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1.
Stroke ; 50(12): 3385-3392, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699020

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Knowledge of the use of secondary preventive medication in young adults is limited. We studied the use of statins and its association with subsequent vascular events in young adults with ischemic stroke-a patient group with a known low burden of atherosclerosis. Methods- The study population included 935 first-ever 30-day ischemic stroke survivors aged 15 to 49 years from the Helsinki Young Stroke Registry, 1994 to 2007. Follow-up data until 2012 were obtained from the Social Insurance Institution of Finland (Drug Prescription Register), the Finnish Care Register, and Statistics Finland. The association of the use of statins (defined as at least 2 purchases) with all-cause mortality, recurrent stroke, and other recurrent vascular events was assessed through adjusted Cox regression analyses. We further compared propensity score-matched statin users with nonusers. Results- Of our 935 patients, 46.8% used statins at some point during follow-up. Higher age, dyslipidemia, heavy alcohol use, and hypertension were significantly associated with purchasing statins. Statin users exhibited lower risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.38 [95% CI, 0.25-0.58]) and recurrent stroke (hazard ratio, 0.29 [95% CI, 0.19-0.44]) than nonusers, after adjustment for dyslipidemia, stroke subtype, and other confounders. These results remained unchanged after propensity score-matched comparison. Conclusions- Less than half of young ischemic stroke patients used statins; use was affected by age and risk factor profile. Statin use was independently associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality and recurrent stroke.

2.
Ann Med ; 51(1): 68-77, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge on the use of secondary preventive medication in young adults is limited. METHODS: We included 936 first-ever ischemic stroke 30-day survivors aged 15-49, enrolled in the Helsinki Young Stroke Registry, 1994-2007. Follow-up data until 2012 came from Finnish Care Register, Statistics Finland, and Social Insurance Institution of Finland. Usage thresholds were defined as non-users, low (prescription coverage <30%), intermediate (30-80%) and high users (>80%). Adjusted Cox regression allowed assessing the association of usage with all-cause mortality and recurrent vascular events. RESULTS: Of our patients, 40.5% were non-users, 7.8% had low usage, 11.8% intermediate usage and 40.0% high usage. Median follow-up was 8.3 years. Compared to non-users, risk of mortality and recurrent stroke or TIA was lower for patients with low-intermediate (HR 0.40, 95% CI 0.22-0.65; HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.18-0.53) and high usage (HR 0.25, 95% CI 0.15-0.42; HR 0.30, 95% CI 0.19-0.46), after adjustment for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Use of antihypertensives was suboptimal in one-third of patients in whom antihypertensives were initially prescribed. Users were at lower risk of mortality and recurrent stroke or TIA compared to non-users. Key Messages The use of antihypertensive medication is suboptimal in one-third of patients in whom antihypertensive medication was initially prescribed after ischemic stroke at young age. The risk of mortality and recurrent stroke or TIA is lower for users of antihypertensive medication after ischemic stroke at young age compared to non-users, after adjustment for relevant confounders including pre-existing hypertension and prior use of antihypertensive medication. Specific guidelines on antihypertensive medication use after ischemic stroke at young age are lacking. However, our results may motivate doctors and patients in gaining better usage of antihypertensive medication, since better usage was associated with more favorable outcome in this study.

