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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 713: 136707, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019041

RESUMO

Gut microbes play an essential role in the development and functioning of the human immune system. A disturbed gut microbiota composition is often associated with a number of health disorders including immune-mediated diseases. Differences in host characteristics such as ethnicity, living habit and diet have been used to explain differences in the gut microbiota composition in inter-continental comparison studies. As our previous studies imply that daily skin contact with organic gardening materials modify gut microflora, here we investigated the association between living environment and gut microbiota in a homogenous western population along an urban-rural gradient. We obtained stool samples from 48 native elderly Finns in province Häme in August and November 2015 and identified the bacterial phylotypes using 16S rRNA Illumina MiSeq sequencing. We assumed that yard vegetation and land cover classes surrounding homes explain the stool bacterial community in generalized linear mixed models. Diverse yard vegetation was associated with a reduced abundance of Clostridium sensu stricto and an increased abundance of Faecalibacterium and Prevotellaceae. The abundance of Bacteroides was positively and strongly associated with the built environment. Exclusion of animal owners did not alter the main associations. These results suggest that diverse vegetation around homes is associated with health-related changes in gut microbiota composition. Manipulation of the garden diversity, possibly jointly with urban planning, is a promising candidate for future intervention studies that aim to maintain gut homeostasis.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Bactérias , Bacteroides , Fezes , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694316

RESUMO

inVIVO Planetary Health (inVIVO) is a progressive scientific movement providing evidence, advocacy, and inspiration to align the interests and vitality of people, place, and planet. Our goal is to transform personal and planetary health through awareness, attitudes, and actions, and a deeper understanding of how all systems are interconnected and interdependent. Here, we present the abstracts and proceedings of our 8th annual conference, held in Detroit, Michigan in May 2019, themed "From Challenges, to Opportunities". Our far-ranging discussions addressed the complex interdependent ecological challenges of advancing global urbanization, including the biopsychosocial interactions in our living environment on physical, mental, and spiritual wellbeing, together with the wider community and societal factors that govern these. We had a strong solutions focus, with diverse strategies spanning from urban-greening and renewal, nature-relatedness, nutritional ecology, planetary diets, and microbiome rewilding, through to initiatives for promoting resilience, positive emotional assets, traditional cultural narratives, creativity, art projects for personal and community health, and exploring ways of positively shifting mindsets and value systems. Our cross-sectoral agenda underscored the importance and global impact of local initiatives everywhere by contributing to new normative values as part of a global interconnected grass-roots movement for planetary health.

3.
Environ Int ; 132: 105069, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400602

RESUMO

An agricultural environment and exposure to diverse environmental microbiota has been suggested to confer protection against immune-mediated disorders. As an agricultural environment may have a protective role, it is crucial to determine whether the limiting factors in the transfer of environmental microbiota indoors are the same in the agricultural and urban environments. We explored how sampling month, garden diversity and animal ownership affected the indoor-transfer of environmental microbial community. We collected litter from standardized doormats used for 2 weeks in June and August 2015 and February 2016 and identified bacterial phylotypes using 16S rRNA Illumina MiSeq sequencing. In February, the diversity and richness of the whole bacterial community and the relative abundance of environment-associated taxa were reduced, whereas human-associated taxa and genera containing opportunistic pathogens were enriched in the doormats. In summer, the relative abundances of several taxa associated previously with beneficial health effects were higher, particularly in agricultural areas. Surprisingly, the importance of vegetation on doormat microbiota was more observable in February, which may have resulted from snow cover that prevented contact with microbes in soil. Animal ownership increased the prevalence of genera Bacteroides and Acinetobacter in rural doormats. These findings underline the roles of season, living environment and lifestyle in the temporal variations in the environmental microbial community carried indoors. As reduced contact with diverse microbiota is a potential reason for immune system dysfunction, the results may have important implications in the etiology of immune-mediated, non-communicable diseases.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Microbiota , Microbiologia do Solo , Idoso , Agricultura , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Gatos , Bovinos , Cidades , Cães , Jardins , Humanos , Plantas , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Estações do Ano , Solo
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426345

