. Rs382940(T>A), within the intron of SLC44A1, was associated with reaching Hoehn and Yahr stage 3 or higher faster (hazard ratio 2.04 [1.58-2.62]; P value = 3.46E-8). Rs61863020(G>A), an intergenic variant and expression quantitative trait loci for α-2A adrenergic receptor, was associated with a lower prevalence of insomnia at baseline (odds ratio 0.63 [0.52-0.75]; P value = 4.74E-8). In the targeted analysis, we found 9 associations between known Parkinson's risk variants and more severe motor/cognitive symptoms. Also, we replicated previous reports of GBA coding variants (rs2230288: p.E365K; rs75548401: p.T408M) being associated with greater motor and cognitive decline over time, and an APOE E4 tagging variant (rs429358) being associated with greater cognitive deficits in patients. CONCLUSIONS: We identified novel genetic factors associated with heterogeneity of Parkinson's disease. The results can be used for validation or hypothesis tests regarding Parkinson's disease. © 2019 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

2.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 119, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: African Americans (AAs) experience premature chronic health outcomes and longevity disparities consistent with an accelerated aging phenotype. DNA methylation (DNAm) levels at specific CpG positions are hallmarks of aging evidenced by the presence of age-associated differentially methylated CpG positions (aDMPs) that are the basis for the epigenetic clock for measuring biological age acceleration. Since DNAm has not been widely studied among non-European populations, we examined the association between DNAm and chronological age in AAs and whites, and the association between race, poverty, sex, and epigenetic age acceleration. RESULTS: We measured genome-wide DNA methylation (866,836 CpGs) using the Illumina MethylationEPIC BeadChip in blood DNA extracted from 487 middle-aged AA (N = 244) and white (N = 243), men (N = 248), and women (N = 239). The mean (sd) age was 48.4 (8.8) in AA and 49.0 (8.7) in whites (p = 0.48). We identified 4930 significantly associated aDMPs in AAs and 469 in whites. Of these, 75.6% and 53.1% were novel, largely driven by the increased number of measured CpGs in the EPIC array, in AA and whites, respectively. AAs had more age-associated DNAm changes than whites in genes implicated in age-related diseases and cellular pathways involved in growth and development. We assessed three epigenetic age acceleration measures (universal, intrinsic, and extrinsic). AAs had a significantly slower extrinsic aging compared to whites. Furthermore, compared to AA women, both AA and white men had faster aging in the universal age acceleration measure (+ 2.04 and + 1.24 years, respectively, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: AAs have more wide-spread methylation changes than whites. Race and sex interact to underlie biological age acceleration suggesting altered DNA methylation patterns may be important in age-associated health disparities.

3.
Circulation ; 140(8): 645-657, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is implicated in coronary heart disease (CHD), but current evidence is based on small, cross-sectional studies. We examined blood DNA methylation in relation to incident CHD across multiple prospective cohorts. METHODS: Nine population-based cohorts from the United States and Europe profiled epigenome-wide blood leukocyte DNA methylation using the Illumina Infinium 450k microarray, and prospectively ascertained CHD events including coronary insufficiency/unstable angina, recognized myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and coronary death. Cohorts conducted race-specific analyses adjusted for age, sex, smoking, education, body mass index, blood cell type proportions, and technical variables. We conducted fixed-effect meta-analyses across cohorts. RESULTS: Among 11 461 individuals (mean age 64 years, 67% women, 35% African American) free of CHD at baseline, 1895 developed CHD during a mean follow-up of 11.2 years. Methylation levels at 52 CpG (cytosine-phosphate-guanine) sites were associated with incident CHD or myocardial infarction (false discovery rate<0.05). These CpGs map to genes with key roles in calcium regulation (ATP2B2, CASR, GUCA1B, HPCAL1), and genes identified in genome- and epigenome-wide studies of serum calcium (CASR), serum calcium-related risk of CHD (CASR), coronary artery calcified plaque (PTPRN2), and kidney function (CDH23, HPCAL1), among others. Mendelian randomization analyses supported a causal effect of DNA methylation on incident CHD; these CpGs map to active regulatory regions proximal to long non-coding RNA transcripts. CONCLUSION: Methylation of blood-derived DNA is associated with risk of future CHD across diverse populations and may serve as an informative tool for gaining further insight on the development of CHD.

