Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 20
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 28(Pt 4): 1229-1236, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212888

RESUMO

The photon beamline vacuum system of the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser Facility (European XFEL) is described. The ultra-large, in total more than 3 km-long, fan-like vacuum system, consisting of three photon beamlines is an essential part of the photon beam transport. It is located between the accelerator vacuum system and the scientific instruments. The main focus of the design was on the efficiency, reliability and robustness of the entire system to ensure the retention of beam properties and the operation of the X-ray optics and X-ray photon diagnostics components. Installation started in late 2014, the first of the three beamline vacuum systems was commissioned in spring 2017, and the last one was operational in mid-2018. The present state and experience from the first years of operation are outlined.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(39): 24110-24116, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934145

RESUMO

Dynamics and kinetics in soft matter physics, biology, and nanoscience frequently occur on fast (sub)microsecond but not ultrafast timescales which are difficult to probe experimentally. The European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (European XFEL), a megahertz hard X-ray Free-Electron Laser source, enables such experiments via taking series of diffraction patterns at repetition rates of up to 4.5 MHz. Here, we demonstrate X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) with submicrosecond time resolution of soft matter samples at the European XFEL. We show that the XFEL driven by a superconducting accelerator provides unprecedented beam stability within a pulse train. We performed microsecond sequential XPCS experiments probing equilibrium and nonequilibrium diffusion dynamics in water. We find nonlinear heating on microsecond timescales with dynamics beyond hot Brownian motion and superheated water states persisting up to 100 µs at high fluences. At short times up to 20 µs we observe that the dynamics do not obey the Stokes-Einstein predictions.

3.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 27(Pt 3): 827-835, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381787

RESUMO

Inelastic X-ray scattering is a powerful and versatile technique for studying lattice dynamics in materials of scientific and technological importance. In this article, the design and capabilities of the momentum-resolved high-energy-resolution inelastic X-ray spectrometer (HERIX) at beamline 30-ID of the Advanced Photon Source are reported. The instrument operates at 23.724 keV and has an energy resolution of 1.3-1.7 meV. It can accommodate momentum transfers of up to 72  nm-1, at a typical X-ray flux of 4.5 × 109 photons s-1 meV-1 at the sample. A suite of in situ sample environments are provided, including high pressure, static magnetic fields and uniaxial strains, all at high or cryogenic temperatures.

4.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 26(Pt 4): 1069-1072, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274429

RESUMO

Self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) enables X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) to generate hard X-ray pulses of sub-100 fs duration. However, due to the stochastic nature of SASE, the energy spectrum fluctuates from pulse to pulse. Many experiments that employ XFEL radiation require the resolution of the spectrum of each pulse. The work presented here investigates the capacity of a thin strongly bent diamond crystal to resolve the energy spectra of hard X-ray SASE pulses by studying its diffraction properties. Rocking curves of the symmetric C*(440) reflection have been measured for different bending radii. The experimental data match the theoretical modelling based on the Takagi-Taupin equations of dynamical diffraction. A uniform strain gradient has proven to be a valid model of strain deformations in the crystal.

5.
Opt Express ; 26(16): 21003-21018, 2018 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30119406

RESUMO

This study theoretically analyzes an increase in X-ray absorption by a grazing incidence mirror due to its surface roughness. We demonstrate that the increase in absorption can be several hundred times larger than predicted by the Nevot-Croce formula. As a result, absorption enhances by several times compared to a perfectly smooth mirror despite the extremely small grazing angle of an incident X-ray beam (a fraction of the critical angle of the total external reflection) and the high quality of the reflecting surface (the roughness height was 0.5 nm in modeling). The main contribution to the absorption increase was dictated by the mid-scale roughness (waviness) of the virgin substrate surface, whose quality thus defines an absorption enhancement. The approach was applied to the analysis of two real mirrors used in a synchrotron (BESSY-I) and a European X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) beamline. The modern surface finishing technology of elastic emission machining provides extremely low substrate waviness, guaranteeing the negligible effect of the surface roughness on the absorption increase.

6.
Opt Express ; 25(3): 2852-2862, 2017 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29519002

RESUMO

A precise spectral characterization of every single pulse is required in many x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) experiments due to the fluctuating spectral content of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) beams. Bent single-crystal spectrometers can provide sufficient spectral resolution to resolve the SASE spikes while also covering the full SASE bandwidth. To better withstand the high heat load induced by the 4.5 MHz repetition rate of pulses at the forthcoming European XFEL facility, a spectrometer based on single-crystal diamond has been developed. We report a direct comparison of the diamond spectrometer with its Si counterpart in experiments performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source.

7.
J Appl Crystallogr ; 49(Pt 4): 1347-1355, 2016 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27504080

RESUMO

This article describes the WavePropaGator (WPG) package, a new interactive software framework for coherent and partially coherent X-ray wavefront propagation simulations. The package has been developed at European XFEL for users at the existing and emerging free-electron laser (FEL) facilities, as well as at the third-generation synchrotron sources and future diffraction-limited storage rings. The WPG addresses the needs of beamline scientists and user groups to facilitate the design, optimization and improvement of X-ray optics to meet their experimental requirements. The package uses the Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) C/C++ library and its Python binding for numerical wavefront propagation simulations. The framework runs reliably under Linux, Microsoft Windows 7 and Apple Mac OS X and is distributed under an open-source license. The available tools allow for varying source parameters and optics layouts and visualizing the results interactively. The wavefront history structure can be used for tracking changes in every particular wavefront during propagation. The batch propagation mode enables processing of multiple wavefronts in workflow mode. The paper presents a general description of the package and gives some recent application examples, including modeling of full X-ray FEL beamlines and start-to-end simulation of experiments.

8.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 23(Pt 4): 855-60, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27359132

RESUMO

One of the classical devices used to tune a mirror on an X-ray optical setup is a mechanical bender. This is often designed in such a way that the mirror is held with clamps on both ends; a motor is then used to put a torque on the clamps, inducing a cylindrical shape of the mirror surface. A mechanical bender with this design was recently characterized, to bend a 950 mm-long mirror up to a radius of curvature of 10 km. The characterization was performed using a large-aperture Fizeau interferometer with an angled incidence setup. Some particular and critical effects were investigated, such as calibration, hysteresis, twisting and long-term stability.

9.
Opt Express ; 24(15): 17292-302, 2016 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27464178

RESUMO

We propose a method to control and to adjust in a closed-loop a bendable x-ray mirror using displacement-measuring devices. For this purpose, the usage of capacitive and interferometric sensors is investigated and compared. We installed the sensors in a bender setup and used them to continuously measure the position and shape of the mirror in the lab. The sensors are vacuum-compatible such that the same concept can also be applied in final conditions. The measurement is used to keep the calibration of the system and to create a closed-loop control compensating for external influences: in a demonstration measurement, using a 950 mm long bendable mirror, the mirror sagitta is kept stable inside a range of 10 nm Peak-To-Valley (P-V).

10.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 23(1): 50-8, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26698045

RESUMO

X-ray optical elements are required for beam transport at the current and upcoming free-electron lasers and synchrotron sources. An X-ray mirror is a combination of a substrate and a coating. The demand for large mirrors with single layers consisting of light or heavy elements has increased during the last few decades; surface finishing technology is currently able to process mirror lengths up to 1 m with microroughness at the sub-nanometre level. Additionally, thin-film fabrication is able to deposit a suitable single-layer material, such as boron carbide (B4C), some tens of nanometres thick. After deposition, the mirror should provide excellent X-ray optical properties with respect to coating thickness errors, microroughness values and slope errors; thereby enabling the mirror to transport the X-ray beam with high reflectivity, high beam flux and an undistorted wavefront to an experimental station. At the European XFEL, the technical specifications of the future mirrors are extraordinarily challenging. The acceptable shape error of the mirrors is below 2 nm along the whole length of 1 m. At the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG), amorphous layers of boron carbide with thicknesses in the range 30-60 nm were fabricated using the HZG sputtering facility, which is able to cover areas up to 1500 mm long by 120 mm wide in one step using rectangular B4C sputtering targets. The available deposition area is suitable for the specified X-ray mirror dimensions of upcoming advanced research light sources such as the European XFEL. The coatings produced were investigated by means of X-ray reflectometry and interference microscopy. The experimental results for the B4C layers are discussed according to thickness uniformity, density, microroughness and thermal stability. The variation of layer thickness in the tangential and sagittal directions was investigated in order to estimate the achieved level of uniformity over the whole deposition area, which is considerably larger than the optical area of a mirror. A waisted mask was positioned during deposition between the sputtering source and substrate to improve the thickness uniformity; particularly to prevent the formation a convex film shape in the sagittal direction. Additionally the inclination of the substrate was varied to change the layer uniformity in order to optimize the position of the mirror quality deposited area during deposition. The level of mirror microroughness was investigated for different substrates before and after deposition of a single layer of B4C. The thermal stability of the B4C layers on the various substrate materials was investigated.

11.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 23(1): 169-75, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26698060

RESUMO

A full-scale piezo bendable mirror built as a prototype for an offset mirror at the European XFEL is characterized. The piezo ceramic elements are glued onto the mirror substrate, side-face on with respect to the reflecting surface. Using a nanometre optical component measuring machine and a large-aperture Fizeau interferometer, the mirror profile and influence functions were characterized, and further analysis was made to investigate the junction effect, hysteresis, twisting and reproducibility.

12.
Opt Express ; 21(7): 8051-61, 2013 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23571895

RESUMO

Focusing hard x-ray free-electron laser radiation with extremely high fluence sets stringent demands on the x-ray optics. Any material placed in an intense x-ray beam is at risk of being damaged. Therefore, it is crucial to find the damage thresholds for focusing optics. In this paper we report experimental results of exposing tungsten and diamond diffractive optics to a prefocused 8.2 keV free-electron laser beam in order to find damage threshold fluence levels. Tungsten nanostructures were damaged at fluence levels above 500 mJ/cm(2). The damage was of mechanical character, caused by thermal stress variations. Diamond nanostructures were affected at a fluence of 59 000 mJ/cm(2). For fluence levels above this, a significant graphitization process was initiated. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and µ-Raman analysis were used to analyze exposed nanostructures.


Assuntos
Diamante/química , Diamante/efeitos da radiação , Lasers , Lentes , Refratometria/instrumentação , Tungstênio/química , Tungstênio/efeitos da radiação , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Doses de Radiação , Raios X
13.
Opt Lett ; 37(15): 3033-5, 2012 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22859076

RESUMO

The interaction of free electron laser pulses with grating structure is investigated using 4.6±0.1 nm radiation at the FLASH facility in Hamburg. For fluences above 63.7±8.7 mJ/cm2, the interaction triggers a damage process starting at the edge of the grating structure as evidenced by optical and atomic force microscopy. Simulations based on solution of the Helmholtz equation demonstrate an enhancement of the electric field intensity distribution at the edge of the grating structure. A procedure is finally deduced to evaluate damage threshold.

14.
Nat Commun ; 3: 947, 2012 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22781760

RESUMO

The high photon flux and femtosecond pulse duration of hard X-ray free-electron lasers have spurred a large variety of novel and fascinating experiments in physical, chemical and biological sciences. Many of these experiments depend fundamentally on a clean, well-defined wavefront. Here we explore the wavefront properties of hard X-ray free-electron laser radiation by means of a grating interferometer, from which we obtain shot-to-shot wavefront information with an excellent angular sensitivity on the order of ten nanoradian. The wavefront distortions introduced by optical elements are observed in-situ and under operational conditions. The source-point position and fluctuations are measured with unprecedented accuracy in longitudinal and lateral direction, both during nominal operation and as the X-ray free-electron laser is driven into saturation.

15.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 18(Pt 3): 492-6, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21525659

RESUMO

In this work new improvements related to the fabrication of spherical bent analyzers for 1 meV energy-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy are presented. The new method includes the use of a two-dimensional bender to achieve the required radius of curvature for X-ray analyzers. The advantage of this method is the ability to monitor the focus during bending, which leads to higher-efficiency analyzers.

16.
J Chem Phys ; 132(8): 085103, 2010 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20192318

RESUMO

Compressibility characterizes three interconnecting properties of a protein: dynamics, structure, and function. The compressibility values for the electron-carrying protein cytochrome c and for other proteins, as well, available in the literature vary considerably. Here, we apply two synchrotron-based techniques--nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy and inelastic x-ray scattering--to measure the adiabatic compressibility of this protein. This is the first report of the compressibility of any material measured with this method. Unlike the methods previously used, this novel approach probes the protein globally, at ambient pressure, does not require the separation of protein and solvent contributions to the total compressibility, and uses samples that contain the heme iron, as in the native state. We show, by comparing our results with molecular dynamics predictions, that the compressibility is almost independent of temperature. We discuss potential applications of this method to other materials beyond proteins.


Assuntos
Grupo dos Citocromos c/química , Elasticidade , Animais , Cavalos , Espalhamento de Radiação , Análise Espectral , Raios X
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 103(21): 7962-7, 2006 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16690742

RESUMO

Current understanding of electrostatics in water is based on mean-field theories like the Poisson-Boltzmann formalism and its approximations, which are routinely used in colloid science and computational biology. This approach, however, breaks down for highly charged systems, which exhibit counterintuitive phenomena such as overcharging and like-charge attraction. Models of counterion correlations have been proposed as possible explanations, but no experimental comparisons are available. Here, collective dynamics of counterions that mediate like-charge attraction between F-actin filaments have been directly observed in aqueous solution using high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering down to molecular length-scales. We find a previously undescribed acoustic-like phonon mode associated with correlated counterions. The excitation spectra at high wave-vector Q reveal unexpected dynamics due to ions interacting with their "cages" of nearest neighbors. We examine this behavior in the context of intrinsic charge density variations on F-actin. The measured speed of sound and collective relaxation rates in this liquid agree surprisingly well with simple model calculations.


