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2.
Curr Probl Surg ; 59(7): 101163, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934409
3.
J Surg Educ ; 2022 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35842404

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Shifts in American healthcare delivery mechanisms pose significant hurdles to new physicians. Surgeons are particularly susceptible to these changes, but surgical residency educational efforts primarily focus on technical and clinical training to the exclusion of business and management practices. This study conducted a needs assessment of perceived gaps in practice management skills among early career surgeons to guide future training curricula. METHODS: This study was an exploratory qualitative study following the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research. Purposive sampling was used to identify early career (<5 years following fellowship completion) surgeons across the United States. A semi-structured interview guide was created from interviews with surgical administrators and physician administrative curricula. Transcripts were de-identified and analyzed using a constructivist grounded theory approach. RESULTS: Ten surgeons from 6 specialties and 6 institutions were interviewed along with 3 surgeon administrators. Three major domains of need were identified: (1) fundamentals of procedural coding, clinical billing, & compliance, (2) finding/building a practice, and (3) navigating organizational challenges. First, surgeons thought trainees would benefit from a better understanding of reimbursement schema and the basics of health policy. They also thought that more exposure to malpractice litigation, especially for handling case review or expert witness requests, would be helpful for discerning how to handle such issues early in their career. In addition, early career surgeons expressed a desire to have dedicated mentorship time, a primer on evaluating job offers with simulated contract negotiation, and guidance regarding administrative roles. Finally, surgeons requested training in change management techniques, care pathway construction, and the basics of staffing decisions. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant practice management gaps in surgical training which may be amenable to targeted educational efforts during a residency or fellowship program. Future research will test the generalizability of these findings as well as build curricula that adequately meet these needs.

4.
Surg Endosc ; 2022 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35854127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend cholecystectomy during the index admission for gallstone pancreatitis, and a growing body of evidence indicates that patients benefit from cholecystectomy within the first 48 h of admission. We examined the impact of hospital characteristics on adherence to these data-driven practices. METHODS: We queried the National Inpatient Sample for patients admitted for gallstone pancreatitis between October 2015 and December 2018. Patients who underwent same-admission cholecystectomy were identified by procedure codes. Cholecystectomies within the first two days were classified as early cholecystectomies. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the association between hospital characteristics and adherence to these practices. RESULTS: Of 163,390 admissions for gallstone pancreatitis, only 90,790 (55.6%) underwent cholecystectomy before discharge. Mean time from admission to cholecystectomy was 2.9 days; 27.0% of patients (44,005) underwent early cholecystectomy. Odds of same-admission cholecystectomy were highest in large hospitals (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.13-1.28), urban teaching centers (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.21-1.46), and the South (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.57-1.83). Odds of early cholecystectomy did not vary with hospital size, urban-rural status, or teaching status but were highest in the West (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.80-2.18). CONCLUSION: Best-practice adherence for cholecystectomy in gallstone pancreatitis remains low despite an abundance of evidence and clinical practice guidelines. Active interventions are needed to improve delivery of surgical care for this patient population. Implementation efforts should focus on small hospitals, rural areas, and health systems in the Northeast region.

6.
Am J Surg ; 2022 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35871028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We created a Big Sibling mentorship program for medical students and studied the program effects. METHODS: Between July 2019 to December 2020, students completing their surgery clerkship were paired with a Big Sibling surgical research resident. Participation in and perceptions of the program were assessed by survey. RESULTS: 81 medical students and 25 residents participated with a 79% and 95% survey response rate, respectively. The most valuable topics discussed included ward skills, personal development and career advising. Students who interacted >2 times with their Big Sibling were more likely to perceive the operating room as a positive learning environment, view attendings as role models, and receive mentoring and feedback from residents and attendings (p = 0.03, 0.02, 0.01 respectively). 78% of residents thought the program was a positive experience and no residents found it burdensome. CONCLUSION: The Big Siblings program enhances the surgery clerkship learning environment. Students who engaged with their Big Sibling had a more positive view of the clerkship and the mentorship provided by residents and attendings.

7.
Surgery ; 172(1): 470-475, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35489978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delays in admitting high-risk emergency surgery patients to the intensive care unit result in worse outcomes and increased health care costs. We aimed to use interpretable artificial intelligence technology to create a preoperative predictor for postoperative intensive care unit need in emergency surgery patients. METHODS: A novel, interpretable artificial intelligence technology called optimal classification trees was leveraged in an 80:20 train:test split of adult emergency surgery patients in the 2007-2017 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Demographics, comorbidities, and laboratory values were used to develop, train, and then validate optimal classification tree algorithms to predict the need for postoperative intensive care unit admission. The latter was defined as postoperative death or the development of 1 or more postoperative complications warranting critical care (eg, unplanned intubation, ventilator requirement ≥48 hours, cardiac arrest requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and septic shock). An interactive and user-friendly application was created. C statistics were used to measure performance. RESULTS: A total of 464,861 patients were included. The mean age was 55 years, 48% were male, and 11% developed severe postoperative complications warranting critical care. The Predictive OpTimal Trees in Emergency Surgery Risk Intensive Care Unit application was created as the user-friendly interface of the complex optimal classification tree algorithms. The number of questions (ie, tree depths) needed to predict intensive care unit admission ranged from 2 to 11. The Predictive OpTimal Trees in Emergency Surgery Risk Intensive Care Unit application had excellent discrimination for predicting the need for intensive care unit admission (C statistics: 0.89 train, 0.88 test). CONCLUSION: We recommend the Predictive OpTimal Trees in Emergency Surgery Risk Intensive Care Unit application as an accurate, artificial intelligence-based tool for predicting severe complications warranting intensive care unit admission after emergency surgery. The Predictive OpTimal Trees in Emergency Surgery Risk Intensive Care Unit application can prove useful to triage patients to the intensive care unit and to potentially decrease failure to rescue in emergency surgery patients.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Smartphone , Adulto , Cuidados Críticos , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35234714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Universal spinal immobilization has been the standard of prehospital trauma care since the 1960s. Selective immobilization has been shown to be safe and effective for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) use, but it is unclear whether such protocols reduce unnecessary and potentially harmful immobilization practices. This study evaluated the impact of a selective spinal immobilization protocol on practice patterns in a regional trauma system. METHODS: All encounters for traumatic injury in the Tidewater EMS Region from 2010 to 2016 were extracted from the Virginia Prehospital Information Bridge. An interrupted time series analysis was used to assess practice change after systemwide protocol implementation in 2013. Intravenous (IV) access was used as a non-equivalent outcome measure in the absence of an appropriate control group. RESULTS: A total of 63,981 encounters were analyzed. At baseline, 16.7% of patients underwent full immobilization. The pre-protocol slope was slightly positive (0.2% per month, 95% CI 0.1% to 0.2%). Slope and level changes after protocol implementation did not differ from those observed for IV access (-0.4% vs -0.4% per month, p = 0.4917 and -1.6% vs -1.1%, p = 0.1202, respectively). Cervical spinal immobilization became more common over the post-implementation period (0.1% per month, 95% CI 0.1% to 0.1%). Rates of immobilization for isolated penetrating trauma remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a selective spinal immobilization protocol did not reduce prehospital immobilization rates in a regional trauma system. Given the entrenched nature of immobilization practices, more intensive education and training strategies are needed. Efforts should prioritize eliminating immobilization for isolated penetrating trauma given its association with increased mortality. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study.

9.
J Surg Res ; 269: 94-102, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Balanced blood product transfusion improves the outcomes of trauma patients with exsanguinating hemorrhage, but it remains unclear whether administering cryoprecipitate improves mortality. We aimed to examine the impact of early cryoprecipitate transfusion on the outcomes of the trauma patients needing massive transfusion (MT). METHODS: All MT patients 18 years or older in the 2017 Trauma Quality Improvement Program (TQIP) were retrospectively reviewed. MT was defined as the transfusion of ≥10 units of blood within 24 hours. Propensity score analysis (PSA) was used to 1:1 match then compare patients who received and those who did not receive cryoprecipitate in the first 4 hours after injury. Outcomes included in-hospital mortality, 1-day mortality, in-hospital complications and transfusion needs at 24 hours. RESULTS: Of 1,004,440 trauma patients, 1,454 MT patients received cryoprecipitate and 2,920 did not. After PSA, 877 patients receiving cryoprecipitate were matched to 877 patients who did not. In-hospital mortality was lower among patients who received cryoprecipitate (49.4% v. 54.9%, P = 0.022), as was 1-day mortality. Sub-analyses showed that mortality was lower with cryoprecipitate in patients with penetrating (37.5% versus. 48%, adjusted P = 0.008), but not blunt trauma (58.5% versus. 59.8%, adjusted P = 1.000). In penetrating trauma, the cryoprecipitate group also had lower 1-day mortality (21.8% versus. 38.6%, P <0.001) and a higher rate of hemorrhage control surgeries performed within 24 hours (71.4% versus. 63.3%, P = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: Cryoprecipitate in MT is associated with improved survival in penetrating, but not blunt, trauma. Randomized trials are needed to better define the role of cryoprecipitate in MT.