4.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261387

RESUMO

Multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Parkinson disease (PD) have identified a signal at chromosome 4p16.3; however, the causal variant has not been established for this locus. Deep investigation of the region resulted in one identified variant, the rs34311866 missense SNP (p.M393T) in TMEM175, which is 20 orders of magnitude more significant than any other SNP in the region. Because TMEM175 is a lysosomal gene that has been shown to influence α-synuclein phosphorylation and autophagy, the p.M393T variant is an attractive candidate, and we have examined its effect on TMEM175 protein and PD-related biology. After knocking down each of the genes located under the GWAS peak via multiple shRNAs, only TMEM175 was found to consistently influence accumulation of phosphorylated α-synuclein. Examination of the p.M393T variant showed effects on TMEM175 function that were intermediate between the wild type (WT) and knockout (KO) phenotypes, with reduced regulation of lysosomal pH in response to starvation and minor changes in clearance of autophagy substrates, reduced lysosomal localization, and increased accumulation of phosphorylated α-synuclein. Finally, overexpression of WT TMEM175 protein reduced phosphorylated α-synuclein, while overexpression of the p.M393T variant resulted in no change in α-synuclein phosphorylation. These results suggest that the main signal in the chromosome 4p16.3 PD risk locus is driven by the TMEM175 p.M393T variant. Modulation of TMEM175 may impact α-synuclein biology and therefore may be a rational therapeutic strategy for PD.

5.
Mov Disord ; 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the α-synuclein (SNCA) gene are associated with differential risk and age at onset (AAO) of both idiopathic and Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2)-associated Parkinson's disease (PD). Yet potential combinatory or synergistic effects among several modulatory SNPs for PD risk or AAO remain largely underexplored. OBJECTIVES: The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is functionally impaired in PD. Here we explored whether SNPs in the mTOR pathway, alone or by epistatic interaction with known susceptibility factors, can modulate PD risk and AAO. METHODS: Based on functional relevance, we selected a total of 64 SNPs mapping to a total of 57 genes from the mTOR pathway and genotyped a discovery series cohort encompassing 898 PD patients and 921 controls. As a replication series, we screened 4170 PD and 3014 controls available from the International Parkinson's Disease Genomics Consortium. RESULTS: In the discovery series cohort, we found a 4-loci interaction involving STK11 rs8111699, FCHSD1 rs456998, GSK3B rs1732170, and SNCA rs356219, which was associated with an increased risk of PD (odds ratio = 2.59, P < .001). In addition, we also found a 3-loci epistatic combination of RPTOR rs11868112 and RPS6KA2 rs6456121 with SNCA rs356219, which was associated (odds ratio = 2.89; P < .0001) with differential AAO. The latter was further validated (odds ratio = 1.56; P = 0.046-0.047) in the International Parkinson's Disease Genomics Consortium cohort. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that genetic variability in the mTOR pathway contributes to SNCA effects in a nonlinear epistatic manner to modulate differential AAO in PD, unraveling the contribution of this cascade in the pathogenesis of the disease. © 2019 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

6.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 64: 262-267, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085086

