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J Pharm Anal ; 11(5): 529-540, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34178413


The deadly global outbreak of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has forged an unrivaled threat to human civilization. Contemplating its profuse impact, initial risk management and therapies are needed, as well as rapid detection strategies alongside treatments with existing drugs or traditional treatments to provide better clinical support for critical patients. Conventional detection techniques have been considered but do not sufficiently meet the current challenges of effective COVID-19 diagnosis. Therefore, several modern techniques including point-of-care diagnosis with a biosensor, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated proteins that function as nuclease (Cas) technology, next-generation sequencing, serological, digital, and imaging approaches have delivered improved and noteworthy success compared to that using traditional strategies. Conventional drug treatment, plasma therapy, and vaccine development are also ongoing. However, alternative medicines including Ayurveda, herbal drugs, homeopathy, and Unani have also been enlisted as prominent treatment strategies for developing herd immunity and physical defenses against COVID-19. All considered, this review can help develop rapid and simplified diagnostic strategies, as well as advanced evidence-based modern therapeutic approaches that will aid in combating the global pandemic.

J Biosci ; 462021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047290


The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2) has been declared a pandemic. Global research updates confirm that the infected patients manifest a range of clinical symptoms and sometimes remain entirely asymptomatic, posing a greater threat to the people coming in contact. Despite several case reports coming up every day, our knowledge about the neurotropic mechanism of the SARS-CoV-2, immunological responses, and the mode of disease progression and mechanism of crosstalk between the central nervous system (CNS), heart, lungs, and other major organs is not complete. Report of anosmia, ataxia, dysgeusia, and altered psychological status of the infected COVID-19 patients offers some clue to the possible route of viral entry and multiplication. In this review, we have critically assessed the involvement of CNS dysregulation in COVID-19 patients. The probable mechanism of immunological responses, the impairment of the coagulation pathway, the onset of cytokine storm, its interplay with the HPA axis, and hypoxia are discussed in detail here. Based on the latest research findings and some case reports of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, it is evident that the CNS involvement in disease progression is alarming. Accurate and timely detection of viral load in CNS is necessary to allow prompt and effective treatment modalities.

COVID-19/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/etiologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Humanos , Pericitos , SARS-CoV-2/classificação
Biophys Chem ; 270: 106538, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418105


The current global outbreak of COVID-19 due to SARS-CoV-2 is an unprecedented humanitarian crisis. Considering the gravity of its impact there is an immediate need to develop a detection technique that is sensitive, specific, fast, and affordable for the clinical diagnosis of the disease. Real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR)-based detection platforms are contemplated to be the gold standard to detect viral RNA. However, that may be susceptible to errors, and there is a risk of obtaining false results, which ultimately compromises the strategy of efficient disease management. Several modern techniques exhibiting assured results with enhanced sensitivity and specificity against the SARS-CoV-2 associated viral components or immune response against it have been developed and may be implemented. The review deals with the conventional RT-PCR detection techniques and compares them to other detection platforms viz., biosensor based detection of antigens, fluorescent or colorimetric detection systems including CRISPR-Cas 13 based SHERLOCK kit, CRISPR Cas-9 based FELUDA test kit, CRISPR DETECTR kit, Next Generation Sequencing or microarray-based kits. These modern techniques are great as a point of care detection methods but should be followed by RT PCR based detection for the confirmation of COVID-19 status.

Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Antígenos Virais/análise , COVID-19/virologia , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Viral/análise , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(5): 3745-3763, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361897


Cancer cells need extensive energy supply for their uncontrolled cell division and metastasis which is exclusively dependent on neighboring cells, especially adipocytes. Herein, we have introduced a novel herbometallic nano-drug, Heerak Bhasma nanoparticle (HBNP) from natural resources showing high potential in the reduction of energy supply thereby promoting cell death in breast cancer cells. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectra (ICP-OES), atomic absorption spectra (AAS), Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction analyses confirmed the physicochemical properties of HBNP. The differential light scattering (DLS) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) analyzed the cell-permeable size of HBNP, whereas, cell viability assay confirmed the non-toxic effect. Seahorse energy efflux assay, apoptotic cell quantification, ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential, in vivo oxidative stress etc. were measured using standard protocol. The notable changes in cancer energy metabolism investigated by cellular Mito and Glyco-stress analyses confirmed the HBNP induced intracellular energy depletion. Also, a significant reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential and subsequently, extensive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generations were observed in presence of HBNP followed by the induction of cell apoptosis. The cell invasion and wound healing assay followed by reduced expression both protein (MMP 2, MMP 9) and cytokine (IL6, IL10) had signified the effectiveness of HBNP against cancer metastasis. In addition, HBNP also showed an excellent antitumor activity in vivo followed by developing healing characteristics due to oxidative stress. All these findings strongly suggest that HBNP has the potential to be the new cancer therapeutic. A schematic phenomenon represents the overall HBNP mediated anticancer activity via limitation of both fatty acid uptake and energy metabolism.

Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Ayurvédica/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
J Biosci ; 452020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098923


Neurotransmitters, the small molecule chemical messenger responsible for nervous system regulation and can control joy, fear, depression, insomnia, craving for carbohydrates, drugs, and alcohols. Variation in neurotransmitter levels is a characteristic manifestation of several neurological diseases. Accurate diagnosis of these diseases caused due to an imbalance in neurotransmitter level followed by impaired transmission of signals between neurons and other body parts remains a great challenge for the clinicians. Recent evidences reveal, artificial single-stranded nucleotides called 'aptamer' are widely used as biosensors, antibody substitutes, diagnostic agents, and for targeted therapy. These aptamers are superior candidate both for early detection and diagnosis of many neurological disorders caused due to suboptimal level of neurotransmitters. Presently, noninvasive neurotransmitter detection by aptamer has been found to be an easy, fast, and cost-effective choice. In addition, increased specificity, stability, affinity, and reproducibility of aptamers, high throughput screening of aptamer-based sensing platforms have been observed. Moreover, clinical applicability of aptamer has also proved to be efficacious, though still at a preliminary stage. Herein, we review salient features of aptamerbased sensing technology used for neurotransmitter detection particularly their chemical modifications, selection, assay development, immobilization, therapeutic efficiency, and stability for early diagnosis of diseases caused due to neurotransmitter imbalance.

Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Neurotransmissores/química , Animais , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular