*Nat Commun ; 14(1): 176, 2023 Jan 12.*

##### RESUMO

Photonic qubits should be controllable on-chip and noise-tolerant when transmitted over optical networks for practical applications. Furthermore, qubit sources should be programmable and have high brightness to be useful for quantum algorithms and grant resilience to losses. However, widespread encoding schemes only combine at most two of these properties. Here, we overcome this hurdle by demonstrating a programmable silicon nano-photonic chip generating frequency-bin entangled photons, an encoding scheme compatible with long-range transmission over optical links. The emitted quantum states can be manipulated using existing telecommunication components, including active devices that can be integrated in silicon photonics. As a demonstration, we show our chip can be programmed to generate the four computational basis states, and the four maximally-entangled Bell states, of a two-qubits system. Our device combines all the key properties of on-chip state reconfigurability and dense integration, while ensuring high brightness, fidelity, and purity.

*Opt Lett ; 47(7): 1802-1805, 2022 Apr 01.*

##### RESUMO

Third-order parametric downconversion (TOPDC) describes a class of nonlinear interactions in which a pump photon is converted into a photon triplet. This process can occur spontaneously or it can be stimulated by seeding fields. Here we show that stimulated TOPDC (StTOPDC) can be exploited for the generation of quantum correlated photon pairs. We model StTOPDC in a microring resonator, predicting observable pair generation rates in a microring engineered for third-harmonic generation, and we examine the peculiar features of this approach when compared with second-order spontaneous parametric downconversion and spontaneous four-wave mixing. We conclude that if the experimental difficulties associated with implementing StTOPDC can be overcome, it may soon be possible to demonstrate this process in resonant integrated devices.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 127(3): 033901, 2021 Jul 16.*

##### RESUMO

We report on a signal-to-noise ratio characterizing the generation of identical photon pairs of more than 4 orders of magnitude in a ring resonator system. Parasitic noise, associated with single-pump spontaneous four-wave mixing, is essentially eliminated by employing a novel system design involving two resonators that are linearly uncoupled but nonlinearly coupled. This opens the way to a new class of integrated devices exploiting the unique properties of identical photon pairs in the same optical mode.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 126(25): 259702, 2021 06 25.*

*Opt Lett ; 46(9): 2244-2247, 2021 May 01.*

##### RESUMO

We investigate spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC) in a waveguide array supporting two strongly coupled topological guided modes. We show that it is possible to generate photon pairs that are hyper-entangled in energy and path. We study the state robustness against positional disorder of the waveguides, in terms of Schmidt number (SN), fidelity, and density matrix. We show that quantum correlations are in general robust due to the peculiar interplay between structure topology and second-order nonlinear interaction.

*Opt Lett ; 45(7): 2034-2037, 2020 Apr 01.*

##### RESUMO

Dispersion plays a major role in the behavior of light inside photonic devices. Current state-of-the-art dispersion measurement techniques utilize linear interferometers that can be applied to devices with small dispersion-length products. However, linear interferometry often requires beam alignment and phase stabilization. Recently, common-path nonlinear interferometers in the spontaneous regime have been used to demonstrate alignment-free and phase-stable dispersion measurements. However, they require single-photon detectors, resulting in high system cost and long integration times. We overcome these issues by utilizing a nonlinear interferometer in the stimulated regime and demonstrate the ability to measure the dispersion of a device with a dispersion-length product as small as 0.009 ps/nm at a precision of 0.0002 ps/nm. Moreover, this regime allows us to measure dispersion with shorter integration times (in comparison to the spontaneous regime) and conventional optical components and detectors.

*Opt Lett ; 45(5): 1244-1247, 2020 Mar 01.*

##### RESUMO

We study spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) in a one-dimensional photonic crystal designed to operate in a doubly resonant configuration, where the frequencies of the pump and the generated photons are both tuned to band-edge resonances. We investigate the spectral correlations of the generated photons as a function of the spectral width of the pump, and demonstrate that the SPDC generation rate can scale with the fifth power of the structure length in the limit of a quasi-continuous-wave pump. We show that such an unusual scaling can be simply connected with the scaling of second-harmonic generation in the same structure, illustrating the general link between spontaneous and stimulated parametric nonlinear processes.

*Opt Lett ; 45(4): 873-876, 2020 Feb 15.*

##### RESUMO

We experimentally demonstrate stimulated four-wave mixing in two linearly uncoupled integrated $ {{\rm Si}_3}{{\rm N}_4} $Si3N4 micro-resonators. In our structure, the resonance combs of each resonator can be tuned independently, with the energy transfer from one resonator to the other occurring in the presence of a nonlinear interaction. This method allows flexible and efficient on-chip control of the nonlinear interaction, and is readily applicable to other third-order nonlinear phenomena.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 123(7): 070508, 2019 Aug 16.*

##### RESUMO

We experimentally demonstrate the generation of a three-photon discrete-energy-entangled W state using multiphoton-pair generation by spontaneous four-wave mixing in an optical fiber. We show that, by making use of prior information on the photon source, we can verify the state produced by this source without resorting to frequency conversion.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 123(6): 067402, 2019 Aug 09.*

##### RESUMO

We report experiments demonstrating quantum interference control based on two nonlinear optical absorption processes in semiconductors. We use two optical beams of frequencies ω and 3ω/2 incident on AlGaAs, and measure the injection current due to the interference between 2- and 3-photon absorption processes. We analyze the dependence of the injection current on the intensities and phases of the incident fields.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 122(15): 153906, 2019 Apr 19.*

##### RESUMO

We demonstrate that nondegenerate four-wave mixing in a Si_{3}N_{4} microring resonator can result in a nonlinear coupling rate between two optical fields exceeding their energy dissipation rate in the resonator, corresponding to strong nonlinear coupling. We demonstrate that this leads to a Rabi-like splitting, for which we provide a theoretical description in agreement with our experimental results. This yields new insight into the dynamics of nonlinear optical interactions in microresonators and access to novel phenomena.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 122(1): 013904, 2019 Jan 11.*

##### RESUMO

We demonstrate a system composed of two resonators that are coupled solely through a nonlinear interaction, and where the linear properties of each resonator can be controlled locally. We show that this class of dynamical systems has peculiar properties with important consequences for the study of classical and quantum nonlinear optical phenomena. As an example we discuss the case of dual-pump spontaneous four-wave mixing.