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite considerable efforts to identify disease-causing and risk factors contributing to essential tremor (ET), no comprehensive assessment of heritable risk has been performed to date. METHODS: We use GREML-LDMS to estimate narrow-sense heritability due to additive effects (h2) and GREMLd to calculate non-additive heritability due to dominance variance (δ2) using data from 1,751 ET cases and 5,311 controls. We evaluate heritability per 10 Mb segments across the genome and assess the impact of Parkinson's disease (PD) misdiagnosis on heritability estimates. We apply genetic risk score (GRS) from PD and restless legs syndrome (RLS) to explore its contribution to ET risk and further assess genetic correlations with 832 traits by Linkage disequilibrium score regression. RESULTS: We estimated ET narrow-sense heritability to be h2 = 75.5% (s.e = ±0.075). In contrast, dominance variance showed insignificant effect on the overall estimates. Heritability split by 10 Mb regions revealed increased estimates at chromosomes 6 and 21. The proportion of genetic variance due to PD misdiagnosed cases was estimated to be 5.33%. PD and RLS GRS were not significantly predictive of ET case-control status. CONCLUSIONS: We show for the first time that ET is a highly heritable condition in which additive common variability plays a prominent role. Chromosomes 6 and 21 may contain causative risk variants influencing susceptibility to ET. Despite overlapping symptomatology, ET does not seem to share genetic etiologies with PD or RLS. Our study suggests that most of ET genetic component is yet to be discovered and future GWAS will reveal additional risk factors contributing to ET.

7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(5): 925-935, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982609

RESUMO

Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) plays key roles in regulating development and function of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, including microglia and osteoclasts. Mono-allelic mutations of CSF1R are known to cause hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS), an adult-onset progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Here, we report seven affected individuals from three unrelated families who had bi-allelic CSF1R mutations. In addition to early-onset HDLS-like neurological disorders, they had brain malformations and skeletal dysplasia compatible to dysosteosclerosis (DOS) or Pyle disease. We identified five CSF1R mutations that were homozygous or compound heterozygous in these affected individuals. Two of them were deep intronic mutations resulting in abnormal inclusion of intron sequences in the mRNA. Compared with Csf1r-null mice, the skeletal and neural phenotypes of the affected individuals appeared milder and variable, suggesting that at least one of the mutations in each affected individual is hypomorphic. Our results characterized a unique human skeletal phenotype caused by CSF1R deficiency and implied that bi-allelic CSF1R mutations cause a spectrum of neurological and skeletal disorders, probably depending on the residual CSF1R function.

8.
Mov Disord ; 34(6): 866-875, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence supports an extensive and complex genetic contribution to PD. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shed light on the genetic basis of risk for this disease. However, the genetic determinants of PD age at onset are largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: To identify the genetic determinants of PD age at onset. METHODS: Using genetic data of 28,568 PD cases, we performed a genome-wide association study based on PD age at onset. RESULTS: We estimated that the heritability of PD age at onset attributed to common genetic variation was ∼0.11, lower than the overall heritability of risk for PD (∼0.27), likely, in part, because of the subjective nature of this measure. We found two genome-wide significant association signals, one at SNCA and the other a protein-coding variant in TMEM175, both of which are known PD risk loci and a Bonferroni-corrected significant effect at other known PD risk loci, GBA, INPP5F/BAG3, FAM47E/SCARB2, and MCCC1. Notably, SNCA, TMEM175, SCARB2, BAG3, and GBA have all been shown to be implicated in α-synuclein aggregation pathways. Remarkably, other well-established PD risk loci, such as GCH1 and MAPT, did not show a significant effect on age at onset of PD. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we have performed the largest age at onset of PD genome-wide association studies to date, and our results show that not all PD risk loci influence age at onset with significant differences between risk alleles for age at onset. This provides a compelling picture, both within the context of functional characterization of disease-linked genetic variability and in defining differences between risk alleles for age at onset, or frank risk for disease. © 2019 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

9.
JAMA Neurol ; 76(6): 639-640, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933218
10.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 34(5): 692-699, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30706571

