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1.
Int J Pharm ; 587: 119640, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673770

RESUMO

Hydroxyethyl bearing gemini surfactants, alkanediyl-α,ω-bis(N-hexadecyl-N-2-hydroxyethyl-N-methylammonium bromide), 16-s-16(OH), were used to augment phosphatidylcholine based liposomes to achieve higher stability and enhanced cellular uptake and penetration. The developed liposomes were loaded with rhodamine B, doxorubicin hydrochloride, pralidoxime chloride to investigate release properties, cytotoxicity in vitro, as well as ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. At molar ratio of 35:1 (lipid:surfactant) the formulation was found to be of low toxicity, stable for two months, and able to deliver rhodamine B beyond the blood-brain barrier in rats. In vivo, pharmacokinetics of free and formulated 2-PAM in plasma and brain were evaluated, liposomal 2-PAM was found to reactivate 27% of brain acetylcholinesterase, which is, to our knowledge, the first example of such high degree of reactivation after intravenous administration of liposomal drug.

2.
Nanoscale ; 12(25): 13757-13770, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573587

RESUMO

New lipid-based nanomaterials and multi-target directed ligands (MTDLs) based on sterically hindered phenol, containing a quaternary ammonium moiety (SHP-s-R, with s = 2,3) of varying hydrophobicity (R = CH2Ph and CnH2n+1, with n = 8, 10, 12, 16), have been prepared as potential drugs against Alzheimer's disease (AD). SHP-s-R are inhibitors of human cholinesterases with antioxidant properties. The inhibitory potency of SHP-s-R and selectivity ratio of cholinesterase inhibition were found to significantly depend on the length of the methylene spacer (s) and alkyl chain length. The compound SHP-2-16 showed the best IC50 for human AChE and the highest selectivity, being 30-fold more potent than for human BChE. Molecular modeling of SHP-2-16 binding to human AChE suggests that this compound is a dual binding site inhibitor that interacts with both the peripheral anionic site and catalytic active site. The relationship between self-assembly parameters (CMC, solubilization capacity, aggregation number), antioxidant activity and a toxicological parameter (hemolytic action on human red blood cells) was investigated. Two sterically hindered phenols (SHP-2-Bn and SHP-2-R) were loaded into L-α-phosphatidylcholine (PC) nanoparticles by varying the SHP alkyl chain length. For the brain AChE inhibition assay, PC/SHP-2-Bn/SHP-2-16 nanoparticles were administered to rats intranasally at a dose of 8 mg kg-1. The Morris water maze experiment showed that scopolamine-induced AD-like dementia in rats treated with PC/SHP-2-Bn/SHP-2-16 nanoparticles was significantly reduced. This is the first example of cationic SHP-phospholipid nanoparticles for inhibition of brain cholinesterases realized by the use of intranasal administration. This route has promising potential for the treatment of AD.

3.
J Org Chem ; 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588636

RESUMO

New three-component domino reactions, providing divergent approaches to multifunctionalized pyrroles with different substitution patterns, have been established (47 examples). In this work, a new rearrangement of quinoxalinones with the participation of the in situ-generated 2-en-1-imine moiety of the substituent at C3 makes it possible to construct two new heterocyclic systems, namely, a benzimidazolone and a pyrrole, simultaneously under one-pot reaction conditions. The reaction is easy to perform simply by mixing three common reactants of acetic acid with heating. Secondary amines or primary alcohols as the third component of the reaction, along with quinoxalin-3(4H)-ones and malononitrile, not only initiate the rearrangement but also are responsible for the nature of substituents at position 5 of the pyrrole ring in the newly formed new biheterocyclic system. The reaction proceeds smoothly and can be finished within 7 h, which makes workup convenient to give up to 97% chemical yields.