*Light Sci Appl ; 8: 28, 2019.*

##### RESUMO

Light is a union of electric and magnetic fields, and nowhere is the complex relationship between these fields more evident than in the near fields of nanophotonic structures. There, complicated electric and magnetic fields varying over subwavelength scales are generally present, which results in photonic phenomena such as extraordinary optical momentum, superchiral fields, and a complex spatial evolution of optical singularities. An understanding of such phenomena requires nanoscale measurements of the complete optical field vector. Although the sensitivity of near-field scanning optical microscopy to the complete electromagnetic field was recently demonstrated, a separation of different components required a priori knowledge of the sample. Here, we introduce a robust algorithm that can disentangle all six electric and magnetic field components from a single near-field measurement without any numerical modeling of the structure. As examples, we unravel the fields of two prototypical nanophotonic structures: a photonic crystal waveguide and a plasmonic nanowire. These results pave the way for new studies of complex photonic phenomena at the nanoscale and for the design of structures that optimize their optical behavior.

*Opt Lett ; 44(1): 41-44, 2019 Jan 01.*

##### RESUMO

In this work, we demonstrate the use of stimulated emission tomography to characterize a hyperentangled state generated by spontaneous parametric downconversion in a cw-pumped source. In particular, we consider the generation of hyperentangled states consisting of photon pairs entangled in polarization and path. These results extend the capability of stimulated emission tomography beyond the polarization degree of freedom and demonstrate the use of this technique to study states in higher dimension Hilbert spaces.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 121(17): 176604, 2018 Oct 26.*

##### RESUMO

We investigate a physical divergence of the third order polarization susceptibility representing a photoinduced current in biased crystalline insulators. This current grows quadratically with illumination time in the absence of momentum relaxation and saturation; we refer to it as the jerk current. Two contributions to the current are identified. The first is a hydrodynamic acceleration of optically injected carriers by the static electric field, and the second is the change in the carrier injection rate in the presence of the static electric field. The jerk current can have a component perpendicular to the static field, a feature not captured by standard hydrodynamic descriptions of carriers in electric fields. We suggest an experiment to detect the jerk current and some of its interesting features.

*Opt Lett ; 43(5): 1095-1098, 2018 Mar 01.*

##### RESUMO

We propose a novel semi-analytic design strategy for dielectric one-dimensional multilayer biosensors that is based on a relation between the angular sensitivity and the optical power flow of the Bloch surface wave guided by the multilayer. We show that our strategy can be used to optimize both the sensor's sensitivity and figure-of-merit without the need for extensive numerical parameter sweeps.

##### Assuntos

Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Fenômenos Eletromagnéticos , Desenho de Equipamento , Metais/química , Refratometria/instrumentação , Simulação por Computador , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/instrumentação , Propriedades de Superfície*Opt Lett ; 42(17): 3443-3446, 2017 Sep 01.*

##### RESUMO

We show that using the electric field as a quantization variable in nonlinear optics leads to incorrect expressions for the squeezing parameters in spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) and conversion rates in frequency conversion. This observation is related to the fact that if the electric field is written as a linear combination of bosonic creation and annihilation operators one cannot satisfy Maxwell's equations in a nonlinear dielectric.

*Opt Lett ; 42(18): 3638-3641, 2017 Sep 15.*

##### RESUMO

We demonstrate that an integrated silicon microring resonator is capable of efficiently producing photon pairs that are completely unentangled; such pairs are a key component of heralded single-photon sources. A dual-channel interferometric coupling scheme can be used to independently tune the quality factors associated with the pump and signal and idler modes, yielding a biphoton wavefunction with a Schmidt number arbitrarily close to unity. This will permit the generation of heralded single-photon states with unit purity.

*Sci Rep ; 7: 43843, 2017 03 06.*

##### RESUMO

We present a practical scheme to separate the contributions of the electric quadrupole-like and the magnetic dipole-like effects to the forbidden second order optical nonlinear response of graphene, and give analytic expressions for the second order optical conductivities, calculated from the independent particle approximation, with relaxation described in a phenomenological way. We predict strong second order nonlinear effects, including second harmonic generation, photon drag, and difference frequency generation. We discuss in detail the controllability of these effects by tuning the chemical potential, taking advantage of the dominant role played by interband optical transitions in the response.

*Opt Express ; 24(20): 23583-23595, 2016 Oct 03.*

##### RESUMO

Optical injection and detection of charge currents is an alternative to conventional transport and photoemission measurements, avoiding the necessity of invasive contact that may disturb the system being examined. This is a particular concern for analyzing the surface states of topological insulators. In this work one- and two-color sources of photocurrents are isolated and examined in epitaxial thin films of Bi_{2}Se_{3}. We demonstrate that optical excitation and terahertz detection simultaneously captures one- and two-color photocurrent contributions, which has not been required for other material systems. A method is devised to extract the two components, and in doing so each can be related to surface or bulk excitations through symmetry. The separation of such photocurrents in topological insulators opens a new avenue for studying these materials by all-optical methods.