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: While a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or cognitive impairment have been identified, independent replications remain the only way to validate proposed signals. We investigated SNPs in candidate genes associated with either cognitive impairment or AD pathogenesis and their relationships with probable dementia (PD) in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS). METHODS: We analyzed 96 SNPs across five genes (APOE/TOMM40, BDNF, COMT, SORL1, and KIBRA) in 2857 women (ages ≥65) from the WHIMS randomized trials of hormone therapy using a custom Illumina GoldenGate assay; 19% of the sample were MCI (N = 165) or PD (N = 387), and the remaining 81% were free of cognitive impairment. SNP associations were evaluated for PD in non-Hispanic whites adjusting for age and HT using logistic regression under an additive genetic model. RESULTS: One SNP (rs157582), located in the TOMM40 gene nearby APOE, was associated with the PD phenotype based on a P value accounting for multiple comparisons. An additional 12 SNPs were associated with the PD phenotype at P ≤ 0.05 (APOE: rs405509, rs439401; TOMM40: rs8106922, and KIBRA: rs4320284, rs11740112, rs10040267, rs13171394, rs6555802, rs2241368, rs244904, rs6555805, and rs10475878). Results of the sensitivity analyes excluding MCI were similar, with addition of COMT rs737865 and BDNF rs1491850 (P ≤ 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results in older women provide supporting evidence that the APOE/TOMM40 genes confer dementia risk and extend these findings to COMT, BDNF, and KIBRA. Our findings may lead to a better understanding of the role these genes play in cognition and cognitive impairment.

11.
Ann Neurol ; 85(4): 470-481, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723964

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify shared polygenic risk and causal associations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: Linkage disequilibrium score regression and Mendelian randomization were applied in a large-scale, data-driven manner to explore genetic correlations and causal relationships between >700 phenotypic traits and ALS. Exposures consisted of publicly available genome-wide association studies (GWASes) summary statistics from MR Base and LD-hub. The outcome data came from the recently published ALS GWAS involving 20,806 cases and 59,804 controls. Multivariate analyses, genetic risk profiling, and Bayesian colocalization analyses were also performed. RESULTS: We have shown, by linkage disequilibrium score regression, that ALS shares polygenic risk genetic factors with a number of traits and conditions, including positive correlations with smoking status and moderate levels of physical activity, and negative correlations with higher cognitive performance, higher educational attainment, and light levels of physical activity. Using Mendelian randomization, we found evidence that hyperlipidemia is a causal risk factor for ALS and localized putative functional signals within loci of interest. INTERPRETATION: Here, we have developed a public resource (https://lng-nia.shinyapps.io/mrshiny) which we hope will become a valuable tool for the ALS community, and that will be expanded and updated as new data become available. Shared polygenic risk exists between ALS and educational attainment, physical activity, smoking, and tenseness/restlessness. We also found evidence that elevated low-desnity lipoprotein cholesterol is a causal risk factor for ALS. Future randomized controlled trials should be considered as a proof of causality. Ann Neurol 2019;85:470-481.

12.
Mov Disord ; 34(4): 460-468, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30675927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PD is a complex polygenic disorder. In recent years, several genes from the endocytic membrane-trafficking pathway have been suggested to contribute to disease etiology. However, a systematic analysis of pathway-specific genetic risk factors is yet to be performed. OBJECTIVES: To comprehensively study the role of the endocytic membrane-trafficking pathway in the risk of PD. METHODS: Linkage disequilibrium score regression was used to estimate PD heritability explained by 252 genes involved in the endocytic membrane-trafficking pathway including genome-wide association studies data from 18,869 cases and 22,452 controls. We used pathway-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms to construct a polygenic risk score reflecting the cumulative risk of common variants. To prioritize genes for follow-up functional studies, summary-data based Mendelian randomization analyses were applied to explore possible functional genomic associations with expression or methylation quantitative trait loci. RESULTS: The heritability estimate attributed to endocytic membrane-trafficking pathway was 3.58% (standard error = 1.17). Excluding previously nominated PD endocytic membrane-trafficking pathway genes, the missing heritability was 2.21% (standard error = 0.42). Random heritability simulations were estimated to be 1.44% (standard deviation = 0.54), indicating that the unbiased total heritability explained by the endocytic membrane-trafficking pathway was 2.14%. Polygenic risk score based on endocytic membrane-trafficking pathway showed a 1.25 times increase of PD risk per standard deviation of genetic risk. Finally, Mendelian randomization identified 11 endocytic membrane-trafficking pathway genes showing functional consequence associated to PD risk. CONCLUSIONS: We provide compelling genetic evidence that the endocytic membrane-trafficking pathway plays a relevant role in disease etiology. Further research on this pathway is warranted given that critical effort should be made to identify potential avenues within this biological process suitable for therapeutic interventions. © 2019 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