3.
J Periodontol ; 2018 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30447005

RESUMO

AIM: Smoking is a risk factor for periodontal disease due to its complex impact on the inflammatory response in the periodontium. We investigated the effect of smoking on salivary periodontal biomarkers, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and myeloperoxidase (MPO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Saliva biomarkers were analyzed in the Parogene population (n = 480) comprising a random cohort of patients undergone coronary angiography and oral examination. The effect of time since cessation and pack years of smoking on biomarkers were investigated. RESULTS: Saliva MMP-8, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and MPO concentrations distinguished periodontitis patients significantly from patients without periodontitis. When the time since cessation was considered, the area-under-the-curve values (p-value) for periodontitis were 0.76 (<0.001), 0.74 (<0.001), 0.70 (<0.001), and 0.76 (<0.001), respectively. Adding information about smoking habits in the models improved slightly the sensitivities of all biomarkers. In logistic regression model saliva MMP-8 was mainly affected by pack years of smoking, while saliva MMP-9, TIMP-1, and MPO were mostly affected by time since cessation, especially if smoking currently or quit recently (<1 year ago). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking confounds the salivary diagnostics of periodontitis and should be considered when interpreting the results obtained by potential diagnostic tests. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
BMC Med Imaging ; 18(1): 43, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left atrial volume is a prognostic factor in cardiac pathologies. We aimed to validate left atrial volume detection with 3D and 2D echocardiography (3DE and 2DE) by human cadaveric casts. 3DE facilitates measurement of atrial volume without geometrical assumptions or dependence on imaging angle in contrast to 2DE methods. METHODS: For method validation, six water-filled balloons were submerged in a 20-l water tank and their volumes were measured with 3DE. Seven human cadaveric left atrial casts were prepared of silicone and were transformed into ultrasound-permeable casts. Casts were imaged in the same setting, so that 3DE and 2DE of casts represented transthoracic apical view. Left ventricle analysis softwares GE 4D Auto LVQ and TomTec 4D LV-Function were used for 3DE volumetry. RESULTS: Balloon volumes ranged 37 to 255 ml (mean 126 ml). 3DE resulted in an excellent volumetric agreement with balloon volumes, absolute bias was - 3.7 ml (95% CI -5.9 to - 1.4). Atrial cast volumes were 38 to 94 ml (mean 56.6 ml). 3DE and 2DE volumes were excellently correlated with cast volumes (r = 0.96 to 0.99). Biases were for GE 4D LVQ -0.7 ml (95% CI -6.1 to 4.6), TomTec 4D LV-Function 3.3 ml (- 1.9 to 8.5) and 2DE 2.9 ml (- 4.0 to 9.9). 3DE resulted in lower limits of agreement and showed no volume-related bias in contrast to area-length method. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that measurement of human cadaveric left atrial cast volumes by 3DE is in excellent agreement with true cast volumes.

5.
Innate Immun ; 24(7): 439-447, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30176756

RESUMO

Genetic factors play a role in periodontitis. Here we examined whether the risk haplotype of MHC class III region BAT1-NFKBIL1-LTA and lymphotoxin-α polymorphisms associate with salivary biomarkers of periodontal disease. A total of 455 individuals with detailed clinical and radiographic periodontal health data were included in the study. A 610 K genotyping chip and a Sequenom platform were used in genotyping analyses. Phospholipid transfer protein activity, concentrations of lymphotoxin-α, IL-8 and myeloperoxidase, and a cumulative risk score (combining Porphyromonas gingivalis, IL-1ß and matrix metalloproteinase-8) were examined in saliva samples. Elevated IL-8 and myeloperoxidase concentrations and cumulative risk scores associated with advanced tooth loss, deepened periodontal pockets and signs of periodontal inflammation. In multiple logistic regression models adjusted for periodontal parameters and risk factors, myeloperoxidase concentration (odds ratio (OR); 1.37, P = 0.007) associated with increased odds for having the risk haplotype and lymphotoxin-α concentration with its genetic variants rs2857708, rs2009658 and rs2844482. In conclusion, salivary levels of IL-8, myeloperoxidase and cumulative risk scores associate with periodontal inflammation and tissue destruction, while those of myeloperoxidase and lymphotoxin-α associate with genetic factors as well.