Assuntos
Ferimentos e Lesões , Ferimentos não Penetrantes , Ferimentos Penetrantes , Transfusão de Sangue , Hemorragia/complicações , Hemorragia/terapia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/terapia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos Penetrantes/terapia
10.
Am J Surg ; 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34865735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Almost half of practicing surgeons in the United States are currently older than 55, but guidelines on how to prepare for retirement are limited. We sought to identify possible facilitators for, and obstacles to, surgeons' preparations for retirement. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted using semi-structured interviews with clinically inactive academic surgeons. Emergent themes were identified via a grounded theory approach. RESULTS: We interviewed 12 surgeons (83% male; median age 75 years). Major barriers to retirement from surgery included uncertainty about when to retire, limited identity outside of surgery, and perception of retirement as strictly individual/private. Facilitators of a successful retirement identified by the participants included early career financial planning, awareness of career trajectory, development of post-surgery goals, and utilization of collective knowledge. CONCLUSION: There are numerous barriers encountered by surgeons seeking to transition from clinical practice to retirement that could be overcome by dedicated departmental and institutional efforts.

11.
Ann Surg ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520422

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the surgeon-perceived added value of mobile health technologies (mHealth), and determine facilitators of and barriers to implementing mHealth. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Despite the growing popularity of mHealth and evidence of meaningful use of patient-generated health data in surgery, implementation remains limited. METHODS: This was an exploratory qualitative study following the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research. Purposive sampling was used to identify surgeons across the United States and Canada. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research informed development of a semi-structured interview guide. Video-based interviews were conducted (September-November 2020) and interview transcripts were thematically analyzed. RESULTS: Thirty surgeons from eight specialties and six North American regions were interviewed. Surgeons identified opportunities to integrate mHealth data preoperatively (e.g., expectation-setting, decision-making) and during recovery (e.g., remote monitoring, earlier detection of adverse events) among higher-risk patients. Perceived advantages of mHealth data compared with surgical and patient-reported outcomes included easier data collection, higher interpretability and objectivity of mHealth data, and the potential to develop more patient-centered and functional measures of health. Surgeons identified a variety of implementation facilitators and barriers around surgeon- and patient buy-in, integration with electronic medical records, regulatory/reimbursement concerns, and personnel responsible for mHealth data. Surgeons described similar considerations regarding perceptions of mHealth among patients, including the potential to address or worsen existing disparities in surgical care. CONCLUSIONS: These findings have the potential to inform the effective and equitable implementation of mHealth for the purposes of supporting patients and surgical care teams throughout the delivery of surgical care.

12.
Surg Endosc ; 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic forced surgical fellowship programs to transition from in-person to remote applicant interviews; the virtual interviewing format presented new and unique challenges. We sought to understand applicants' perceived challenges to virtual interviewing for a surgical fellowship program. METHOD: A grounded theory-based qualitative study was performed utilizing semi-structured interviews with fellowship applicants from the 2020 fellowship match. All Fellowship Council-registered applicants were eligible. We purposefully sampled participants to balance across gender, specialty-choice, and academic versus community-program affiliation. Interviews were inductively analyzed by two researchers for prominent themes. RESULTS: Fifteen interviews were conducted. Participants were 60% male (n = 9), with 33% (n = 5) from non-academic institutions. They applied for the following fellowships: Advanced Gastrointestinal/Minimal Invasive (55%), Bariatric (30%), Hepatopancreatobiliary (10%) and Surgical Oncology (5%). Four main themes emerged to describe virtual interview process challenges: (1) perceived data deficiency, (2) superficial personal connections, (3) magnification of non-professionalism, and (4) logistical frustrations. Applicants recommend program directors provide more information about the fellowship prior to interview day and offer informal independent interactions with current and previous fellows. CONCLUSIONS: According to fellowship applicants, virtual interviews resulted in a lack of information for rank-list decision making ultimately requiring them to rely on other information avenues to base their decisions. These applicants have offered advice to fellowship program directors and future applicants to better optimize this process.

13.
Ann Surg Open ; 2(2): e060, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34179891

RESUMO

Patient expectations of the impact of surgery on postoperative health-related quality of life (HRQL) may reflect the effectiveness of patient-provider communication. We sought to compare expected versus experienced HRQL among patients undergoing cancer surgery. METHODS: Adults undergoing cancer surgery were eligible for inclusion (2017-2019). Preoperatively, patients completed a smartphone-based survey assessing expectations for HRQL 1 week and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively based on the 8 short-form 36 (SF36) domains (physical functioning, physical role limitations, pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, emotional role limitations, and mental health). Experienced HRQL was then assessed through smartphone-based SF36 surveys 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Correlations between 1- and 6-month trends in expected versus experienced HRQL were determined. RESULTS: Among 101 consenting patients, 74 completed preoperative expectations and SF36 surveys (73%). The mean age was 54 years (SD 14), 49 (66%) were female, and the most common operations were for breast (34%) and abdominal (31%) tumors. Patients expected HRQL to worsen 1 week after surgery and improve toward minimal disability over 6 months. There was poor correlation (≤±0.4) between 1- and 6-month trends in expected versus experienced HRQL in all SF36 domains except for moderate correlation in physical functioning (0.50, 95% confidence interval [0.22-0.78], P < 0.001) and physical role limitations (0.41, 95% confidence interval [0.05-0.77], P = 0.024). Patients expected better HRQL than they experienced. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative expectations of postoperative HRQL correlated poorly with lived experiences except in physical health domains. Surgeons should evaluate factors which inform expectations around physical and psychosocial health and use these data to enhance shared decision-making.

