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1.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(6): 5612-5622, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954257

RESUMO

Our objective was to retrospectively compare pregnant versus nonpregnant cattle in terms of vascular and morphometric changes in corpora lutea between d 12 and 20 following timed artificial insemination (TAI). Crossbred (Gir × Holstein) lactating dairy cows (n = 136) and heifers (n = 111) were bred after synchronizing ovulations using an estradiol plus progesterone (P4)-based protocol. Corpus luteum (CL) characteristics (area, echotexture, blood flow) were recorded at 48-h intervals from d 12 to 20 following TAI using an ultrasound equipped with color Doppler. Blood samples were collected to determine CL function (plasma P4). Pregnancy diagnosis was performed at d 30. Quantitative assessment of colored pixels within the CL was performed using ImageJ software (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD) and echotexture was quantified using custom software. Continuous variables such as luteal tissue area (LTA), CL blood flow (CLBF), adjusted CLBF (ratio LTA:CLBF), mean pixel value (MPV), pixel heterogeneity (HETER), and plasma P4 were analyzed retrospectively as repeated measures (d 12 to 20) in pregnant versus nonpregnant females using PROC MIXED (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Main effects were pregnancy status, day of cycle, and their interaction. Further analyses used only data from d 16, because this was the earliest time point of deviation between CLBF of pregnant and nonpregnant animals. We created quartiles for each variable and calculated the risk of pregnancy within quartile. Differences were determined using the chi-squared test. Plasma P4 was significantly higher in prospective pregnant versus nonpregnant cattle on d 18 and 20, whereas LTA differed only on d 20. On d 16, CLBF and adjusted CLBF diverged between pregnant and nonpregnant, followed by a progressive reduction in the latter until d 20. Mean pixel value was not affected by pregnancy status, but HETER was lower on d 20 in pregnant than in nonpregnant cattle. Likelihood of pregnancy increased from quartile (Q)1 (lowest values) to Q4 (highest) of CLBF (Q4 vs. Q1, odds ratio = 32.8, 95% confidence interval: 9.6 to 112.1) and adjusted CLBF [Q4 vs. Q1, odds ratio = 25.4, 95% confidence interval: 8.1 to 80.4), whereas a lower risk of pregnancy was observed only for animals within Q1 of plasma P4 [Q4 vs. Q1, odds ratio = 3.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.3 to 7.2). Day 16 quartiles of LTA, MPV, and HETER did not affect odds of pregnancy. In conclusion, we identified distinct CLBF patterns as early as 16 d after TAI and confirmed that CL function is lost by a reduction in blood flow, which precedes physical regression.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Corpo Lúteo/anatomia & histologia , Corpo Lúteo/irrigação sanguínea , Animais , Bovinos/anatomia & histologia , Corpo Lúteo/fisiologia , Estradiol/administração & dosagem , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Lactação/fisiologia , Masculino , Ovulação , Gravidez , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia
2.
Biol Open ; 8(5)2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952696

RESUMO

Trophectoderm of blastocysts mediate early events in fetal-maternal communication, enabling implantation and establishment of a functional placenta. Inadequate or impaired developmental events linked to trophoblasts directly impact early embryo survival and successful implantation during a crucial period that corresponds with high incidence of pregnancy losses in dairy cows. As yet, the molecular basis of bovine trophectoderm development and signaling towards initiation of implantation remains poorly understood. In this study, we developed methods for culturing undifferentiated bovine blastocyst-derived trophoblasts and used both transcriptomics and proteomics in early colonies to categorize and elucidate their functional characteristics. A total of 9270 transcripts and 1418 proteins were identified and analyzed based on absolute abundance. We profiled an extensive list of growth factors, cytokines and other relevant factors that can effectively influence paracrine communication in the uterine microenvironment. Functional categorization and analysis revealed novel information on structural organization, extracellular matrix composition, cell junction and adhesion components, transcription networks, and metabolic preferences. Our data showcase the fundamental physiology of bovine trophectoderm and indicate hallmarks of the self-renewing undifferentiated state akin to trophoblast stem cells described in other species. Functional features uncovered are essential for understanding early events in bovine pregnancy towards initiation of implantation.