13.
Clin Epigenetics ; 10(1): 161, 2018 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most research into myocardial infarctions (MIs) have focused on preventative efforts. For survivors, the occurrence of an MI represents a major clinical event that can have long-lasting consequences. There has been little to no research into the molecular changes that can occur as a result of an incident MI. Here, we use three cohorts to identify epigenetic changes that are indicative of an incident MI and their association with gene expression and metabolomics. RESULTS: Using paired samples from the KORA cohort, we screened for DNA methylation loci (CpGs) whose change in methylation is potentially indicative of the occurrence of an incident MI between the baseline and follow-up exams. We used paired samples from the NAS cohort to identify 11 CpGs which were predictive in an independent cohort. After removing two CpGs associated with medication usage, we were left with an "epigenetic fingerprint" of MI composed of nine CpGs. We tested this fingerprint in the InCHIANTI cohort where it moderately discriminated incident MI occurrence (AUC = 0.61, P = 6.5 × 10-3). Returning to KORA, we associated the epigenetic fingerprint loci with cis-gene expression and integrated it into a gene expression-metabolomic network, which revealed links between the epigenetic fingerprint CpGs and branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant changes in DNA methylation after an incident MI. Nine of these CpGs show consistent changes in multiple cohorts, significantly discriminate MI in independent cohorts, and were independent of medication usage. Integration with gene expression and metabolomics data indicates a link between MI-associated epigenetic changes and BCAA metabolism.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Leucócitos/química , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Idoso , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Fatores de Risco
15.
Ann Neurol ; 84(1): 117-129, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30146727

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to refine our understanding of disease risk attributable to common genetic variation in SNCA, a major locus in Parkinson disease, with potential implications for clinical trials targeting α-synuclein. We aimed to dissect the multiple independent association signals, stratify individuals by SNCA-specific risk profiles, and explore expression quantitative trait loci. METHODS: We analyzed participant-level data from 12,503 patients and 12,502 controls, optimizing a risk model and assessing SNCA-specific risk scores and haplotypes as predictors of individual risk. We also explored hypotheses about functional mechanisms and correlated risk variants to gene expression in human brain and protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid. RESULTS: We report and replicate a novel, third independent association signal at genome-wide significance level downstream of SNCA (rs2870004, p = 3.0*10-8 , odds ratio [OR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84-0.92). SNCA risk score stratification showed a 2-fold difference in disease susceptibility between top and bottom quintiles (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.78-2.23). Contrary to previous reports, we provide evidence supporting top variant rs356182 as functional in itself and associated with a specific SNCA 5' untranslated region transcript isoform in frontal cortex. INTERPRETATION: The SNCA locus harbors a minimum of 3 independent association signals for Parkinson disease. We demonstrate a fine-grained stratification of α-synuclein-related genetic burden in individual patients of potential future clinical relevance. Further efforts to pinpoint the functional mechanisms are warranted, including studies of the likely causal top variant rs356182 and its role in regulating levels of specific SNCA mRNA transcript variants. Ann Neurol 2018;83:117-129.