14.
J Patient Saf ; 17(4): 256-263, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797460

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the strategies used and critical considerations among an international sample of hospital leaders when mobilizing human resources in response to the clinical demands associated with the COVID-19 pandemic surge. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, qualitative research study designed to investigate strategies used by health system leaders from around the world when mobilizing human resources in response to the global COVD-19 pandemic. Prospective interviewees were identified through nonprobability and purposive sampling methods from May to July 2020. The primary outcomes were the critical considerations, as perceived by health system leaders, when redeploying health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic determined through thematic analysis of transcribed notes. Redeployment was defined as reassigning personnel to a different location or retraining personnel for a different task. RESULTS: Nine hospital leaders from 9 hospitals in 8 health systems located in 5 countries (United States, United Kingdom, New Zealand, Singapore, and South Korea) were interviewed. Six hospitals in 5 health systems experienced a surge of critically ill patients with COVID-19, and the remaining 3 hospitals anticipated, but did not experience, a similar surge. Seven of 8 hospitals redeployed their health care workforce, and 1 had a redeployment plan in place but did not need to use it. Thematic analysis of the interview notes identified 3 themes representing effective practices and lessons learned when preparing and executing workforce redeployment: process, leadership, and communication. Critical considerations within each theme were identified. Because of the various expertise of redeployed personnel, retraining had to be customized and a decentralized flexible strategy was implemented. There were 3 concerns regarding redeployed personnel. These included the fear of becoming infected, the concern over their skills and patient safety, and concerns regarding professional loss (such as loss of education opportunities in their chosen profession). Transparency via multiple different types of communications is important to prevent the development of doubt and rumors. CONCLUSIONS: Redeployment strategies should critically consider the process of redeploying and supporting the health care workforce, decentralized leadership that encourages and supports local implementation of system-wide plans, and communication that is transparent, regular, consistent, and informed by data.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Liderança , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Singapura/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Ann Surg ; 273(6): 1040-1041, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714961

Assuntos
Tutoria , Cirurgiões , Humanos
17.
J Pediatr Surg ; 52(1): 35-39, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27916444

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Neonates after emergent enterostomy creation frequently require reversal at low weight because of complications including cholestasis, dehydration, dumping, failure to thrive, and failure to achieve enteral independence. We investigated whether stoma reversal at low weight (< 2.5kg) is associated with poor surgical outcomes. METHODS: Patients who underwent enterostomy reversal from 2005 to 2013 at less than 6months old were identified in our institutional database. Only patients who underwent emergent enterostomy creation (i.e. for necrotizing enterocolitis or spontaneous perforation) were included. Demographics, disease process, comorbidities, stoma type, reversal indication, operative details, and complications were examined. Patients were categorized by weight at reversal of less than 2kg, 2.01-2.5kg, 2.51-3.5kg, and greater than 3.5kg. Data were analyzed using univariable and multivariable regression with significance level of p<0.05. The primary outcome examined was major morbidity, defined as the presence of anastomotic leak, obstruction, hernia, EC fistula, perforation, wound infection, sepsis, or death. RESULTS: Eighty-nine patients met inclusion criteria. Demographics (sex, ethnicity, surgical disease process, reversal indication, and ASA score) were similar. The lowest weight group had lower gestational age (p<0.001) and birth weight (p=0.005), and contained a higher proportion of jejunostomies to ileostomies (p=0.013). On univariable analysis, only incisional hernia was significantly different as a complication between weight groups. On multivariable analysis controlling for gestational age and ASA, there was no significant difference in odds of major operative morbidity between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Enterostomy reversal at lower weight may not be associated with increased risk of perioperative complications. Early stoma reversal may be acceptable when required for progression of neonatal care. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, Treatment Study (Retrospective comparative study).


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Enterostomia , Reoperação , Estomas Cirúrgicos , Peso ao Nascer , Colestase/etiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/cirurgia , Enterostomia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Perfuração Intestinal/cirurgia , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
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