RESUMO

Nature contacts are recognized as positively contributing to humans' health and well-being. Although there have been projects to green daycare or schoolyards, yard greening and microbial biodiversity have never been studied simultaneously. We asked whether simultaneously increasing biodiversity exposure and greening urban daycare yards affects 3-5 years-old children's physical activity and play, their environmental relationships, and their perceived well-being. For transforming six daycare yards in Finland, we used a forest floor with high biodiversity, sod, peat blocks, and planters for vegetable and flower growing. We used qualitative interview and survey-based data collected from the daycare personnel and parents to analyze how green yards encourage children's engagement with their everyday life-worlds. We identified the functional possibilities provided by the yards and the dynamic aspects related to the greening. Green, biodiverse yards were considered safe, and inspired children's play, diversified their activities, and increased physical activity. The greenery offered embodied experiences of nature and provided the children with multi-sensory exploration and diverse learning situations. The dynamic and emotional ways of engaging with the natural environment increased their well-being. The activities related to caring for the yards and exploring them promoted the development of environmental relationships. The results can be used for designing health-enhancing yards.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Creches , Meio Ambiente , Natureza , Jogos e Brinquedos , Adulto , Biodiversidade , Pré-Escolar , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Plantas , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Environ Int ; 132: 105072, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401414

RESUMO

Numerous intentionally released toxins persist in agricultural or natural environments at low concentrations. Such low toxin doses are regularly associated with hormesis, i.e., growth stimulation, and they are suspected to affect mortality and within-population plant size distribution in dense plant stands. However, it is not known whether all these low-dose effects exist when plants grow in soil. We exposed barley to a range of low glyphosate doses and let the plants grow in dense stands for several weeks in soil. Six experiments were done that contained altogether 10,260 seedlings in 572 pots. We evaluated if the changes in average biomass and shoot length occur at the same concentrations as do the effects on slow- and fast-growing individuals, if seed size or early vigor explains variation in the response to glyphosate, and if low toxin doses change within-population mortality. Plant biomass, length and survival of subpopulations changed at doses that did not affect mean biomass. Effects of early vigor faded early, but differences in seed size and particularly vegetative growth had impacts: fast-growing plants hardly showed hormesis, whereas hormesis was particularly strong among slow-growing individuals. Compared to the population mean, glyphosate effects started at lower doses among slow-growing individuals and at higher doses among fast-growing individuals. Several times higher doses were needed before the fast-growing individuals showed the same toxicity as most of the population. Low toxin doses regularly enhanced the growth of the smallest individuals, which reduced size variation within populations and was associated with a higher number of surviving plants. Indeed, in one experiment self-thinning was not observed at low doses that stimulated the growth of slow-growing plants. As glyphosate levels in this study match those observed in agricultural fields and natural environments, we conclude that even low-levels of agro-environmental contamination are likely to shape phenotypic response, which might lead to adaptation and cascading ecological impacts.


Assuntos
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Hordeum/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormese , Biomassa , Germinação , Glicina/administração & dosagem , Glicina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/administração & dosagem , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Densidade Demográfica , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo
6.
Environ Int ; 130: 104894, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220749

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are priority environmental pollutants that cause adverse health effects. PAHs belong to endocrine signaling disruptors to which children are sensitive to. Recent evidence suggests that PAH pollution alters the abundance of environmental bacteria that is associated with health outcomes. The alteration of environmental and commensal microbiota by PAH pollution has never been connected to endocrine signaling pathways. To estimate the risk of endocrine disruption in daycare children, we measured PAHs from soil and air of eleven urban daycare centres in Finland. We analyzed daycare yards' soil and children's gut and skin bacterial communities with 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding and used Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes database to categorize endocrine signaling pathways. We also assessed the PAH hazard to children's health based on the current risk assesments. We observed associations between signaling pathways in endocrine system and gaseous PAH levels in ambient air. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and adipocytokine signaling pathway decreased with higher chrysene concentration in the air. Soil PAH contamination was associated with altered Actinobacteria, Bacteoridetes and Proteobacteria communities on children's skin and in daycare yard soil. However, adjusted genera were not the same in soil and on skin, with the exception of Mycobacterium that was associated with higher PAH concentrations both in soil and on the skin. Even though fluoranhtene levels were above the current threshold values, total PAHs were below safety threshold values and based on current risk assessments there is a minor risk for child health. Our findings indicate that PAH concentrations that are considered safe may interfere with endocrine signaling by commensal microbiota and alter both environmental and commensal bacterial communities. The imbalance in human microbiota and the decrease in signaling pathways may contribute to emerging public health problems, including inflammatory disorders, obesity and diabetes. Therefore, the optimal risk assessments of PAHs and theoretically also other contaminants shaping commensal microbiota may need to take into account the possibility of the disruption of endocrine signaling pathways.

7.
Ecotoxicology ; 28(7): 732-743, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250287

RESUMO

HHCB [1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta(g)-2-benzopyran] and 4-tert-octylphenol [4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol] are widely used emerging contaminants that have the potential to cause adverse effects in the environment. The purpose of this study was to observe if and how environmentally realistic concentrations of these contaminants alter growth in plant populations. It was hypothesized that within an exposed Gypsophila elegans Bieb (annual baby's breath) population especially fast-growing seedlings are impaired even when the population mean is unaffected, and small doses can cause hormesis and, thus, an increase in shoot or root length. In a dose-response experiment, an experimental population of G. elegans was established (total 15.600 seeds, 50 seeds per replicate, 24 replicates per concentration, 5.2 seedlings/cm2) and exposed to 12 doses of HHCB or 4-tert-octylphenol. After five days, shoot and root length values were measured and population averages, as well as slow- and fast-growing subpopulations, were compared with unexposed controls. Growth responses were predominantly monophasic. HHCB seemed to selectively inhibit both root and shoot elongation among slow- and fast-growing individuals, while 4-tert-octylphenol selectively inhibited both root and shoot elongation of mainly fast-growing seedlings. The ED50 values (dose causing 50% inhibition) revealed that the slow-growing seedlings were more sensitive and fast-growing seedlings less sensitive than the average of all individuals. Although there was toxicant specific variation between the effects, selective toxicity was consistently found among both slow- and fast-growing plants starting already at concentrations of 0.0067 µM, that are usually considered to be harmless. This study indicates that these contaminants can change size distribution of a plant population at low concentrations in the nM/µM range.


Assuntos
Benzopiranos/efeitos adversos , Caryophyllaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Caryophyllaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Alemanha
8.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 536, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967847

RESUMO

Human activities typically lead to simplified urban diversity, which in turn reduces microbial exposure and increases the risk to urban dwellers from non-communicable diseases. To overcome this, we developed a microbial inoculant from forest and agricultural materials that resembles microbiota in organic soils. Three different sand materials (sieved, safety, and sandbox) commonly used in playgrounds and other public spaces were enriched with 5% of the inoculant. Skin microbiota on fingers (identified from bacterial 16S rDNA determined using Illumina MiSeq sequencing) was compared after touching non-enriched and microbial inoculant-enriched sands. Exposure to the non-enriched materials changed the skin bacterial community composition in distinct ways. When the inoculant was added to the materials, the overall shift in community composition was larger and the differences between different sand materials almost disappeared. Inoculant-enriched sand materials increased bacterial diversity and richness but did not affect evenness at the OTU level on skin. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was higher after touching inoculant-enriched compared to non-enriched sand materials. The relative abundance of opportunistic pathogens on skin was 40-50% before touching sand materials, but dropped to 14 and 4% after touching standard and inoculant-enriched sand materials, respectively. When individual genera were analyzed, Pseudomonas sp. and Sphingomonas sp. were more abundant after touching standard, non-enriched sand materials, while only the relative abundance of Chryseobacterium sp. increased after touching the inoculant-enriched materials. As Chryseobacterium is harmless for healthy persons, and as standard landscaping materials and normal skin contain genera that include severe pathogens, the inoculant-enriched materials can be considered safe. Microbial inoculants could be specifically created to increase the proportion of non-pathogenic bacterial taxa and minimize the transfer of pathogenic taxa. We recommend further study into the usability of inoculant-enriched materials and their effects on the bacterial community composition of human skin and on the immune response.

9.
Chemosphere ; 225: 574-578, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901652

RESUMO

Soil contamination with diesel oil is frequent and methods to improve remediation of diesel oil contaminated soils are urgently needed. The aim of the current study was to assess the potential of meat and bone meal (MBM) as a biostimulation agent to enhance diesel oil degradation in contaminated soils collected from southern Finland. MBM (2% w/w) increased oil degradation in soils when compared to natural attenuation. The increase was comparable to soils treated with a traditional fertilizer (urea). Soil pH increased rapidly in urea treated soil but remained at the level of natural attenuation in MBM treated soil, suggesting that in large-scale experiments MBM treated soils avoid the usual negative impact of urea on soil pH and ultimately microbial degradation. These results indicate that MBM addition enhances diesel oil degradation, and that MBM speeds up ex situ bioremediation of oil contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Minerais/farmacologia , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Fertilizantes/efeitos adversos , Finlândia , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Carne , Petróleo/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
10.
Microbiologyopen ; 8(3): e00645, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29808965

RESUMO

Immune-mediated diseases have increased during the last decades in urban environments. The hygiene hypothesis suggests that increased hygiene level and reduced contacts with natural biodiversity are related to the increase in immune-mediated diseases. We tested whether short-time contact with microbiologically diverse nature-based materials immediately change bacterial diversity on human skin. We tested direct skin contact, as two volunteers rubbed their hands with sixteen soil and plant based materials, and an exposure via fabric packets filled with moss material. Skin swabs were taken before and after both exposures. Next-generation sequencing showed that exposures increased, at least temporarily, the total diversity of skin microbiota and the diversity of Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria suggesting that contact with nature-based materials modify skin microbiome and increase skin microbial diversity. Until now, approaches to cure or prevent immune system disorders using microbe-based treatments have been limited to use of a few microbial species. We propose that nature-based materials with high natural diversity, such as the materials tested here, might be more effective in modifying human skin microbiome, and eventually, in reducing immune system disorders. Future studies should investigate how long-term changes in skin microbiota are achieved and if the exposure induces beneficial changes in the immune system markers.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Exposição Ambiental , Microbiota , Pele/microbiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Metagenoma , Plantas , Solo
11.
Future Microbiol ; 13: 737-744, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29771153

RESUMO

AIM: Current attempts to modulate the human microbiota and immune responses are based on probiotics or human-derived bacterial transplants. We investigated microbial modulation by soil and plant-based material. MATERIALS & METHODS: We performed a pilot study in which healthy adults were exposed to the varied microbial community of a soil- and plant-based material. RESULTS: The method was safe and feasible; exposure was associated with an increase in gut microbial diversity. CONCLUSION: If these findings are reproduced in larger studies nature-derived microbial exposure strategies could be further developed for testing their efficacy in the treatment and prevention of immune-mediated diseases.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Imunidade , Plantas/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Pele/imunologia , Pele/microbiologia , Solo/química
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 631-632: 510-523, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29529439

RESUMO

Toxicants are known to have negligible or stimulatory, i.e. hormetic, effects at low doses below those that decrease the mean response of a plant population. Our earlier observations indicated that at such low toxicant doses the growth of very fast- and slow-growing seedlings is selectively altered, even if the population mean remains constant. Currently, it is not known how common these selective low-dose effects are, whether they are similar among fast- and slow-growing seedlings, and whether they occur concurrently with hormetic effects. We tested the response of Lactuca sativa in complete dose-response experiments to six different toxicants at doses that did not decrease population mean and beyond. The tested toxicants were IAA, parthenin, HHCB, 4-tert-octylphenol, glyphosate, and pelargonic acid. Each experiment consisted of 14,400-16,800 seedlings, 12-14 concentrations, 24 replicates per concentration and 50 germinated seeds per replicate. We analyzed the commonness of selective low-dose effects and explored if toxic effects and hormetic stimulation among fast- and slow-growing individuals occurred at the same concentrations as they occur at the population level. Irrespective of the observed response pattern and toxicant, selective low-dose effects were found. Toxin effects among fast-growing individuals usually started at higher doses compared to the population mean, while the opposite was found among slow-growing individuals. Very low toxin exposures tended to homogenize plant populations due to selective effects, while higher, but still hormetic doses tended to heterogenize plant populations. Although the extent of observed size segregation varied with the specific toxin tested, we conclude that a dose-dependent alteration in size distribution of a plant population may generally apply for many toxin exposures.


Assuntos
Alface/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade , Ácidos Graxos/toxicidade , Alface/fisiologia , Fenóis/toxicidade , Dispersão Vegetal , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Sesquiterpenos/toxicidade
13.
PeerJ ; 6: e4508, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29576975

RESUMO

Background: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulate in urban soils, and PAH contamination can change soil microbial community composition. Environmental microbiota is associated with human commensal microbiota, immune system and health. Therefore, studies investigating the degradation of PAHs, and the consequences of soil pollution on microbial communities in urban landscaping materials, are crucial. Methods: Four landscaping materials (organic matter 1, 2, 13 and 56%) were contaminated with PAHs commonly found at urban sites (phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo(b)fluoranthene) in PAH concentrations that reflect urban soils in Finland (2.4 µg g -1 soil dry weight). PAHs were analyzed initially and after 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Half-lives of PAHs were determined based on 12-weeks degradation. Bacterial communities were analyzed at 1 and 12 weeks after contamination using Illumina MiSeq 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding. Results: Half-lives ranged from 1.5 to 4.4 weeks for PAHs with relatively low molecular weights (phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene) in landscaping materials containing 1-2% organic matter. In contrast, in materials containing 13% and 56% organic matter, the half-lives ranged from 2.5 to 52 weeks. Shorter half-lives of phenanthrene and fluoranthene were thus associated with low organic matter content. The half-life of pyrene was inversely related to the relative abundance of Beta-, Delta- and Gammaproteobacteria, and diversity of Bacteroidetes and Betaprotebacteria. Compounds with higher molecular weights followed compound-specific patterns. Benzo(b)fluoranthene was resistant to degradation and half-life of chrysene was shorter when the relative abundance of Betaproteobacteria was high. Temporal microbiota changes involved increase in the relative abundance of Deltaproteobacteria and decrease in genera Flavobacterium and Rhodanobacter. Exposure to PAHs seems to adjust microbial community composition, particularly within class Beta- and Deltaproteobacteria. Conclusions: In this study, PAH degradation depended on the organic matter content and bacterial community composition of landscaping materials. Contamination seems to alter bacterial community composition in landscaping materials depending on material type. This alteration includes changes in bacterial phyla associated with human health and immune system. This may open new possibilities for managing urban environments by careful selection of landscaping materials, to benefit health and wellbeing.

14.
Water Res ; 138: 118-128, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29574199

RESUMO

The xenobiotic priority pollutant pentachlorophenol has been used as a timber preservative in a polychlorophenol bulk synthesis product containing also tetrachlorophenol and trichlorophenol. Highly soluble chlorophenol salts have leaked into groundwater, causing severe contamination of large aquifers. Natural attenuation of higher-chlorinated phenols (HCPs: pentachlorophenol + tetrachlorophenol) at historically polluted sites has been inefficient, but a 4-year full scale in situ biostimulation of a chlorophenol-contaminated aquifer by circulation and re-infiltration of aerated groundwater was remarkably successful: pentachlorophenol decreased from 400 µg L-1 to <1 µg L-1 and tetrachlorophenols from 4000 µg L-1 to <10 µg L-1. The pcpB gene, the gene encoding pentachlorophenol hydroxylase - the first and rate-limiting enzyme in the only fully characterised aerobic HCP degradation pathway - was present in up to 10% of the indigenous bacteria already 4 months after the start of aeration. The novel quantitative PCR assay detected the pcpB gene in situ also in the chlorophenol plume of another historically polluted aquifer with no remediation history. Hotspot groundwater HCPs from this site were degraded efficiently during a 3-week microcosm incubation with one-time aeration but no other additives: from 5400 µg L-1 to 1200 µg L-1 and to 200 µg L-1 in lightly and fully aerated microcosms, respectively, coupled with up to 2400% enrichment of the pcpB gene. Accumulation of lower-chlorinated metabolites was observed in neither in situ remediation nor microcosms, supporting the assumption that HCP removal was due to the aerobic degradation pathway where the first step limits the mineralisation rate. Our results demonstrate that bacteria capable of aerobic mineralisation of xenobiotic pentachlorophenol and tetrachlorophenol can be present at long-term polluted groundwater sites, making bioremediation by simple aeration a viable and economically attractive alternative.


Assuntos
Clorofenóis/metabolismo , Água Subterrânea/microbiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Aerobiose , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Genes Bacterianos
15.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 84, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29467728

RESUMO

Expanding urbanization is a major factor behind rapidly declining biodiversity. It has been proposed that in urbanized societies, the rarity of contact with diverse environmental microbiota negatively impacts immune function and ultimately increases the risk for allergies and other immune-mediated disorders. Surprisingly, the basic assumption that urbanization reduces exposure to environmental microbiota and its transfer indoors has rarely been examined. We investigated if the land use type around Finnish homes affects the diversity, richness, and abundance of bacterial communities indoors. Debris deposited on standardized doormats was collected in 30 rural and 26 urban households in and near the city of Lahti, Finland, in August 2015. Debris was weighed, bacterial community composition determined by high throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform, and the percentage of four different land use types (i.e., built area, forest, transitional, and open area) within 200 m and 2000 m radiuses from each household was characterized. The quantity of doormat debris was inversely correlated with coverage of built area. The diversity of total bacterial, Proteobacterial, Actinobacterial, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes communities decreased as the percentage of built area increased. Their richness followed the same pattern except for Firmicutes for which no association was observed. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria and particularly Gammaproteobacteria increased, whereas that of Actinobacteria decreased with increasing built area. Neither Phylum Firmicutes nor Bacteroidetes varied with coverage of built area. Additionally, the relative abundance of potentially pathogenic bacterial families and genera increased as the percentage of built area increased. Interestingly, having domestic animals (including pets) only altered the association between the richness of Gammaproteobacteria and diversity of Firmicutes with the built area coverage suggesting that animal ownership minimally affects transfer of environmental microbiota indoors from the living environment. These results support the hypothesis that people living in densely built areas are less exposed to diverse environmental microbiota than people living in more sparsely built areas.

16.
Water Air Soil Pollut ; 229(1): 13, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29367788

RESUMO

In this study, we analysed the impact of heavy metals and plant rhizodeposition on the structure of indigenous microbial communities in rhizosphere and bulk soil that had been exposed to heavy metals for more than 150 years. Samples of the rhizosphere of Silene vulgaris and non-rhizosphere soils 250 and 450 m from the source of emission that had different metal concentrations were collected for analyses. The results showed that soils were collected 250 m from the smelter had a higher number of Cd-resistant CFU compared with the samples that were collected from 450 m, but no significant differences were observed in the number of total and oligotrophic CFU or the equivalent cell numbers between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils that were taken 250 and 450 m from the emitter. Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) cluster analysis of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles, as well as a cluster analysis that was generated on the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles, showed that the bacterial community structure of rhizosphere soils depended more on the plant than on the distance and metal concentrations. The sequencing of the 16S rDNA fragments that were excised from the DGGE gel revealed representatives of the phyla Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Actinobacteria and Betaproteobacteria in the analysed soil with a predominance of the first three groups. The obtained results demonstrated that the presence of S. vulgaris did not affect the number of CFUs, except for those of Cd-resistant bacteria. However, the presence of S. vulgaris altered the soil bacterial community structure, regardless of the sampling site, which supported the thesis that plants have a higher impact on soil microbial community than metal contamination.

17.
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0187852, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29145477

RESUMO

Long-term exposure to polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been connected to chronic human health disorders. It is also well-known that i) PAH contamination alters soil bacterial communities, ii) human microbiome is associated with environmental microbiome, and iii) alteration in the abundance of members in several bacterial phyla is associated with adverse or beneficial human health effects. We hypothesized that soil pollution by PAHs altered soil bacterial communities that had known associations with human health. The rationale behind our study was to increase understanding and potentially facilitate reconsidering factors that lead to health disorders in areas characterized by PAH contamination. Large containers filled with either spruce forest soil, pine forest soil, peat, or glacial sand were left to incubate or contaminated with creosote. Biological degradation of PAHs was monitored using GC-MS, and the bacterial community composition was analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing. Proteobacteria had higher and Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes had lower relative abundance in creosote contaminated soils than in non-contaminated soils. Earlier studies have demonstrated that an increase in the abundance of Proteobacteria and decreased abundance of the phyla Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes are particularly associated with adverse health outcomes and immunological disorders. Therefore, we propose that pollution-induced shifts in natural soil bacterial community, like in PAH-polluted areas, can contribute to the prevalence of chronic diseases. We encourage studies that simultaneously address the classic "adverse toxin effect" paradigm and our novel "altered environmental microbiome" hypothesis.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Finlândia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(12): 11446-11458, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28316046

RESUMO

A traditional sand filter for treatment of household wastewater was constructed in the fall of 2012 at Biolinja 12, Turku, Finland. Construction work was led and monitored by an authorized wastewater treatment consultant. The filter was placed on a field bordered by open ditches from all sides in order to collect excess rain and snowmelt waters. The filter was constructed and insulated from the environment so that all outflowing water was accounted for. Untreated, mainly municipal, wastewater from Varissuo suburb was pumped from a sewer separately via three septic tanks (volume = 1 m3 each) into the filters. Normally, wastewater was distributed to ground filters automatically according to pre-programmed schedule. Initially, the daily flow was 1200 L day-1 to reflect the average organic load of a household of five persons (load: ca 237 g day-1 BOD; 73 g day-1 total N; and 10.4 g day-1 total P). Later in the test, the flow rate was decreased first to 900 and then to 600 L day-1 to better reflect the average volume produced by five persons. Volumes of inlet wastewater as well as treated water were monitored by magnetic flow meters. Samples were withdrawn from the inlet water, from the water entering the filters after the third septic tank, and from the outflowing water. After an initial adaption time, the reductions in BOD and chemical oxygen demand were constantly between 92 and 98%, showing that the biological degradation process in the filters functioned optimally and clearly comply with the national and EU standards. The reduction in total nitrogen and total phosphorus, however, reached required levels only during the first months of testing, apparently when buildup of microbial biomass was still ongoing. After this initial period of 3 months showing satisfactory reduction levels, the reduction of total nitrogen varied between 5 and 25% and total phosphorus mostly between 50 and 65%. Nitrification was efficient in the filter, but as indicated by high nitrate levels and poor nitrogen reductions, denitrification was inefficient or absent. During the winter period, the temperature in the filter dropped to near freezing, but at all time points, the flow of water was unaffected by freezing. During snowmelt and heavy rain, occasional flooding was observed. Such situations may lead to dilution rather than purification of the wastewater. In conclusion, the sand filter tested worked well for reduction of the organic load in municipal wastewater but failed to sufficiently reduce nitrogen and phosphorus levels.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias , Filtração , Finlândia , Purificação da Água
19.
Front Microbiol ; 7: 1917, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27999565

RESUMO

Microbial communities can play important role in arsenic release in groundwater aquifers. To investigate the microbial communities in high arsenic groundwater aquifers in agricultural irrigation area, 17 groundwater samples with different arsenic concentrations were collected along the agricultural drainage channels of Hangjinhouqi County, Inner Mongolia and examined by illumina MiSeq sequencing approach targeting the V4 region of the 16S rRNA genes. Both principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering results indicated that these samples were divided into two groups (high and low arsenic groups) according to the variation of geochemical characteristics. Arsenic concentrations showed strongly positive correlations with [Formula: see text] and total organic carbon (TOC). Sequencing results revealed that a total of 329-2823 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were observed at the 97% OTU level. Microbial richness and diversity of high arsenic groundwater samples along the drainage channels were lower than those of low arsenic groundwater samples but higher than those of high arsenic groundwaters from strongly reducing areas. The microbial community structure in groundwater along the drainage channels was different from those in strongly reducing arsenic-rich aquifers of Hetao Plain and other high arsenic groundwater aquifers including Bangladesh, West Bengal, and Vietnam. Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas dominated with high percentages in both high and low arsenic groundwaters. Alishewanella, Psychrobacter, Methylotenera, and Crenothrix showed relatively high abundances in high arsenic groundwater, while Rheinheimera and the unidentified OP3 were predominant populations in low arsenic groundwater. Archaeal populations displayed a low occurrence and mainly dominated by methanogens such as Methanocorpusculum and Methanospirillum. Microbial community compositions were different between high and low arsenic groundwater samples based on the results of principal coordinate analysis and co-inertia analysis. Other geochemical variables including TOC, [Formula: see text], oxidation-reduction potential, and Fe might also affect the microbial composition.

20.
Sci Total Environ ; 566-567: 1205-1214, 2016 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27267716

RESUMO

Natural plant populations have large phenotypic plasticity that enhances acclimation to local stress factors such as toxin exposures. While consequences of high toxin exposures are well addressed, effects of low-dose toxin exposures on plant populations are seldom investigated. In particular, the importance of 'selective low-dose toxicity' and hormesis, i.e. stimulatory effects, has not been studied simultaneously. Since selective toxicity can change the size distribution of populations, we assumed that hormesis alters the size distribution at the population level, and investigated whether and how these two low-dose phenomena coexist. The study was conducted with Lactuca sativa L. exposed to the auxin-inhibitor 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid (PCIB) in vitro. In two separate experiments, L. sativa was exposed to 12 PCIB doses in 24 replicates (50 plants/replicate). Shoot/root growth responses at the population level were compared to the fast-growing (≥90% percentile) and the slow-growing subpopulations (≤10% percentile) by Mann-Whitney U testing and dose-response modelling. In the formation of pronounced PCIB hormesis at the population level, low-dose effects proved selective, but widely stimulatory which seems to counteract low-dose selective toxicity. The selectivity of hormesis was dose- and growth rate-dependent. Stimulation occurred at lower concentrations and stimulation percentage was higher among slow-growing individuals, but partly or entirely masked at the population level by moderate or negligible stimulation among the faster growing individuals. We conclude that the hormetic effect up to the maximum stimulation may be primarily facilitated by an increase in size of the most slow-growing individuals, while thereafter it seems that mainly the fast-growing individuals contributed to the observed hormesis at the population level. As size distribution within a population is related to survival, our study hints that selective effects on slow- and fast-growing individuals may change population dynamics, providing that similar effects can be repeated under field conditions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Hormese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Indolacéticos/antagonistas & inibidores , Alface/efeitos dos fármacos , Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Distribuição Aleatória
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