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1.
J Exp Med ; 216(9): 2057-2070, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270247

RESUMO

Vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) and yellow fever (YF) with live attenuated viruses can rarely cause life-threatening disease. Severe illness by MMR vaccines can be caused by inborn errors of type I and/or III interferon (IFN) immunity (mutations in IFNAR2, STAT1, or STAT2). Adverse reactions to the YF vaccine have remained unexplained. We report two otherwise healthy patients, a 9-yr-old boy in Iran with severe measles vaccine disease at 1 yr and a 14-yr-old girl in Brazil with viscerotropic disease caused by the YF vaccine at 12 yr. The Iranian patient is homozygous and the Brazilian patient compound heterozygous for loss-of-function IFNAR1 variations. Patient-derived fibroblasts are susceptible to viruses, including the YF and measles virus vaccine strains, in the absence or presence of exogenous type I IFN. The patients' fibroblast phenotypes are rescued with WT IFNAR1 Autosomal recessive, complete IFNAR1 deficiency can result in life-threatening complications of vaccination with live attenuated measles and YF viruses in previously healthy individuals.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218925, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283762

RESUMO

Analyses of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic and post-pandemic years showed high attack rates and severity among indigenous populations. This study presents the characteristics of the first documented influenza outbreak in indigenous peoples in Brazil, that occurred from 30th March to 14th April 2016 in a Guarani village in Southeast Region. Acute respiratory infections were prospectively investigated. The majority of the 73 cases were influenza-like illness (ILI) (63.0%) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) (20.5%). The ILI+SARI attack rate (35.9%) decreased with increasing age. There was a high influenza vaccination rate (86.3%), but no statistically significant difference in vaccination rates between severe and non-severe cases was seen (p = 0.334). Molecular analyses of 19.2% of the cases showed 100% positivity for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and/or hRSV. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was included in the 6B.1 genetic group, a distinct cluster with 13 amino acid substitutions of A/California/07/2009-like. The hRSV were clustered in the BA-like genetic group. The early arrival of the influenza season overlapping usual hRSV season, the circulation of a drifted influenza virus not covered by vaccine and the high prevalence of risk factors for infection and severity in the village jointly can explain the high attack rate of ARI, even with a high rate of influenza vaccination. The results reinforce the importance of surveillance of respiratory viruses, timely vaccination and controlling risk factors for infection and severity of in the indigenous populations in order to preventing disease and related deaths, particularly in children.

3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 415, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network is an international platform whose primary objective is to study severe cases of influenza requiring hospitalization. METHODS: During the 2015-2016 influenza season, 11 sites in the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network in nine countries (Russian Federation, Czech Republic, Turkey, France, China, Spain, Mexico, India, and Brazil) participated in a prospective, active-surveillance, hospital-based epidemiological study. Influenza infection was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) against laboratory-confirmed influenza was estimated using a test-negative approach. RESULTS: 9882 patients with laboratory results were included of which 2415 (24.4%) were positive for influenza, including 1415 (14.3%) for A(H1N1)pdm09, 235 (2.4%) for A(H3N2), 180 (1.8%) for A not subtyped, 45 (0.5%) for B/Yamagata-lineage, 532 (5.4%) for B/Victoria-lineage, and 33 (0.3%) for B not subtyped. Of included admissions, 39% were < 5 years of age and 67% had no underlying conditions. The odds of being admitted with influenza were higher among pregnant than non-pregnant women (odds ratio, 2.82 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.90 to 4.19]). Adjusted IVE against influenza-related hospitalization was 16.3% (95% CI, 0.4 to 29.7). Among patients targeted for influenza vaccination, adjusted IVE against hospital admission with influenza was 16.2% (95% CI, - 3.6 to 32.2) overall, 23.0% (95% CI, - 3.3 to 42.6) against A(H1N1)pdm09, and - 25.6% (95% CI, - 86.3 to 15.4) against B/Victoria lineage. CONCLUSIONS: The 2015-2016 influenza season was dominated by A(H1N1)pdm09 and B/Victoria-lineage. Hospitalization with influenza often occurred in healthy and young individuals, and pregnant women were at increased risk of influenza-related hospitalization. Influenza vaccines provided low to moderate protection against hospitalization with influenza and no protection against the predominant circulating B lineage, highlighting the need for more effective and broader influenza vaccines.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Estações do Ano , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
Infect Genet Evol ; 67: 55-59, 2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza is an acute and highly contagious viral respiratory infection that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The identification of host genetic factors associated with susceptibility and severity of influenza virus infection is of paramount importance. Previous studies evaluating the potential involvement of the CCR5Δ32 polymorphism (rs333), a 32 base pair deletion in CC motif chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) gene, in severity and mortality of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infected individuals have been reported, but their results are quite conflicting. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was the evaluation of the CCR5Δ32 frequency in individuals with mild, severe and fatal influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection and its putative association with clinical and epidemiologic data. PATIENTS/METHODS: A total of 432 individuals were included in this study and classified according to their clinical status, into the following groups: influenza like illness (ILI) (n = 153); severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) (n = 173) and fatal (n = 106) cases. The samples were collected in the post pandemic period, from 2012 to 2018. Individuals were further stratified according to their clinical and epidemiological data. The CCR5Δ32 variant was genotyped by PCR amplification and a subset of samples was further submitted to Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: The different clinical groups (ILI, SARI and fatal) presented similar distribution of wt/wt and wt/Δ32 genotypes and CCR5Δ32 allele frequencies. Genotype Δ32/Δ32 was not detected in our study. Additionally, no association between wt/wt and wt/Δ32 genotypes and dyspnea, a clinical factor for influenza complications was found. Similarly, no significant differences in the distribution of wt/wt and wt/Δ32 genotypes and CCR5Δ32 variant allele frequencies were observed in samples from the different Brazilian geographical regions. CONCLUSIONS: The CCR5Δ32 variant does not influence the susceptibility to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 severe disease or mortality in individuals from Brazil.