4.
Chempluschem ; 85(5): 958-962, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412179

RESUMO

Reaction of the electrochemically in situ from elemental white phosphorus generated phosphine oxide H3 PO in a single electrochemical cell, supplied with lead cathode and aluminium anode, with cyclic ketones (cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone) results in formation of secondary phosphine oxides (bis(α-hydroxycyclopentyl)phosphine oxide 2 a, isolated yield 15 %, and bis(α-hydroxycyclohexyl)phosphine oxide 2 b, isolated yield 12 %) with two α-hydroxycycloalkyl substituents at the phosphorus atom. Bis(α-hydroxycyclopentyl)phosphine oxide reacts with [PdCl2 (COD)] (COD=1,5-cyclooctadiene) to give a new palladium complex trans-[PdCl2 {P(OH)(cyclo-C5 H8 -1-OH)2 }2 ] (3 a, isolated yield 11 %) bearing phosphinous acid as a ligand formed via tautomerization of the phosphine oxide. Finally, the cytotoxicity of the synthesized secondary phosphine oxides on tumor and healthy human cell lines was studied. It was found that at a concentration of 10-6 -10-4  M, phosphine oxides 2 a,b exhibit similar IC50 values for the M-Hela cell line (ca. 50 mM), but are non-toxic for MCF-7 cells. For human alveolar adenocarcinoma cells (A-549), only 2 a is active (ca. 35 mM), while 2 b is not toxic.

5.
Molecules ; 25(4)2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093122

RESUMO

The reaction of triferrocenylthiophosphite with elemental sulfur leads to triferrocenyltetrathiophosphate. The molecule of tetrathiophosphate adopts propeller-like all synclinal-conformation of the ferrocenyl fragments respective to the P=S bond. All ferrocenyl groups have nearly ideal eclipsed conformation of the cyclopentadienyl fragments. The Fc3S3P (1), Fc3S3P=O, (2) and Fc3S3P=S (3) demonstrate three reversible and well-separated ferrocenyl-based redox events. The electronic structures of 1-3 have been studied quantum-chemically; the energies and composition of frontier orbitals have been calculated.

6.
Dalton Trans ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073068

RESUMO

New 3D Ni and Co redox-active metal-organic frameworks based on ferrocenyl diphosphinate and 4,4'-bipyridine ligands have been synthesized, characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic techniques and explored as stable electrocatalysts capable of meeting two important parameters: the overpotential and Tafel slope (TS) in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The electrochemical studies suggest that the reaction kinetics of a Ni-MOF (1) catalyst is more favorable than that of a Co-MOF (2) catalyst. Particularly, Ni-MOF exhibits better HER performance with an overpotential of 350 mV at a current density of 10 mA cm-2, a small TS of 60 mV dec-1 and superior long-term durability (of up to 10 000 cycles), ranking it among the most active non-noble metal-based molecular electrocatalysts. The introduction of a 4,4'-bpy linker in 2 significantly changes the catalytic properties in an organic or aqueous environment compared to 1D cobalt polymers based on ferrocenyl diphosphinate. For Co-MOF 2, there is a significant decrease in the overvoltage by ∼440 mV in comparison with the 1D Co polymer in an organic medium and by 50 mV in an aqueous medium. The TS changes from 120 to 65 mV dec-1 when moving from 1D CofcdHp to a 3D structure of 2. Thus, a 4,4'-bpy linker reduces the overvoltage and gives more favorable HER kinetics (lower TS). These results provide important guidelines for the rational design of non-precious metal electrocatalysts.

7.
Dalton Trans ; 48(46): 17252-17257, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660555

RESUMO

The interaction of manganese(ii) phthalocyanine with 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane and its perfluoro derivative proceeds with the oxidation of Mn and the reduction of the acceptor molecules to give the first mixed single crystals of manganese(iii) phthalocyanine with TCNQ/F4-TCNQ radical anions. The crystals have unusual structures with C-Hπ interactions between the ions and their orthogonal arrangement, as well as remarkable redox properties. The charge transfer was proved by spectroscopic and magnetic studies.

8.
J Org Chem ; 84(21): 13572-13581, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549510

RESUMO

A novel and efficient protocol for the synthesis of diversely substituted 2,2'-bibenzimidazoles from the reaction of 3-cyanoquinoxalin-2(1H)-ones with 1,2-diaminobenzenes has been developed, which proceeds through sequential nucleophilic addition and electrophilic substitution followed by a Mamedov rearrangement. The synthetic utility of this strategy was illustrated by the concise, one-pot synthesis of 5,5'-bi(2,2'-bibenzimidazoles) and aza-analogues of 2,2'-bibenzimidazole.

9.
Inorg Chem ; 58(12): 7698-7704, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144500

RESUMO

A series of novel charged disilver(I) complexes with pyridyl-containing phospholanes was synthesized. These complexes were characterized using a range of spectroscopic techniques and single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction. The complexes demonstrate solid-state near-infrared (NIR) luminescence (765-902 nm) that is unique for dinuclear AgI complexes. Combined spectroscopic/quantum chemical analysis suggests that the NIR luminescence of complexes 4-6 in the solid state is mainly due to crystal packing effects.