Assuntos
Físico-Química/métodos , Polímeros , Actinas/química , Biofísica/métodos , Biopolímeros , Eletrólitos , Íons , Modelos Moleculares , Espalhamento de Radiação , Eletricidade Estática , Raios X
18.
J Chem Phys ; 123(21): 214909, 2005 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16356072

RESUMO

The phonon propagation and damping along the axial direction of films of aligned 40 wt % calf-thymus DNA rods are studied by inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS). The IXS spectra are analyzed with the generalized three effective eigenmode theory, from which we extract the dynamic structure factor S(Q,E) as a function of transferred energy E=variant Planck's over 2piomega, and the magnitude of the transferred wave vector Q. S(Q,E) of a DNA sample typically consists of three peaks, one central Rayleigh scattering peak, and two symmetric Stokes and anti-Stokes Brillouin side peaks. By analyzing the Brillouin peaks, the phonon excitation energy and damping can be extracted at different Q values from about 4 to 30 nm(-1). A high-frequency sound speed is obtained from the initial slope of the linear portion of the dispersion relation below Q=4 nm(-1). The high-frequency sound speed obtained in this Q range is 3100 ms, which is about twice faster than the ultrasound speed of 1800 ms, measured by Brillouin light scattering at Q approximately 0.01 nm(-1) at the similar hydration level. Our observations provide further evidence of the strong coupling between the internal dynamics of a DNA molecule and the dynamics of the solvent. The effect on damping and propagation of phonons along the axial direction of DNA rods due to divalent and trivalent counterions has been studied. It is found that the added multivalent counterions introduce stronger phonon damping. The phonons at the range between approximately 12.5 and approximately 22.5 nm(-1) are overdamped by the added counterions according to our model analyses. The intermediate scattering function is extracted and it shows a clear two-step relaxation with the fast relaxation time ranging from 0.1 to 4 ps.


Assuntos
DNA/química , Cristais Líquidos , Vibração , Som , Análise Espectral , Raios X
19.
Biophys Chem ; 105(2-3): 721-41, 2003 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14499929

RESUMO

We summarize a series of experimental results made with the newly developed high resolution X-ray scattering (IXS) instrument on two pure lipid bilayers, including dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC) in both gel and liquid crystal phases, and lipid bilayers containing cholesterol. By analyzing the IXS data based on the generalized three effective eigenmode model (GTEE), we obtain dispersion relations of the high frequency density oscillations (phonons) of lipid molecules in these bilayers. We then compare the dispersion relations of pure lipid bilayers of different chain lengths among themselves and the dispersion relations of pure lipid bilayers with those of the cholesterol containing bilayers. We also compare our experimental results with collective dynamics data generated by computer molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) in gel phase and DMPC in liquid crystal phase.


Assuntos
Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Movimento (Física) , Difração de Raios X/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Modelos Teóricos , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Espalhamento de Radiação , Difração de Raios X/instrumentação
20.
Biophys J ; 84(6): 3767-76, 2003 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12770883

RESUMO

We investigated the application of inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) to lipid bilayers. This technique directly measures the dynamic structure factor S(q,omega) which is the space-time Fourier transform of the electron density correlation function of the measured system. For a multiatomic system, the analysis of S(q,omega) is usually complicated. But for multiple bilayers of lipid, S(q,omega) is dominated by chain-chain correlations within individual bilayers. Thus IXS provides a unique probe for the collective dynamics of lipid chains in a bilayer that cannot be obtained by any other method. IXS of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine and dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine + cholesterol at two different concentrations were measured. S(q,omega) was analyzed by three-mode hydrodynamic equations, including a thermal diffusive mode and two propagating acoustic modes. We obtained the dispersion curves for the phonons that represent the collective in-plane excitations of lipid chains. The effect of cholesterol on chain dynamics was detected. Our analysis shows the importance of having a high instrument resolution as well as the requirement of sufficient signal-to-noise ratio to obtain meaningful results from such an IXS experiment. The requirement on signal-to-noise also applies to molecular dynamics simulations.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Cristalografia por Raios X/métodos , Dimiristoilfosfatidilcolina/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Fluidez de Membrana , Elasticidade , Substâncias Macromoleculares , Conformação Molecular , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espalhamento de Radiação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...