5.
J Gen Virol ; 99(12): 1608-1613, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30394870

RESUMO

Influenza A and B virions are packaged with their polymerases to catalyse RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity. Since there is no evidence to rule in or out the permissiveness of influenza virions to triphosphate ribonucleotides, we functionally evaluated this. We found the means to stimulate influenza A and B RNA polymerase activity inside the virion, called natural endogenous RNA polymerase (NERP) activity. Stimulation of NERP activity increased up to 3 log10 viral RNA content, allowing the detection of influenza virus in otherwise undetectable clinical samples. NERP activation also improved our capacity to sequence misidentified regions of the influenza genome from clinical samples. By treating the samples with the ribavirin triphosphate we inhibited NERP activity, which confirms our hypothesis and highlights that this assay could be used to screen antiviral drugs. Altogether, our data show that NERP activity could be explored to increase molecular diagnostic sensitivity and/or to develop antiviral screening assays.

6.
Front Immunol ; 9: 975, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29867955

RESUMO

Influenza A virus (IAV) infection causes severe pulmonary disease characterized by intense leukocyte infiltration. Phosphoinositide-3 kinases (PI3Ks) are central signaling enzymes, involved in cell growth, survival, and migration. Class IB PI3K or phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase-gamma (PI3Kγ), mainly expressed by leukocytes, is involved in cell migration during inflammation. Here, we investigated the contribution of PI3Kγ for the inflammatory and antiviral responses to IAV. PI3Kγ knockout (KO) mice were highly susceptible to lethality following infection with influenza A/WSN/33 H1N1. In the early time points of infection, infiltration of neutrophils was higher than WT mice whereas type-I and type-III IFN expression and p38 activation were reduced in PI3Kγ KO mice resulting in higher viral loads when compared with WT mice. Blockade of p38 in WT macrophages infected with IAV reduced levels of interferon-stimulated gene 15 protein to those induced in PI3Kγ KO macrophages, suggesting that p38 is downstream of antiviral responses mediated by PI3Kγ. PI3Kγ KO-derived fibroblasts or macrophages showed reduced type-I IFN transcription and altered pro-inflammatory cytokines suggesting a cell autonomous imbalance between inflammatory and antiviral responses. Seven days after IAV infection, there were reduced infiltration of natural killer cells and CD8+ T lymphocytes, increased concentration of inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid, reduced numbers of resolving macrophages, and IL-10 levels in PI3Kγ KO. This imbalanced environment in PI3Kγ KO-infected mice culminated in enhanced lung neutrophil infiltration, reactive oxygen species release, and lung damage that together with the increased viral loads, contributed to higher mortality in PI3Kγ KO mice compared with WT mice. In humans, we tested the genetic association of disease severity in influenza A/H1N1pdm09-infected patients with three potentially functional PIK3CG single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs1129293, rs17847825, and rs2230460. We observed that SNPs rs17847825 and rs2230460 (A and T alleles, respectively) were significantly associated with protection from severe disease using the recessive model in patients infected with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. Altogether, our results suggest that PI3Kγ is crucial in balancing antiviral and inflammatory responses to IAV infection.