16.
JAMA Neurol ; 75(11): 1416-1422, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30039155

RESUMO

Importance: Pathogenic variants in LRRK2 are a relatively common genetic cause of Parkinson disease (PD). Currently, the molecular mechanism underlying disease is unknown, and gain and loss of function (LOF) models of pathogenesis have been postulated. LRRK2 variants are reported to result in enhanced phosphorylation of substrates and increased cell death. However, the double knockout of Lrrk2 and its homologue Lrrk1 results in neurodegeneration in a mouse model, suggesting that disease may occur by LOF. Because LRRK2 inhibitors are currently in development as potential disease-modifying treatments in PD, it is critical to determine whether LOF variants in LRRK2 increase or decrease the risk of PD. Objective: To determine whether LRRK1 and LRRK2 LOF variants contribute to the risk of developing PD. Design, Setting, and Participants: To determine the prevailing mechanism of LRRK2-mediated disease in human populations, next-generation sequencing data from a large case-control cohort (>23 000 individuals) was analyzed for LOF variants in LRRK1 and LRRK2. Data were generated at 5 different sites and 5 different data sets, including cases with clinically diagnosed PD and neurologically normal control individuals. Data were collected from 2012 through 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: Frequencies of LRRK1 and LRRK2 LOF variants present in the general population and compared between cases and controls. Results: Among 11 095 cases with PD and 12 615 controls, LRRK1 LOF variants were identified in 0.205% of cases and 0.139% of controls (odds ratio, 1.48; SE, 0.571; 95% CI, 0.45-4.44; P = .49) and LRRK2 LOF variants were found in 0.117% of cases and 0.087% of controls (odds ratio, 1.48; SE, 0.431; 95% CI, 0.63-3.50; P = .36). All association tests suggested lack of association between LRRK1 or LRRK2 variants and PD. Further analysis of lymphoblastoid cell lines from several heterozygous LOF variant carriers found that, as expected, LRRK2 protein levels are reduced by approximately half compared with wild-type alleles. Conclusions and Relevance: Together these findings indicate that haploinsufficiency of LRRK1 or LRRK2 is neither a cause of nor protective against PD. Furthermore, these results suggest that kinase inhibition or allele-specific targeting of mutant LRRK2 remain viable therapeutic strategies in PD.

17.
Neurobiol Aging ; 66: 179.e17-179.e29, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29544907

RESUMO

Mendelian adult-onset leukodystrophies are a spectrum of rare inherited progressive neurodegenerative disorders affecting the white matter of the central nervous system. Among these, cerebral autosomal dominant and recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, cerebroretinal vasculopathy, metachromatic leukodystrophy, hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids, and vanishing white matter disease present with rapidly progressive dementia as dominant feature and are caused by mutations in NOTCH3, HTRA1, TREX1, ARSA, CSF1R, EIF2B1, EIF2B2, EIF2B3, EIF2B4, and EIF2B5, respectively. Given the rare incidence of these disorders and the lack of unequivocally diagnostic features, leukodystrophies are frequently misdiagnosed with common sporadic dementing diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), raising the question of whether these overlapping phenotypes may be explained by shared genetic risk factors. To investigate this intriguing hypothesis, we have combined gene expression analysis (1) in 6 different AD mouse strains (APPPS1, HOTASTPM, HETASTPM, TPM, TAS10, and TAU) at 5 different developmental stages (embryo [E15], 2, 4, 8, and 18 months), (2) in APPPS1 primary cortical neurons under stress conditions (oxygen-glucose deprivation) and single-variant-based and single-gene-based (c-alpha test and sequence kernel association test (SKAT)) genetic screening in a cohort composed of 332 Caucasian late-onset AD patients and 676 Caucasian elderly controls. Csf1r was significantly overexpressed (log2FC > 1, adj. p-value < 0.05) in the cortex and hippocampus of aged HOTASTPM mice with extensive Aß dense-core plaque pathology. We identified 3 likely pathogenic mutations in CSF1R TK domain (p.L868R, p.Q691H, and p.H703Y) in our discovery and validation cohort, composed of 465 AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Caucasian patients from the United Kingdom. Moreover, NOTCH3 was a significant hit in the c-alpha test (adj p-value = 0.01). Adult-onset Mendelian leukodystrophy genes are not common factors implicated in AD. Nevertheless, our study suggests a potential pathogenic link between NOTCH3, CSF1R, and sporadic late-onset AD, which warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Leucodistrofia Metacromática/genética , Mutação , Receptor Notch3/genética , Receptores de Fator Estimulador das Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
18.
Neurobiol Aging ; 66: 32-39, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29505953