10.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 178: 317-328, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884347

RESUMO

Multi-targeted approaches for inhibition of сervical cancer cells in vitro were developed by implementing two different strategies and drug combination for creation of new therapeutic target agents and for nanotechnological-enhancement of intracellular delivery. New 2-benzimidazolylquinoxalines derivatives were synthesized and characterized by combining two different pharmacophores - benzimidazole and quinoxaline rings directly bonded in their structures. Spectrophotometric technique for determination of content of compounds in various media was developed to evaluate their solubility in water and micellar solutions of surfactants. The bioavailability of poorly water-soluble 2-benzimidazolylquinoxalines was improved by PEGylated liposomes as antitumor drug delivery carriers. 2-benzimidazolylquinoxalines-loaded PEGylated liposomes, with size close to 100 nm and negative zeta potential ranging from -13 mV to -27 mV, were time-stable at room temperature. The design of liposomal formulations for improving cellular uptake and in vitro antitumor efficacy was performed by modification of liposome surface with the new arginine surfactant. The cell viability of 2-benzimidazolylquinoxalines-loaded arginine liposomes on human cancer M-Hela cells was 16% at the concentration 0.15 mg/ml. Moreover, these liposomes showed a lower toxicity (40%) against normal human Gang liver cells both at the lowest and highest tested concentrations.


Assuntos
Arginina/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Lipossomos/química , Quinoxalinas/química , Células HeLa , Humanos , Tensoativos/química
11.
Dalton Trans ; 48(11): 3601-3609, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698578

RESUMO

New redox active 1D helical coordination polymers M(fcdHp) (M(ii) = Zn(1), Co(2)) have been obtained by utilizing the 1,1'-ferrocenylenbis(H-phosphinic) acid (H2fcdHp) ligand and Zn or Co nitrate salts. Complexes 1 and 2 are isomorphic, crystallizing in the chiral space groups P4122 and P4322, respectively. Their redox, electrocatalytic and other properties are described. These compounds incorporated into carbon paste electrodes and exhibited reversible redox reactions, arising from the ferrocenyl moiety. These coordination polymers are efficient as electrocatalysts for the reduction of protons to hydrogen. Using N,N-dimethylformamidium ([DMF(H)+]) as the acid in the acetonitrile solution, Co CP (2) displays a turnover frequency of 300 s-1, which is among the fastest rates reported for any CP electrocatalyst in CH3CN. This high rate of catalytic reaction comes at the cost of the 820-840 mV overpotential at the potential of catalysis. As the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysts, the CPs exhibited in 0.5 M H2SO4 the overpotential η10 of 340 or 450 mV, onset overpotential of 220 or 300 mV (vs. RHE), Tafel slope of 110 or 120 mV dec-1, correspondingly for 1 and 2, and considerable long-term stability for the HER.

12.
Molecules ; 23(11)2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30366477

RESUMO

The synthesis and physical properties of the series of the ferrocenyl-containing sterically hindered phosphonium salts based on di(tert-butyl)ferrocenylphosphine is reported. Analysis of voltamogramms of the obtained compounds revealed some correlations between their structures and electrochemical properties. The elongation of the alkyl chain at the P atom as well as replacement of the Br- anion by [BF4]- shifts the ferrocene/ferrocenium transition of the resulting salts into the positive region. DFT results shows that in the former case, the Br- anion destabilizes the corresponding ion pair, making its oxidation easier due to increased highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy. Increased HOMO energy for ion pairs with the Br- ion compared to BF4- are caused by contribution of bromide atomic orbitals to the HOMO. The observed correlations can be used for fine-tuning the properties of the salts making them attractive for applications in multicomponent batteries and capacitors.


Assuntos
Compostos Ferrosos/química , Metalocenos/química , Compostos Organofosforados/química , Estrutura Molecular
13.
J Org Chem ; 83(21): 13132-13145, 2018 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30272451

RESUMO

The new efficient synthesis of biologically important 3-hydroxy-4-arylquinolin-2-ones through the Darzens condensation (epoxidation) of dichloroacetanilides with aromatic aldehydes followed by one-pot dechlorative epoxide-arene cyclization is described. This methodology has been utilized for the synthesis of naturally occurring viridicatol, a fungal metabolite isolated from the penicillium species.