6.
Eur Heart J ; 39(27): 2562-2573, 2018 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29982602

RESUMO

Aims: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) through their retention, modification, and accumulation within the arterial intima. High plasma concentrations of LDL drive this disease, but LDL quality may also contribute. Here, we focused on the intrinsic propensity of LDL to aggregate upon modification. We examined whether inter-individual differences in this quality are linked with LDL lipid composition and coronary artery disease (CAD) death, and basic mechanisms for plaque growth and destabilization. Methods and results: We developed a novel, reproducible method to assess the susceptibility of LDL particles to aggregate during lipolysis induced ex vivo by human recombinant secretory sphingomyelinase. Among patients with an established CAD, we found that the presence of aggregation-prone LDL was predictive of future cardiovascular deaths, independently of conventional risk factors. Aggregation-prone LDL contained more sphingolipids and less phosphatidylcholines than did aggregation-resistant LDL. Three interventions in animal models to rationally alter LDL composition lowered its susceptibility to aggregate and slowed atherosclerosis. Similar compositional changes induced in humans by PCSK9 inhibition or healthy diet also lowered LDL aggregation susceptibility. Aggregated LDL in vitro activated macrophages and T cells, two key cell types involved in plaque progression and rupture. Conclusion: Our results identify the susceptibility of LDL to aggregate as a novel measurable and modifiable factor in the progression of human ASCVD.

7.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 42(5): 754-759, 2018 Sep/Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30015798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to validate the accuracy of imaging of left atrial and ventricular volumes using cardiac cadaveric silicone casts. METHODS: Left atrial (n = 14) and ventricular (n = 15) casts were imaged using 64-slice computed tomography (CT). Water displacement (WD) of cardiac casts was used as the gold standard for volume measurements. RESULTS: Compared with WD, CT resulted in slightly higher left atrial and ventricular volumes (54 ± 25 vs 56 ± 26 mL [P = 0.003] and 57 ± 47 vs 66 ± 47 mL [P = 0.0001]). Variability between left atrial and ventricular volumes by CT and WD was low (coefficients of variation [CVs], 4% [intraclass correlation coefficient {ICC}, 0.99] and 12% [ICC, 0.97]). Intraobserver variability of CT was low for both the left atrium and the left ventricle (CVs, 1% [ICC, 1.00] and 4% [ICC, 1.00]). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac CT is both accurate and reproducible in assessment of left ventricular and atrial chamber volumes.


Assuntos
Ventrículos do Coração/anatomia & histologia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Cadáver , Átrios do Coração/anatomia & histologia , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Modelos Biológicos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Tamanho do Órgão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
J Clin Periodontol ; 45(9): 1045-1055, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29972696

RESUMO

AIM: Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) participate in extracellular matrix breakdown both in periodontium and atherosclerotic plaques. We investigated the diagnostic value of serum and saliva biomarkers in periodontitis and acute coronary syndrome (ACS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The population was PAROGENE (n = 481), a random cohort of patients with an indication for coronary angiography. All patients underwent a clinical and radiographic oral examination. Groups consisting of periodontitis versus non-periodontitis, and ACS versus non-ACS patients were compared. RESULTS: Saliva MMP-8, MMP-9 and MPO provided significant area-under-curve (AUC) values for periodontitis, 0.69 (<0.001), 0.66 (<0.001) and 0.68 (<0.001), respectively. Serum MMP-8, MMP-9 and MPO levels distinguished ACS from non-ACS patients with AUCs of 0.73 (<0.001), 0.58 (0.03) and 0.68 (<0.001), respectively. Periodontitis confounded the use of serum MMP-9 in diagnostics of ACS. Cardiac status complicated the use of saliva TIMP-1 in periodontal diagnostics. Saliva biomarkers could not be used in ACS diagnosis, and serum biomarkers were not useful in diagnosis of periodontitis. CONCLUSIONS: MMP-8, MMP-9, TIMP-1and MPO are valuable biomarkers for both ACS and periodontitis, but the selection of sample material is crucial; serum is suitable for ACS and saliva for periodontal diagnostic aid.