RESUMO

The single-nucleotide polymorphism rs356219 in the α-synuclein (SNCA) gene has been shown to significantly contribute to an earlier age at onset of Parkinson's disease (PD), and regulates SNCA expression in PD brain regions, blood, and plasma. Here, we used multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study healthy adults with and without the rs356219 risk genotype. Motor and cognitive tests were administered, and all participants underwent functional and structural MRI. Imaging analyses included (1) task-based functional MRI; (2) task-based functional connectivity; (3) free-water diffusion MRI of the substantia nigra; (4) voxel-based morphometry; and (5) surface-based morphometry. There were no differences between the 2 groups in motor and cognitive performance, or brain structure. However, carrying a PD risk variant was associated with reduced functional activity in the posterior putamen and primary motor cortex. Moreover, the posterior putamen had reduced functional connectivity with the motor cortex during motor control in those with a risk genotype compared to those without. These findings point to functional abnormalities in the striatocortical circuit of rs356219 risk genotype carriers.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Envelhecimento Saudável/genética , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Atividade Motora , Neuroimagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , alfa-Sinucleína/genética , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comportamento , Encéfalo/patologia , Cognição , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Feminino , Genótipo , Envelhecimento Saudável/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco
19.
Neurobiol Aging ; 64: 159.e5-159.e8, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29398121

RESUMO

SNCA missense mutations are a rare cause of autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). To date, 6 missense mutations in SNCA have been nominated as causal. Here, we assess the frequency of these 6 mutations in public population databases and PD case-control data sets to determine their true pathogenicity. We found that 1 of the 6 reported SNCA mutations, His50Gln, was consistently identified in large population databases, and no enrichment was evident in PD cases compared to controls. These results suggest that His50Gln is probably not a pathogenic variant. This information is important to provide counseling for His50Gln carriers and has implications for the interpretation of His50Gln α-synuclein functional investigations.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Doença de Parkinson/genética , alfa-Sinucleína/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Genes Dominantes/genética , Aconselhamento Genético , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Doença de Parkinson/etiologia
20.
Neurol Genet ; 4(1): e211, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29379882

RESUMO

Objective: To test the association of distinct neuropathologic features of Alzheimer disease (AD) with risk loci identified in genome-wide association studies. Methods: Vantaa 85+ is a population-based study that includes 601 participants aged ≥85 years, of which 256 were neuropathologically examined. We analyzed 29 AD risk loci in addition to APOE ε4, which was studied separately and used as a covariate. Genotyping was performed using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array (341 variants) and imputation (6,038 variants). Participants with Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer Disease (CERAD) (neuritic Aß plaques) scores 0 (n = 65) vs score M + F (n = 171) and Braak (neurofibrillary tangle pathology) stages 0-II (n = 74) vs stages IV-VI (n = 119), and with capillary Aß (CapAß, n = 77) vs without (n = 179) were compared. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) percentage was analyzed as a continuous variable. Results: Altogether, 24 of the 29 loci were associated (at p < 0.05) with one or more AD-related neuropathologic features in either SNP array or imputation data. Fifteen loci associated with CERAD score, smallest p = 0.0002122, odds ratio (OR) 2.67 (1.58-4.49) at MEF2C locus. Fifteen loci associated with Braak stage, smallest p = 0.004372, OR 0.31 (0.14-0.69) at GAB2 locus. Twenty loci associated with CAA, smallest p = 7.17E-07, ß 14.4 (8.88-20) at CR1 locus. Fifteen loci associated with CapAß smallest p = 0.002594, OR 0.54 (0.37-0.81) at HLA-DRB1 locus. Certain loci associated with specific neuropathologic features. CASS4, CLU, and ZCWPW1 associated only with CAA, while TREM2 and HLA-DRB5 associated only with CapAß. Conclusions: AD risk loci differ in their association with neuropathologic features, and we show for the first time distinct risk loci for CAA and CapAß.

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