14.
J Control Release ; 290: 102-111, 2018 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30308259

RESUMO

A novel approach for brain protection against poisoning by organophosphorus agents is developed based on the combination treatment of dual delivery of two oximes. Pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM) and a novel reactivator, 6-(5-(6,7-dimethoxy-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-yl)pentyl)-3-hydroxy picolinaldehyde oxime (3-HPA), have been loaded in solid-lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) to offer distinct release profile and systemic half-life for both oximes. To increase the therapeutic time window of both oximes, SLNs with two different compartments were designed to load each respective drug. Oxime-loaded SLNs of hydrodynamic diameter between 100 and 160 nm and negative zeta potential (-30 to -25 mV) were stable for a period of 10 months at 4 °C. SLNs displayed longer circulation time in the bloodstream compared to free 3-HPA and free 2-PAM. Oxime-loaded SLNs were suitable for intravenous (iv) administration. Paraoxon-poisoned rats (0.8 × LD50) were treated with 3-HPA-loaded SLNs and 2-PAM+3-HPA-loaded SLNs at the dose of 3-HPA and 2-PAM of 5 mg/kg. Brain AChE reactivation up to 30% was slowly achieved in 5 h after administration of 3-HPA-SLNs. For combination therapy with two oximes, a time-dependent additivity and increased reactivation up to 35% were observed.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Oximas/administração & dosagem , Paraoxon/toxicidade , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Lipídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Oximas/sangue , Oximas/farmacocinética , Ratos Wistar
15.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 171: 358-367, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059851

RESUMO

New mixed cationic liposomes based on L-α-phosphatidylcholine and dihexadecylmethylhydroxyethylammonium bromide (DHDHAB) were designed to overcome the BBB crossing by using the intranasal route. Synthesis and self-assembly of DHDHAB were performed. A low critical association concentration (0.01 mM), good solubilization properties toward hydrophobic dye Orange OT and antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (MIC=7.8 µg mL-1) and Bacillus cereus (MIC=7.8 µg mL-1), low hemolytic activities against human red blood cells (less than 10%) were achieved. Conditions for preparation of cationic vesicles and mixed liposomes with excellent colloidal stability at room temperature were determined. The intranasal administration of rhodamine B-loaded cationic liposomes was shown to increase bioavailability into the brain in comparison to the intravenous injection. The cholinesterase reactivator, 2-PAM, was used as model drug for the loading in cationic liposomes. 2-PAM-loaded cationic liposomes displayed high encapsulation efficiency (∼ 90%) and hydrodynamic diameter close to 100 nm. Intranasally administered 2-PAM-loaded cationic liposomes were effective against paraoxon-induced acetylcholinesterase inhibition in the brain. 2-PAM-loaded liposomes reactivated 12 ± 1% of brain acetylcholinesterase. This promising result opens the possibility to use marketed positively charged oximes in medical countermeasures against organophosphorus poisoning for reactivation of central acetylcholinesterase by implementing a non-invasive approach, via the "nose-brain" pathway.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Reativadores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Compostos de Pralidoxima/farmacologia , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Administração Intranasal , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Bacillus cereus/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cátions/química , Reativadores da Colinesterase/administração & dosagem , Reativadores da Colinesterase/química , Lipossomos/química , Paraoxon/antagonistas & inibidores , Paraoxon/farmacologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Compostos de Pralidoxima/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Pralidoxima/química , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/síntese química , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Rodaminas/administração & dosagem , Rodaminas/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Propriedades de Superfície
16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(17): 14948-14955, 2018 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29652477

RESUMO

The present work for the first time introduces nanosensors for luminescent monitoring of acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-catalyzed hydrolysis of endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) released in neuromuscular junctions of isolated muscles. The sensing function results from the quenching of Tb(III)-centered luminescence due to proton-induced degradation of luminescent Tb(III) complexes doped into silica nanoparticles (SNs, 23 nm), when acetic acid is produced from the enzymatic hydrolysis of ACh. The targeting of the silica nanoparticles by α-bungarotoxin was used for selective staining of the synaptic space in the isolated muscles by the nanosensors. The targeting procedure was optimized for the high sensing sensitivity. The measuring of the Tb(III)-centered luminescence intensity of the targeted SNs by fluorescent microscopy enables us to sense a release of endogenous ACh in neuromuscular junctions of the isolated muscles under their stimulation by a high-frequency train (20 Hz, for 3 min). The ability of the targeted SNs to sense an inhibiting effect of paraoxon on enzymatic activity of AChE in ex vivo conditions provides a way of mimicking external stimuli effects on enzymatic processes in the isolated muscles.