9.
Am J Cardiol ; 121(12): 1496-1504, 2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29631802

RESUMO

Registry studies have associated red blood cell (RBC) transfusion with increased in-hospital mortality in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The impact on long-term mortality after 1-year follow-up remains unknown. Consecutive patients with ACS (n = 2,009) of a prospective Genetic Predisposition of Coronary Artery Disease cohort were followed for a median of 8.6 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.59 to 8.69). After discharge, 1,937 (96%) patients survived for over 30 days. Of those survivors, a subgroup of previously transfusion-naïve patients 85/1,937 (4.4%) who had received at least 1 RBC transfusion during hospitalization were compared with 1,278/1,937 patients (66.0%) who had not received any transfusion either during the hospitalization or the entire follow-up. Unadjusted long-term mortality was significantly higher in the patients transfused with RBC compared with their counterparts not transfused with RBC (58.8% vs 20.3%, p <0.001). The results remained significant for hazard ratio (HR) 1.91, 95% CI 1.39 to 2.63, p <0.001, after multivariate Cox proportional hazards model analysis and were similar after 1-year landmark analysis (HR 1.90, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.70, p <0.001). The higher all-cause mortality was largely explained by cancer mortality (15.3% vs 4.1%, p <0.001) and cardiovascular mortality (34.1% vs 12.1%, p <0.001). After 1:1 propensity score matching (n = 65 vs 65), the association of RBC transfusion with worse survival remained significant (HR 2.70, 95% CI 1.48 to 4.95, p = 0.001). Inverse probability weighted Cox analyses turned out similar results (HR 2.07, 95% CI 1.38 to 3.11, p <0.001). In conclusion, the strong association of need for RBC transfusion with increased mortality continued for patients with ACS even after a 1-year follow-up.

10.
Atherosclerosis ; 272: 27-32, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29544086

RESUMO

Remarkably good results have been achieved in the treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD) by using statin, ezetimibe, antihypertensive, antithrombotic, and PCSK9 inhibitor therapies and their proper combinations. However, despite this success, the remaining CVD risk is still high. To target this residual risk and to treat patients who are statin-intolerant or have an exceptionally high CVD risk for instance due to familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), new therapies are intensively sought. One pathway of drug development is targeting the circulating triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) and their lipolytic remnants, which, according to the current view, confer a major CVD risk. Angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) and apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) are at present the central molecular targets for therapies designed to reduce TRL, and there are new drugs emerging that suppress their expression or inhibit the function of these two key proteins. The medications targeting these components are biological, either human monoclonal antibodies or antisense oligonucleotides. In this article, we briefly review the mechanisms of action of ANGPTL3 and apoC-III, the reasons why they have been considered promising targets of novel therapies for CVD, as well as the current status and the most important results of their clinical trials.

11.
J Clin Periodontol ; 45(4): 413-421, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29385645

RESUMO

AIM: We investigated the association between the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans serotypes, periodontal status and coronary artery disease (CAD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population included 497 patients who underwent coronary angiography, and clinical oral examination. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays were designed to identify the serotypes from saliva samples. RESULTS: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans serotype frequencies were as follows: serotype "c" 35.7%, "b" 28.6%, "a" 26.2%, "e" 7.1%, "d" 2.4% and "f" 0%. The subjects with a detectable serotype had less teeth and higher bleeding on probing than those with no serotype. Serotypes "b" and "c" associated with periodontal probing depths and periodontal inflammatory burden. The saliva and subgingival bacterium quantities and serum antibody levels against A. actinomycetemcomitans were highest in patients harbouring serotype "c." Serotypes "b" and "c" were most frequent (59.3%) in patients with CAD (p = .040), and they associated with the risk of stable CAD with an odds ratio of 2.67 (95% confidence interval 1.06-7.44). Also, the severity of CAD (p = .018) associated with serotypes "b" and "c." CONCLUSIONS: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans serotypes "b" and "c" associate with both periodontal and CAD status. Detectable serotypes associate with the quantity and the serology of the bacterium emphasizing both local and systemic effect of the A. actinomycetemcomitans serotypes.

12.
Atherosclerosis ; 268: 177-184, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29232563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Periodontitis, a common polymicrobial inflammatory disease in the tooth supporting tissues, is a risk factor for coronary artery disease. One of the proposed underlying mechanisms is the systemic immune response to periodontal infection. We studied how serum antibodies against seven periodontal pathogens and their subgingival levels associate with each other, periodontitis, and coronary artery disease. METHODS: The Parogene cohort included 505 Finnish patients (mean age 63 y) who underwent coronary angiography, and clinical and radiographic oral examinations. Coronary diagnosis was defined as no significant coronary artery disease (<50% stenosis, n = 152), stable coronary artery disease (≥50% stenosis, n = 184) and acute coronary syndrome (n = 169). Levels of subgingival Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia, Campylobacter rectus, and Fusobacterium nucleatum were determined by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Serum antibody (IgA/IgG) levels were analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Aggregate IgA/IgG burdens were calculated by summing and standardizing the serum antibody levels. RESULTS: Patients with active periodontitis were characterized by higher levels of subgingival bacteria and corresponding IgA/IgG response. Quartiles 2-4 of serum IgA/IgG burden indicated higher risk for acute coronary syndrome (OR 1.84, 95%CI 1.01-3.35 for IgA; OR 1.87, 95%CI 1.01-3.46 for IgG) independently of established cardiovascular risk factors, body mass index, number of teeth, subgingival bacterial levels and periodontal diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesis that the association between periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases is partly mediated by the immunologic response for periodontal pathogens.

13.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 19(9): 1019-1025, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28977433

RESUMO

Aims: The value of single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) in patients with severe chronic kidney disease is controversial, and the implications of SPECT finding with lower level of ischaemia are unknown. We assessed the prognostic value of SPECT in patients evaluated for kidney transplantation. Methods and results: Five hundred and forty-eight patients underwent SPECT as a part of routine evaluation for kidney transplantation. During the median follow-up of 43.7 months (IQR 22.4-68.4 months), 112 patients (20.4%) died, 49 of cardiovascular (CV) causes (8.9%). In comparison to those with no perfusion defects, mild perfusion abnormalities (1%-9.9%) had an adjusted Cox hazard ratio (HR) of 1.80 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.02-3.17, P = 0.041] for all-cause mortality, while large perfusion defects (≥10%) demonstrated an HR of 2.20 (95% CI 1.38-3.50, P = 0.001). A competing risk analysis produced a similar prognostic capacity for CV mortality. SPECT also offered incremental prognostic impact with two reclassification methods. Revascularization was performed clearly more often on patients with severely than mildly abnormal or normal SPECT (28.0%, 4.3%, and 1.3%, respectively, P < 0.001). However, revascularization was not linked with better survival. Patients with a normal SPECT received a kidney transplant more often than patients with a mildly or severely abnormal SPECT (50.5%, 36.2%, and 36.6%, respectively, P = 0.010). Conclusion: Myocardial ischaemia in SPECT is clearly linked with mortality in patients screened for kidney transplantation. Contrary to populations with coronary artery disease, even a mild perfusion defect in SPECT predicts poor prognosis in this patient population. The finding deserves further attention in forthcoming trials.

14.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet ; 10(6)2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29212897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP-8) is a proinflammatory enzyme expressed mainly by neutrophils. Elevated serum and plasma concentrations of MMP-8 are associated with the risk for and outcome of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The origin of circulating MMP-8 is not completely clear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a genome-wide association study of serum MMP-8 levels in 2 populations comprising altogether 6049 individuals. Moreover, we studied whether MMP-8-associated variants are linked to increased risk of CVDs and overall mortality in >20 000 subjects. The strongest association with serum MMP-8 was found in locus 1q31.3, containing the gene for complement factor H (lead single nucleotide polymorphism: rs800292; P=2.4×10-35). In functional experiments, activation of the alternative pathway of complement in the carriers of rs800292 minor allele (Ile62 in factor H) led to decreased release of MMP-8 from neutrophils compared with the major allele (Val62 in factor H). Another association was detected in 1q21.3, containing genes S100A8, S100A9, and S100A12 (strongest association: rs1560833; P=5.3×10-15). The minor allele of rs1560833 was inversely associated with CVD (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 0.90 [0.82-0.99]; P=0.032) and the time to incident CVD event (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 0.91 [0.84-0.99]; P=0.032) in men but not in women. CONCLUSIONS: According to our results, the activation of the alternative pathway of the complement system strongly contributes to serum MMP-8 concentration. Genetic polymorphism in S100A9-S100A12-S100A8 locus affects serum and plasma MMP-8 and shows a suggestive association with the risk of CVDs. Our results show that genetic variation determines a significant portion of circulating MMP-8 concentrations.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/enzimologia , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Metaloproteinase 8 da Matriz/sangue , Metaloproteinase 8 da Matriz/genética , Idoso , Ativação do Complemento/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
15.
Duodecim ; 133(4): 417-23, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29205990

RESUMO

Invasive treatment of pericardial effusion comes into question when the volume of liquid in the pericardium limits the pumping action, the cause of effusion is unclear, the response to conservative treatment has been poor, or administration of a drug into the pericardium is desired. A number of surgical means or puncture techniques are available for pericardial drainage. We present the indications and modes of treatment for invasive treatment of pericardial effusion. Thrombi, pus or air may also occasionally be present in the pericardium, limiting the heart's pumping action.


Assuntos
Drenagem/métodos , Derrame Pericárdico/cirurgia , Humanos , Punções , Manejo de Espécimes
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29276625

RESUMO

Background: The atrial appendages are a tissue reservoir for cardiac stem cells. During on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, part of the right atrial appendage can be excised upon insertion of the right atrial cannula of the heart-lung machine. In the operating room, the removed tissue can be easily cut into micrografts for transplantation. This trial aims to assess the safety and feasibility of epicardial transplantation of atrial appendage micrografts in patients undergoing CABG surgery. Methods/design: Autologous cardiac micrografts are made from leftover right atrial appendage during CABG of 6 patients. Atrial appendage is mechanically processed to micrografts consisting of atrial appendage-derived cells (AADCs) and their extracellular matrix (ECM). The micrografts are epicardially transplanted in a fibrin gel and covered with a tissue-engineered ECM sheet. Parameters including echocardiography-reflecting cardiac insufficiency-are studied pre- and post-operatively as well as at 3 and 6 months of the follow-up. Cardiac functional magnetic resonance imaging is performed preoperatively and at 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome measures are patient safety in terms of hemodynamic and cardiac function over time and feasibility of therapy administration in a clinical setting. Secondary outcome measures are left ventricular wall thickness, change in the amount of myocardial scar tissue, changes in left ventricular ejection fraction, plasma concentrations of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels, New York Heart Association class, days in hospital, and changes in the quality of life. Twenty patients undergoing routine CAGB surgery will be recruited to serve as a control group. Discussion: This study aims to address the surgical feasibility and patient safety of epicardially delivered atrial appendage micrografts during CABG surgery. Delivery of autologous micrografts and AADCs has potential applications for cell and cell-based gene therapies. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02672163. Date of registration: 02.02.2016.

17.
Atherosclerosis ; 266: 58-63, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28982023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Elevated soluble HLA-DR (sHLA-DR) serum levels have been reported in HLA class II-associated inflammatory disorders. We have previously shown that the HLA class II allele HLA-DRB1*01 may predispose to acute coronary syndromes (ACS). To our knowledge, sHLA-DR serum levels have not been studied in ACS. METHODS: sHLA-DR serum levels were measured in 477 ACS patients as cases and 475 area- and sex-matched controls by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Binary logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression analyses adjusted for clinical parameters were conducted to evaluate the associations of sHLA-DR levels. RESULTS: ACS patients had lower sHLA-DR serum levels compared to controls (OR = 0.837; 95% CI = 0.704-0.994; p = 0.043). After adjustment for smoking status, this association was no longer significant. This was explained by the notion that current smoking was inversely associated with sHLA-DR levels both in cases (OR = 0.592; 95% CI = 0.553-0.908; p = 0.016) and in controls (OR = 0.356; 95% CI = 0.226-0.563; p = 0.000010). A similar effect was not seen with other cardiovascular risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate, for the first time, that lower sHLA-DR levels are associated with smoking, but not with ACS. This is an important finding because previous studies of sHLA-DR have not accounted for the possible associations between smoking and sHLA-DR levels. Further studies are required to confirm these novel results and explore the mechanisms behind the observed associations.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Antígenos HLA-DR/sangue , Fumar/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/etiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/imunologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Regulação para Baixo , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/imunologia
19.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 5(7): 534-543, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28566218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) concentrations in plasma are associated with cardiovascular risk in the general population. Whether lipoprotein(a) concentrations or LPA genetic variants predict long-term mortality in patients with established coronary heart disease remains less clear. METHODS: We obtained data from 3313 patients with established coronary heart disease in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study. We tested associations of tertiles of lipoprotein(a) concentration in plasma and two LPA single-nucleotide polymorphisms ([SNPs] rs10455872 and rs3798220) with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality by Cox regression analysis and with severity of disease by generalised linear modelling, with and without adjustment for age, sex, diabetes diagnosis, systolic blood pressure, BMI, smoking status, estimated glomerular filtration rate, LDL-cholesterol concentration, and use of lipid-lowering therapy. Results for plasma lipoprotein(a) concentrations were validated in five independent studies involving 10 195 patients with established coronary heart disease. Results for genetic associations were replicated through large-scale collaborative analysis in the GENIUS-CHD consortium, comprising 106 353 patients with established coronary heart disease and 19 332 deaths in 22 studies or cohorts. FINDINGS: The median follow-up was 9·9 years. Increased severity of coronary heart disease was associated with lipoprotein(a) concentrations in plasma in the highest tertile (adjusted hazard radio [HR] 1·44, 95% CI 1·14-1·83) and the presence of either LPA SNP (1·88, 1·40-2·53). No associations were found in LURIC with all-cause mortality (highest tertile of lipoprotein(a) concentration in plasma 0·95, 0·81-1·11 and either LPA SNP 1·10, 0·92-1·31) or cardiovascular mortality (0·99, 0·81-1·2 and 1·13, 0·90-1·40, respectively) or in the validation studies. INTERPRETATION: In patients with prevalent coronary heart disease, lipoprotein(a) concentrations and genetic variants showed no associations with mortality. We conclude that these variables are not useful risk factors to measure to predict progression to death after coronary heart disease is established. FUNDING: Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technical Development (AtheroRemo and RiskyCAD), INTERREG IV Oberrhein Programme, Deutsche Nierenstiftung, Else-Kroener Fresenius Foundation, Deutsche Stiftung für Herzforschung, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Saarland University, German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Willy Robert Pitzer Foundation, and Waldburg-Zeil Clinics Isny.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Estudos de Associação Genética , Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Lipoproteína(a)/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos de Coortes , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
J Clin Periodontol ; 44(8): 784-792, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28556187

RESUMO

AIM: We aimed to study how lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in saliva and serum associates with each other, periodontal microbial burden, periodontitis and coronary artery disease (CAD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The used Parogene cohort comprised N = 505 Finnish adults. Coronary diagnosis was acquired by coronary angiography, and the main outcomes were as follows: no significant CAD (n = 123), stable CAD (n = 184) and acute coronary syndrome (n = 169). Periodontitis was defined according to clinical and radiographic examinations. Levels for 75 strains of subgingival bacteria were determined by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Saliva and serum LPS activity was analysed by Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. RESULTS: The level of 11 bacterial strains, which were mainly oral and respiratory Gram-negative species, associated with salivary LPS levels in an age- and gender-adjusted linear regression. A total of 4.9% of the serum LPS, that is endotoxemia, variation was explainable by saliva LPS among patients with periodontitis (n = 247, R2  = .049, Pearson's r = .222, p < .001). Endotoxemia associated with stable CAD in a confounder adjusted multinomial logistic regression model (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.04-3.81, p = .039, 3rd tertile). CONCLUSIONS: In particular in periodontitis patients, subgingival microbial burden contributes to endotoxemia. LPS is a possible molecular mediator between periodontitis and CAD.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/microbiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Periodontite/microbiologia , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Sondas de DNA , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Periodontite/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Saliva/microbiologia
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