7.
Antiviral Res ; 154: 35-43, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29601892

RESUMO

Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are the main class of antivirals currently used for the treatment of influenza infections. As influenza viruses are constantly evolving, drug-resistance can emerge resulting in reduced effectiveness of treatment. This study evaluated the presence of molecular markers associated with NAI susceptibility in 724 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 positive samples from Brazilian surveillance system from the 2014-2016 seasons, including 76 isolates tested for oseltamivir (OST) susceptibility and 23 isolates also tested for zanamivir, peramivir and laninamivir susceptibility. We identified the H275Y (n = 3) and I223K (n = 1) NA substitutions, associated with reduced inhibition (RI) by the NAIs. Noteworthy, no epidemiological links were identified among the patients infected with the mutant viruses. Phylogenetic analysis from NA and hemagglutinin genes showed that mutant viruses were not clustered. All mutant virus strains carried the permissive substitutions V241I and N369K, in addition to the N386K, which has been shown to destabilize the NA structure. Functional NA analysis of one virus containing the H275Y mutation confirmed its highly RI profile to OST and peramivir and demonstrated that it had decreased viral replication and NA thermostability compared to the wild type virus. The remaining tested isolates presented normal inhibition profile to the NAIs tested. In conclusion, the overall frequency of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses bearing mutations associated with NAI RI was 0.6%, similar to what has been observed in recent global studies.

8.
BMJ Open ; 8(2): e017603, 2018 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29449287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza-like illness occurs annually worldwide, with peak timing and severity varying seasonally, resulting in significant annual mortality. OBJECTIVES: There were three objectives: (1) to describe the epidemiological and clinical features of hospitalised patients with severe acute respiratory infection caused by influenza and other respiratory viruses (ORVs); (2) to report the influenza seasonality in the region and (3) to correlate findings of influenza circulation and immunisation time in Brazil. PATIENTS/METHODS: This study took place in three Brazilian hospitals located in cities with different climatic conditions (Curitiba (south), Rio de Janeiro (south-east) and Fortaleza (north-east)). Patients presenting with an acute process with indication for admission consisting of a predefined set of conditions potentially associated with recent influenza infection were enrolled. RESULTS: We screened 1666 patients, with 595 meeting the inclusion criteria. Influenza viruses and ORVs were detected in 6.5% and 59% of patients, respectively. Influenza-positive cases fell into the severe spectrum as compared with those with ORVs (30% vs 11%), but without any difference in mortality rates. Epidemiological results revealed variations in the peak time of influenza infections between north-east (Fortaleza) and south (Curitiba) Brazil, basically following the rain period of each region. In north-east Brazil, viral circulation was prevalent in the first 4 months of the year, indicating that the vaccination campaign occurred in a postseasonal period, possibly explaining the low effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: The active-surveillance model is a valuable tool for investigating respiratory virus impact on hospitalised patients, with influenza-infection monitoring enabling implementation of adequate preventive measures.


Assuntos
Clima , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Vacinação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Lactente , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População/métodos , Prevalência , Infecções Respiratórias , Adulto Jovem
9.
Antiviral Res ; 146: 12-20, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28802866

RESUMO

Four World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centres for Reference and Research on Influenza and one WHO Collaborating Centre for the Surveillance, Epidemiology and Control of Influenza (WHO CCs) assessed antiviral susceptibility of 14,330 influenza A and B viruses collected by WHO-recognized National Influenza Centres (NICs) between May 2015 and May 2016. Neuraminidase (NA) inhibition assay was used to determine 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) data for NA inhibitors (NAIs) oseltamivir, zanamivir, peramivir and laninamivir. Furthermore, NA sequences from 13,484 influenza viruses were retrieved from public sequence databases and screened for amino acid substitutions (AAS) associated with reduced inhibition (RI) or highly reduced inhibition (HRI) by NAIs. Of the viruses tested by WHO CCs 93% were from three WHO regions: Western Pacific, the Americas and Europe. Approximately 0.8% (n = 113) exhibited either RI or HRI by at least one of four NAIs. As in previous seasons, the most common NA AAS was H275Y in A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, which confers HRI by oseltamivir and peramivir. Two A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses carried a rare NA AAS, S247R, shown in this study to confer RI/HRI by the four NAIs. The overall frequency of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses containing NA AAS associated with RI/HRI was approximately 1.8% (125/6915), which is slightly higher than in the previous 2014-15 season (0.5%). Three B/Victoria-lineage viruses contained a new AAS, NA H134N, which conferred HRI by zanamivir and laninamivir, and borderline HRI by peramivir. A single B/Victoria-lineage virus harboured NA G104E, which was associated with HRI by all four NAIs. The overall frequency of RI/HRI phenotype among type B viruses was approximately 0.6% (43/7677), which is lower than that in the previous season. Overall, the vast majority (>99%) of the viruses tested by WHO CCs were susceptible to all four NAIs, showing normal inhibition (NI). Hence, NAIs remain the recommended antivirals for treatment of influenza virus infections. Nevertheless, our data indicate that it is prudent to continue drug susceptibility monitoring using both NAI assay and sequence analysis.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza B/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuraminidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Saúde Global , Guanidinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/enzimologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza B/enzimologia , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/virologia , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Oseltamivir/farmacologia , Estações do Ano , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Zanamivir/análogos & derivados
10.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 23(1): 152-154, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27983507
11.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 21(1): 102-106, 2017 Jan - Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27914222

RESUMO

This study was conducted to provide information on the genetic diversity of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) circulating in the municipality of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil during 1996-2006, a period with two distinct outbreaks of B19V infection: 1999-2000 and 2004-2005. A total of 27 sera from patients with erythema infectiosum and five sera from HIV-infected patients that tested positive for B19V DNA during the study period were analyzed. To genotype B19V strains, a semi-nested PCR for partial amplification of the capsid gene was performed and sequence analysis revealed that 31 sequences belonged to subgenotype 1a (G1a) of the main genotype 1 and one sequence was characterized as subgenotype 3b (G3b). The phylogenetic tree supported the division of the G1a into two well-defined clades with 1.3% of divergence. The low diversity of the G1a strains may be explained by the fact that all patients had acute B19V infection and 30/32 sera were collected during two distinct outbreaks. The G3b strain was from an HIV-infected patient who seroconverted to anti-B19 IgG antibodies in September/2005. This is the first report of G3b in the state of Rio de Janeiro.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Eritema Infeccioso/epidemiologia , Eritema Infeccioso/virologia , Parvovirus B19 Humano/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Eritema Infeccioso/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
12.
Front Immunol ; 8: 1799, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29326698

RESUMO

Rationale: Influenza A infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide especially when associated with secondary pneumococcal infections. Inflammation is important to control pathogen proliferation but may also cause tissue injury and death. CXCR1/2 are chemokine receptors relevant for the recruitment of neutrophils. We investigated the role of CXCR1/2 during influenza, pneumococcal, and post-influenza pneumococcal infections. Methods: Mice were infected with influenza A virus (IAV) or Streptococcus pneumoniae and then treated daily with the CXCR1/2 antagonist DF2162. To study secondary pneumococcal infection, mice were infected with a sublethal inoculum of IAV then infected with S. pneumoniae 14 days later. DF2162 was given in a therapeutic schedule from days 3 to 6 after influenza infection. Lethality, weight loss, inflammation, virus/bacteria counts, and lung injury were assessed. Results: CXCL1 and CXCL2 were produced at high levels during IAV infection. DF2162 treatment decreased morbidity and this was associated with decreased infiltration of neutrophils in the lungs and reduced pulmonary damage and viral titers. During S. pneumoniae infection, DF2162 treatment decreased neutrophil recruitment, pulmonary damage, and lethality rates, without affecting bacteria burden. Therapeutic treatment with DF2162 during sublethal IAV infection reduced the morbidity associated with virus infection and also decreased the magnitude of inflammation, lung damage, and number of bacteria in the blood of mice subsequently infected with S. pneumoniae. Conclusion: Modulation of the inflammatory response by blocking CXCR1/2 improves disease outcome during respiratory influenza and pneumococcal infections, without compromising the ability of the murine host to deal with infection. Altogether, inhibition of CXCR1/2 may be a valid therapeutic strategy for treating lung infections caused by these pathogens, especially controlling secondary bacterial infection after influenza.

13.
Antiviral Res ; 132: 178-85, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27265623

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centres for Reference and Research on Influenza (WHO CCs) tested 13,312 viruses collected by WHO recognized National Influenza Centres between May 2014 and May 2015 to determine 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) data for neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) oseltamivir, zanamivir, peramivir and laninamivir. Ninety-four per cent of the viruses tested by the WHO CCs were from three WHO regions: Western Pacific, the Americas and Europe. Approximately 0.5% (n = 68) of viruses showed either highly reduced inhibition (HRI) or reduced inhibition (RI) (n = 56) against at least one of the four NAIs. Of the twelve viruses with HRI, six were A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, three were A(H3N2) viruses and three were B/Yamagata-lineage viruses. The overall frequency of viruses with RI or HRI by the NAIs was lower than that observed in 2013-14 (1.9%), but similar to the 2012-13 period (0.6%). Based on the current analysis, the NAIs remain an appropriate choice for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza virus infections.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A/enzimologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Neuraminidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Farmacorresistência Viral , Saúde Global , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/história , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação , Neuraminidase/genética , Vigilância da População , Proteínas Virais/genética , Organização Mundial da Saúde
15.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 9(6): 293-297, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26290133

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to present results of the post-pandemic phase of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection in pregnant women in Ceará, Brazil, during the January-June 2012 influenza season. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-four nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from pregnant women admitted to hospitals with suspected severe acute respiratory infection (SARI). Fifty-three (34·4%) had laboratory-confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection with 15 (28·3%) outpatients and 38 (71·7%) hospitalized. Five (9·4%) women were in the first trimester of pregnancy, 20 (37·7%) in the second trimester of pregnancy, and 24 (45·2%) in the third trimester of pregnancy. Three had no information about the time of pregnancy. Six samples from newborns were also analyzed, of which three were nasopharyngeal swab positive for A(H1N1)pdm09. These swabs were collected immediately after birth, with the exception of one that was collected on the day after birth. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that transplacental transfer of influenza viruses could occur as a result of severe illness in pregnancy. It is therefore important to encourage women to be vaccinated against influenza in order to avoid pregnancy complications.

16.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 101-5, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25742269

RESUMO

The 2009 pandemic influenza A virus outbreak led to the systematic use of the neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor oseltamivir (OST). Consequently, OST-resistant strains, carrying the mutation H275Y, emerged in the years after the pandemics, with a prevalence of 1-2%. Currently, OST-resistant strains have been found in community settings, in untreated individuals. To spread in community settings, H275Y mutants must contain additional mutations, collectively called permissive mutations. We display the permissive mutations in NA of OST-resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 virus found in Brazilian community settings. The NAs from 2013 are phylogenetically distinct from those of 2012, indicating a tendency of positive selection of NAs with better fitness. Some previously predicted permissive mutations, such as V241I and N369K, found in different countries, were also detected in Brazil. Importantly, the change D344N, also predicted to compensate loss of fitness imposed by H275Y mutation, was found in Brazil, but not in other countries in 2013. Our results reinforce the notion that OST-resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 strains with compensatory mutations may arise in an independent fashion, with samples being identified in different states of Brazil and in different countries. Systematic circulation of these viral strains may jeopardise the use of the first line of anti-influenza drugs in the future.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Influenza Humana/virologia , Mutação , Oseltamivir/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/classificação , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Taxa de Mutação , Líquido da Lavagem Nasal/virologia , Neuraminidase/genética , Filogenia , Filogeografia , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação
17.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 148-50, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25742277

RESUMO

The influenza A(H3N2) virus has circulated worldwide for almost five decades and is the dominant subtype in most seasonal influenza epidemics, as occurred in the 2014 season in South America. In this study we evaluate five whole genome sequences of influenza A(H3N2) viruses detected in patients with mild illness collected from January-March 2014. To sequence the genomes, a new generation sequencing (NGS) protocol was performed using the Ion Torrent PGM platform. In addition to analysing the common genes, haemagglutinin, neuraminidase and matrix, our work also comprised internal genes. This was the first report of a whole genome analysis with Brazilian influenza A(H3N2) samples. Considerable amino acid variability was encountered in all gene segments, demonstrating the importance of studying the internal genes. NGS of whole genomes in this study will facilitate deeper virus characterisation, contributing to the improvement of influenza strain surveillance in Brazil.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Genoma Viral , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/genética , Influenza Humana/virologia , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
Antiviral Res ; 117: 27-38, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25721488

RESUMO

Four World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centres for Reference and Research on Influenza and one WHO Collaborating Centre for the Surveillance, Epidemiology and Control of Influenza (WHO CCs) tested 10,641 viruses collected by WHO-recognized National Influenza Centres between May 2013 and May 2014 to determine 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) data for neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) oseltamivir, zanamivir, peramivir and laninamivir. In addition, neuraminidase (NA) sequence data, available from the WHO CCs and from sequence databases (n=3206), were screened for amino acid substitutions associated with reduced NAI susceptibility. Ninety-five per cent of the viruses tested by the WHO CCs were from three WHO regions: Western Pacific, the Americas and Europe. Approximately 2% (n=172) showed highly reduced inhibition (HRI) against at least one of the four NAIs, commonly oseltamivir, while 0.3% (n=32) showed reduced inhibition (RI). Those showing HRI were A(H1N1)pdm09 with NA H275Y (n=169), A(H3N2) with NA E119V (n=1), B/Victoria-lineage with NA E117G (n=1) and B/Yamagata-lineage with NA H273Y (n=1); amino acid position numbering is A subtype and B type specific. Although approximately 98% of circulating viruses tested during the 2013-2014 period were sensitive to all four NAIs, a large community cluster of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses with the NA H275Y substitution from patients with no previous exposure to antivirals was detected in Hokkaido, Japan. Significant numbers of A(H1N1)pdm09 NA H275Y viruses were also detected in China and the United States: phylogenetic analyses showed that the Chinese viruses were similar to those from Japan, while the United States viruses clustered separately from those of the Hokkaido outbreak, indicative of multiple resistance-emergence events. Consequently, global surveillance of influenza antiviral susceptibility should be continued from a public health perspective.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza B/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuraminidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Neuraminidase/genética , Substituição de Aminoácidos , China/epidemiologia , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Guanidinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Japão/epidemiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Neuraminidase/química , Oseltamivir/farmacologia , Filogenia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Zanamivir/análogos & derivados , Zanamivir/farmacologia
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 101-105, 03/02/2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-741611

RESUMO

The 2009 pandemic influenza A virus outbreak led to the systematic use of the neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor oseltamivir (OST). Consequently, OST-resistant strains, carrying the mutation H275Y, emerged in the years after the pandemics, with a prevalence of 1-2%. Currently, OST-resistant strains have been found in community settings, in untreated individuals. To spread in community settings, H275Y mutants must contain additional mutations, collectively called permissive mutations. We display the permissive mutations in NA of OST-resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 virus found in Brazilian community settings. The NAs from 2013 are phylogenetically distinct from those of 2012, indicating a tendency of positive selection of NAs with better fitness. Some previously predicted permissive mutations, such as V241I and N369K, found in different countries, were also detected in Brazil. Importantly, the change D344N, also predicted to compensate loss of fitness imposed by H275Y mutation, was found in Brazil, but not in other countries in 2013. Our results reinforce the notion that OST-resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 strains with compensatory mutations may arise in an independent fashion, with samples being identified in different states of Brazil and in different countries. Systematic circulation of these viral strains may jeopardise the use of the first line of anti-influenza drugs in the future.


Assuntos
Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/secundário , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Metástase Linfática , Proteínas de Membrana , /metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 148-150, 03/02/2015. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-741618

RESUMO

The influenza A(H3N2) virus has circulated worldwide for almost five decades and is the dominant subtype in most seasonal influenza epidemics, as occurred in the 2014 season in South America. In this study we evaluate five whole genome sequences of influenza A(H3N2) viruses detected in patients with mild illness collected from January-March 2014. To sequence the genomes, a new generation sequencing (NGS) protocol was performed using the Ion Torrent PGM platform. In addition to analysing the common genes, haemagglutinin, neuraminidase and matrix, our work also comprised internal genes. This was the first report of a whole genome analysis with Brazilian influenza A(H3N2) samples. Considerable amino acid variability was encountered in all gene segments, demonstrating the importance of studying the internal genes. NGS of whole genomes in this study will facilitate deeper virus characterisation, contributing to the improvement of influenza strain surveillance in Brazil.


Assuntos
Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Doença Aguda , Hepatite B Crônica/mortalidade , Hepatite B Crônica/patologia , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Necrose , Resultado do Tratamento
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