17.
Luminescence ; 33(3): 588-593, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29377578

RESUMO

The present work introduces for the first time a nanoparticulate approach for ex vivo monitoring of acetylcholinesterase-catalyzed hydrolysis of endogenous acetylcholine released from nerve varicosities in mice atria. Amino-modified 20-nm size silica nanoparticles (SNs) doped by luminescent Tb(III) complexes were applied as the nanosensors. Their sensing capacity results from the decreased intensity of Tb(III)-centred luminescence due to the quenching effect of acetic acid derived from acetylcholinesterase-catalyzed hydrolysis of acetylcholine. Sensitivity of the SNs in monitoring acetylcholine hydrolysis was confirmed by in vitro experiments. Isolated atria were exposed to the nanosensors for 10 min to stain cell membranes. Acetylcholine hydrolysis was monitored optically in the atria samples by measuring quenching of Tb(III)-centred luminescence by acetic acid derived from endogenous acetylcholine due to its acetylcholinesterase-catalyzed hydrolysis. The reliability of the sensing was demonstrated by the quenching effect of exogenous acetylcholine added to the bath solution. Additionally, no luminescence quenching occurred when the atria were pre-treated with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor paraoxon.


Assuntos
Acetilcolina/análise , Átrios do Coração/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Átrios do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrólise , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Paraoxon/farmacologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Térbio/química
18.
Dalton Trans ; 46(25): 8146-8156, 2017 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28607987

RESUMO

The interplay of NMR experiments and DFT calculations of NMR parameters is a reliable method for determining the relative configurations of pentacoordinate chiral spirophosphoranes bearing two six- or five-membered rings at the phosphorus atom in solution. The major product of the Betti based derivatives corresponds to the isomers with both substituents at chiral carbons being opposite to the P-H proton. The next populated product corresponds to the isomer with different chiralities at carbons. The least populated isomer is one with both substituents being at the same side of the heterocycle as the P-H bond.

19.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 76: 551-558, 2017 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28482563

RESUMO

The work introduces Tb(III)-centered luminescence of amino-modified silica nanoparticles doped with Tb(III) complexes for cellular imaging. For these purposes water-in-oil procedure was optimized for synthesis of 20 and 35nm luminescent nanoparticles with amino-groups embedded on the surface. The obtained results indicate an impact of the nanoparticle size in decoration, aggregation behavior and luminescent properties of the nanoparticles in protein-based buffer solutions. Formation of a protein-based corona on the nanoparticles surface was revealed through the effect of the nanoparticles on helical superstructure of BSA. This effect is evident from CD spectral data, while no any size impact on the adsorption of BSA onto aminomodified silica surface was observed. Cellular uptake of the nanoparticles studied by confocal and TEM microscopy methods indicates greater cellular uptake for the smaller nanoparticles. Cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles was found to agree well with their cellular uptake behavior, which in turn was found to be greater for the smaller nanoparticles.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Luminescência , Dióxido de Silício , Água
20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(20): 16922-16932, 2017 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28504886

RESUMO

Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are among the most promising nanocarriers to target the blood-brain barrier (BBB) for drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS). Encapsulation of the acetylcholinesterase reactivator, pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM), in SLNs appears to be a suitable strategy for protection against poisoning by organophosphorus agents (OPs) and postexposure treatment. 2-PAM-loaded SLNs were developed for brain targeting and delivery via intravenous (iv) administration. 2-PAM-SLNs displayed a high 2-PAM encapsulation efficiency (∼90%) and loading capacity (maximum 30.8 ± 1%). Drug-loaded particles had a mean hydrodynamic diameter close to 100 nm and high negative zeta potential (-54 to -15 mV). These properties contribute to improve long-term stability of 2-PAM-SLNs when stored both at room temperature (22 °C) and at 4 °C, as well as to longer circulation time in the bloodstream compared to free 2-PAM. Paraoxon-poisoned rats (2 × LD50) were treated with 2-PAM-loaded SLNs at a dose of 2-PAM of 5 mg/kg. 2-PAM-SLNs reactivated 15% of brain AChE activity. Our results confirm the potential use of SLNs loaded with positively charged oximes as a medical countermeasure both for protection against OPs poisoning and for postexposure treatment.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Animais , Encéfalo , Reativadores da Colinesterase , Lipídeos , Paraoxon , Compostos de Pralidoxima , Ratos
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