3.
Mol Reprod Dev ; 86(1): 75-87, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383328

RESUMO

The uterine microenvironment during the first 7 days after ovulation accommodates and facilitates sperm transit to the oviduct and constitutes the sole source of nutrients required for the development of preimplantation embryos. Knowledge of the composition of uterine fluid is largely incomplete. Using untargeted mass spectrometry, we characterized the uterine metabolome during the first 7 days of the estrous cycle. Bovine uteri were collected on Days 0 (N = 4), 3 ( N = 4), 5 ( N = 3), and 7 ( N = 4) relative to ovulation and flushed with Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline. A total of 1,993 molecular features were detected of which 184 peaks with putative identification represent 147 unique metabolites, including amino acids, benzoic acids, lipid molecules, carbohydrates, purines, pyrimidines, vitamins, and other intermediate and secondary metabolites. Results revealed changes in the uterine metabolome as the cow transitions from ovulation to Day 7 of the estrous cycle. The majority of metabolites that changed with day reached maximum intensity on either Day 5 or 7 relative to ovulation. Moreover, several metabolites found in the uterine fluid have signaling capabilities and some have been shown to affect preimplantation embryonic development. In conclusion, the metabolome of the bovine uterus changes during early stages of the estrous cycle and is likely to participate in the regulation of preimplantation embryonic development. Data reported here will serve as the basis for future studies aiming to evaluate maternal regulation of preimplantation embryonic development and optimal conditions for the culture of embryos.


Assuntos
Estro/fisiologia , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Útero/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Fatores de Tempo
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 100(7): 5899-5908, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28456408

RESUMO

Abnormal fetuses, neonates, and adult offspring derived by assisted reproductive technologies have been reported in humans and mice and have been associated with increased likelihood of certain adult diseases. To test the hypothesis that bovine females derived by assisted reproductive technologies have altered postnatal growth and adult function, a retrospective cohort study evaluated survival, growth, and production traits of offspring derived by in vitro embryo production (IVP) with conventional (IVP-conv) or reverse X-sorted semen (IVP-sexed), multiple ovulation and embryo transfer, and artificial insemination (AI) in a large dairy herd. Live calves produced by IVP were born slightly heavier compared with AI calves. In addition, IVP-sexed calves had a higher cumulative mortality from 90 to 180 d of age compared with AI offspring. Mortality of IVP-conv and multiple ovulation and embryo transfer offspring was intermediate and not different from AI or IVP-sexed offspring. The altered phenotype of offspring from IVP-sexed extended to adult milk production. Cows derived by IVP-sexed produced less milk, fat, and protein in their first lactation compared with dairy cows derived by AI. Additionally, females born to nulliparous dams had a distinct postnatal phenotype compared with offspring from parous dams even when data were restricted to offspring of surrogate females. In conclusion, procedures associated with in vitro production of embryos involving use of reverse-sorted spermatozoa for fertilization result in an alteration of embryonic programming that persists postnatally and causes an effect on milk production in adulthood. Thus, some benefits of reverse-sorted semen for genetic improvement may be offset by adverse programming events.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Fertilização In Vitro/veterinária , Sêmen , Pré-Seleção do Sexo/veterinária , Animais , Transferência Embrionária , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Masculino , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pré-Seleção do Sexo/métodos
5.
Biol Reprod ; 96(4): 743-757, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28379294

RESUMO

Colony-stimulating factor 2 (CSF2) is an embryokine that improves competence of the embryo to establish pregnancy and which may participate in developmental programming. We tested whether culture of bovine embryos with CSF2 alters fetal development and alleviates abnormalities associated with in vitro production (IVP) of embryos. Pregnancies were established by artificial insemination (AI), transfer of an IVP embryo (IVP), or transfer of an IVP embryo treated with 10 ng/ml CSF2 from day 5 to 7 of development (CSF2). Pregnancies were produced using X-sorted semen. Female singleton conceptuses were collected on day 86 of gestation. There were few morphological differences between groups, although IVP and CSF2 fetuses were heavier than AI fetuses. Bicarbonate concentration in allantoic fluid was lower for IVP than for AI or CSF2. Expression of 92 genes in liver, placenta, and muscle was determined. The general pattern for liver and placenta was for IVP to alter expression and for CSF2 to sometimes reverse this effect. For muscle, CSF2 affected gene expression but did not generally reverse effects of IVP. Levels of methylation for each of the three tissues at 12 loci in the promoter of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and five in the promoter of growth factor receptor bound protein 10 were unaffected by treatment except for CSF2 effects on two CpG for IGF2 in placenta and muscle. In conclusion, CSF2 can act as a developmental programming agent but alone is not able to abolish the adverse effects of IVP on fetal characteristics.


Assuntos
Bovinos/embriologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/metabolismo , Animais , Blastocisto/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária/veterinária , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Feminino , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/genética , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez
6.
Biol Reprod ; 96(3): 652-663, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28339599

RESUMO

A single missense mutation at position 159 of coenzyme Q9 (COQ9) (G→A; rs109301586) has been associated with genetic variation in fertility in Holstein cattle, with the A allele associated with higher fertility. COQ9 is involved in the synthesis of coenzyme COQ10, a component of the electron transport system of the mitochondria. Here we tested whether reproductive phenotype is associated with the mutation and evaluated functional consequences for cellular oxygen metabolism, body weight changes, and ovarian function. The mutation in COQ9 modifies predicted tertiary protein structure and affected mitochondrial respiration of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The A allele was associated with low resting oxygen consumption and high electron transport system capacity. Phenotypic measurements for fertility were evaluated for up to five lactations in a population of 2273 Holstein cows. There were additive effects of the mutation (P < 0.05) in favor of the A allele for pregnancy rate, interval from calving to conception, and services per conception. There was no association of genotype with milk production or body weight changes postpartum. The mutation in COQ9 affected ovarian function; the A allele was associated with increased mitochondrial DNA copy number in oocytes, and there were overdominance effects for COQ9 expression in oocytes, follicle number, and antimullerian hormone concentrations. Overall, results show how a gene involved in mitochondrial function is associated with overall fertility, possibly in part by affecting oocyte quality.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Fertilidade/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Ovário/fisiologia , Ubiquinona/genética , Animais , Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Blastocisto/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Respiração Celular , Células do Cúmulo/metabolismo , Endométrio/metabolismo , Feminino , Lactação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Oócitos/metabolismo , Gravidez
7.
Reproduction ; 152(6): 645-654, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27601717

RESUMO

We tested whether gene expression of the bovine morula is modified by CSF2 in a sex-dependent manner and if sex determines the effect of CSF2 on competence of embryos to become blastocysts. Embryos were produced in vitro using X- or Y-sorted semen and treated at Day 5 of culture with 10 ng/mL bovine CSF2 or control. In experiment 1, morulae were collected at Day 6 and biological replicates (n = 8) were evaluated for transcript abundance of 90 genes by RT-qPCR using the Fluidigm Delta Gene assay. Expression of more than one-third (33 of 90) of genes examined was affected by sex. The effect of CSF2 on gene expression was modified by sex (P < 0.05) for five genes (DDX3Y/DDX3X-like, NANOG, MYF6, POU5F1 and RIPK3) and tended (P < 0.10) to be modified by sex for five other genes (DAPK1, HOXA5, PPP2R3A, PTEN and TNFSF8). In experiment 2, embryos were treated at Day 5 with control or CSF2 and blastocysts were collected at Day 7 for immunolabeling to determine the number of inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) cells. CSF2 increased the percent of putative zygotes that became blastocysts for females, but did not affect the development of males. There was no effect of CSF2 or interaction of CSF2 with sex on the total number of blastomeres in blastocysts or in the number of inner cell mass or trophectoderm cells. In conclusion, CSF2 exerted divergent responses on gene expression and development of female and male embryos. These results are evidence of sexually dimorphic responses of the preimplantation embryo to this embryokine.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Estimuladores de Colônias/farmacologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Blastocisto/citologia , Blastocisto/metabolismo , Bovinos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem da Célula , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária , Embrião de Mamíferos/citologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Epigenetics ; 11(7): 501-16, 2016 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27245094

RESUMO

Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parental-allele-specific gene expression. Approximately 150 imprinted genes have been identified in humans and mice but less than 30 have been described as imprinted in cattle. For the purpose of de novo identification of imprinted genes in bovine, we determined global monoallelic gene expression in brain, skeletal muscle, liver, kidney and placenta of day ∼105 Bos taurus indicus × Bos taurus taurus F1 conceptuses using RNA sequencing. To accomplish this, we developed a bioinformatics pipeline to identify parent-specific single nucleotide polymorphism alleles after filtering adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing sites. We identified 53 genes subject to monoallelic expression. Twenty three are genes known to be imprinted in the cow and an additional 7 have previously been characterized as imprinted in human and/or mouse that have not been reported as imprinted in cattle. Of the remaining 23 genes, we found that 10 are uncharacterized or unannotated transcripts located in known imprinted clusters, whereas the other 13 genes are distributed throughout the bovine genome and are not close to any known imprinted clusters. To exclude potential cis-eQTL effects on allele expression, we corroborated the parental specificity of monoallelic expression in day 86 Bos taurus taurus × Bos taurus taurus conceptuses and identified 8 novel bovine imprinted genes. Further, we identified 671 candidate A-to-I RNA editing sites and describe random X-inactivation in day 15 bovine extraembryonic membranes. Our results expand the imprinted gene list in bovine and demonstrate that monoallelic gene expression can be the result of cis-eQTL effects.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genoma , Impressão Genômica , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Alelos , Animais , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Edição de RNA , Análise de Sequência de DNA
9.
Cell Tissue Res ; 363(1): 237-247, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26391275

RESUMO

The developmental program of the embryo displays a plasticity that can result in long-acting effects that extend into postnatal life. In mammals, adult phenotype can be altered by changes in the maternal environment during the preimplantation period. One characteristic of developmental programming during this time is that the change in adult phenotype is often different for female offspring than for male offspring. In this paper, we propose the hypothesis that sexual dimorphism in preimplantation programming is mediated, at least in part, by sex-specific responses of embryos to maternal regulatory molecules whose secretion is dependent on the maternal environment. The strongest evidence for this idea comes from the study of colony-stimulating factor 2 (CSF2). Expression of CSF2 from the oviduct and endometrium is modified by environmental factors of the mother, in particular seminal plasma and obesity. Additionally, CSF2 alters several properties of the preimplantation embryo and has been shown to alleviate negative consequences of culture of mouse embryos on postnatal phenotype in a sex-dependent manner. In cattle, exposure of preimplantation bovine embryos to CSF2 causes sex-specific changes in gene expression, interferon-τ secretion and DNA methylation later in pregnancy (day 15 of gestation). It is likely that several embryokines can alter postnatal phenotype through actions directed towards the preimplantation embryo. Identification of these molecules and elucidation of the mechanisms by which sexually-disparate programming is established will lead to new insights into the control and manipulation of embryonic development.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Dieta , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/genética , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez
10.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 11: 73, 2013 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23915143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most studies on granulosa cell (GC) function in cattle have been performed using GC and follicular fluid (FF) samples collected from slaughterhouse ovaries. Using this approach, the follicular developmental stage and functional status are unknown and indirectly inferred, limiting data interpretation. Ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration has previously been used to recover GC or FF samples, but this was mostly carried out in large follicles or pools of small follicles, without recording the efficiency of recovery. The present study was aimed at adapting and evaluating an ovum pick-up (OPU) system for the in vivo recovery of FF and GC from individual follicles of different diameters. METHODS: In the first trial, the losses of fluid inside the tubing system were calculated using a conventional or an adapted-OPU system. Blood plasma volumes equivalent to the amount of FF in follicles of different diameters were aspirated using a conventional OPU Teflon circuit. The OPU system was then adapted by connecting 0.25 mL straws to the circuit. A second trial evaluated the efficiency of FF recovery in vivo. Follicles ranging from 4.0 to 16.8 mm in diameter were aspirated individually using the conventional or adapted-OPU systems. A third trial assessed the in vivo recovery of GC and the subsequent amount of RNA obtained from the follicles of different diameters from Holstein and Gir cattle. RESULTS: In Trial I, the plasma recovery efficiency was similar (P > 0.05) for the volumes expected for 12 and 10 mm follicles, but decreased (P < 0.05) for smaller follicles (45.7+/-4.0%, 12.4+/-4.3% and 0.0+/-0.0% for 8, 6, and 4 mm follicles, respectively). Using the adaptation, the losses intrinsic to the aspiration system were similar for all follicle diameters. In Trial II, the expected and recovered volumes of FF were correlated (r = 0.89) and the efficiency of recovery was similar among follicles <12 mm, while larger follicles had a progressive increase in FF losses that was not related to the tubing system. In Trial III, the number of GC and amount of RNA obtained were not affected (P > 0.05) by follicle size, but differed according to breed (615,054+/-58,122 vs 458,095+/-36,407 for Holstein and Gir, respectively; P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The adapted-OPU system can be successfully used for the in vivo collection of FF and GC from follicles of different diameters. This will enable further endocrine, cellular, and gene expression analyses.


Assuntos
Líquido Folicular/metabolismo , Células da Granulosa/citologia , Recuperação de Oócitos/métodos , Folículo Ovariano/citologia , Óvulo/citologia , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Recuperação de Oócitos/instrumentação , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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