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1.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272873, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35951619

RESUMO

Language production has often been described as impaired in psychiatric diseases such as in psychosis. Nevertheless, little is known about the characteristics of linguistic difficulties and their relation with other cognitive domains in patients with a first episode of psychosis (FEP), either affective or non-affective. To deepen our comprehension of linguistic profile in FEP, 133 patients with FEP (95 non-affective, FEP-NA; 38 affective, FEP-A) and 133 healthy controls (HC) were assessed with a narrative discourse task. Speech samples were systematically analyzed with a well-established multilevel procedure investigating both micro- (lexicon, morphology, syntax) and macro-linguistic (discourse coherence, pragmatics) levels of linguistic processing. Executive functioning and IQ were also evaluated. Both linguistic and neuropsychological measures were secondarily implemented with a machine learning approach in order to explore their predictive accuracy in classifying participants as FEP or HC. Compared to HC, FEP patients showed language production difficulty at both micro- and macro-linguistic levels. As for the former, FEP produced shorter and simpler sentences and fewer words per minute, along with a reduced number of lexical fillers, compared to HC. At the macro-linguistic level, FEP performance was impaired in local coherence, which was paired with a higher percentage of utterances with semantic errors. Linguistic measures were not correlated with any neuropsychological variables. No significant differences emerged between FEP-NA and FEP-A (p≥0.02, after Bonferroni correction). Machine learning analysis showed an accuracy of group prediction of 76.36% using language features only, with semantic variables being the most impactful. Such a percentage was enhanced when paired with clinical and neuropsychological variables. Results confirm the presence of language production deficits already at the first episode of the illness, being such impairment not related to other cognitive domains. The high accuracy obtained by the linguistic set of features in classifying groups support the use of machine learning methods in neuroscience investigations.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Linguagem , Transtornos Psicóticos , Compreensão , Humanos , Idioma , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia
2.
J Affect Disord ; 288: 107-113, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Panic disorder (PD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent panic attacks whose aetiology might be associated with alterations of the prefrontal-amygdala circuitry. The prefrontal cortex is a key region involved in executive functioning (EF) whose disturbance may imply harsh consequences over personal, social, and working aspects of PD patients. Indeed, defining the real involvement of EF in PD could lead to early assessment, better treatment, and rehabilitation options. These could have a substantial impact on the quality of life of these patients and their caregivers, thus reducing long-term health care needs. METHODS: We reviewed findings from different studies that investigated executive functioning in PD patients using standardized neuropsychological measures. The review was conducted with the Preferred Reported Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA). In addition, peer-reviewed human-based research articles were selected and twelve studies were retrieved through a search on PubMed. Four uniquely focused on PD patients, two also included a sample of first-degree relatives, while six included a mixed sample of different psychiatric illnesses, including PD. RESULTS: The majority of the studies found no alterations in PD patients, suggesting that EF might not be a core deficit in this disorder. However, some studies (N = 4) found EF deficits in selective domains, which included attention and set-shifting processes, cognitive flexibility, decision-making abilities, and working memory in PD patients and/or in their first-degree relatives. LIMITATIONS: Unbalanced and small samples, unmonitored therapies, and the heterogeneity of cognitive and diagnostic assessment measures might have limited the generalizability of the results. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results point towards the hypothesis that PD patients had preserved EF. However, future studies with standardized methodological procedures and with a gold standard assessment of EF will be required to finally exclude its involvement in the disease.


Assuntos
Transtorno de Pânico , Atenção , Função Executiva , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Qualidade de Vida
3.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(1): e130-e139, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017843

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Cushing's syndrome frequently causes mental health impairment. Data in patients with adrenal incidentaloma (AI) are lacking. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate psychiatric and neurocognitive functions in AI patients, in relation to the presence of subclinical hypercortisolism (SH), and the effect of adrenalectomy on mental health. DESIGN: We enrolled 62 AI patients (64.8 ±â€…8.9 years) referred to our centers. Subclinical hypercortisolism was diagnosed when cortisol after 1mg-dexamethasone suppression test was >50 nmol/L, in the absence of signs of overt hypercortisolism, in 43 patients (SH+). INTERVENTIONS: The structured clinical interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5, and 5 psychiatric scales were performed. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (Verbal and Working Memory, Token and Symbol Task, Verbal Fluency, Tower of London) was explored in 26 patients (≤65 years). RESULTS: The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was 27.4% (SH+ 30.2% vs SH- 21.1%, P = 0.45). SH+ showed a higher prevalence of middle insomnia (by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale) compared with SH- (51% vs 22%, P = 0.039). Considering the Sheehan Disability Scale, SH+ showed a higher disability score (7 vs 3, P = 0.019), higher perceived stress (4.2 ±â€…1.9 vs 2.9 ±â€…1.9, P = 0.015), and lower perceived social support (75 vs 80, P = 0.036) than SH-. High perceived stress was independently associated with SH (odds ratio [OR] = 5.46, confidence interval 95% 1.4-21.8, P = 0.016). Interestingly, SH+ performed better in verbal fluency (49.5 ±â€…38.9 vs 38.9 ±â€…9.0, P = 0.012), symbol coding (54.1 ±â€…6.7 vs 42.3 ±â€…15.5, P = 0.013), and Tower of London (15.1 vs 10.9, P = 0.009) than SH-. In 8 operated SH+, no significant changes were found. CONCLUSIONS: Subclinical hypercortisolism may influence patients' mental health and cognitive performances, requiring an integrated treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/sangue , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/psicologia , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Assintomáticas , Transtornos Cognitivos/sangue , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Síndrome de Cushing/complicações , Síndrome de Cushing/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Cushing/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Cushing/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Entrevista Psicológica , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/sangue , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
4.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155883

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe mental disorder with a wide range of cognitive deficits, both in the euthymic and acute phase of the disease. Interestingly, in recent years, there has been a growing interest in investigating the impact of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cognition in BD. In this context, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 ω-3, DHA) supplementation on cognitive performances in euthymic BD patients. This is an exploratory, single-centre, double-blind randomized controlled trial evaluating 12 weeks DHA supplementation (1250 mg daily) vs. a placebo (corn oil) in 31 euthymic BD patients compared to 15 healthy controls (HCs) on cognitive functions, assessed by the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Affective Disorder (BAC-A). Plasma levels of DHA were measured. After 12 weeks of treatment, no significant group differences were observed in all neuropsychological tests between the four groups, except for the emotion inhibition test, where HCs with DHA had higher scores compared to either BD with DHA (z = 3.9, p = 0.003) or BD with placebo (t = 3.7, p = 0.005). Although our results showed that DHA could be effective for ameliorating cognition in healthy subjects, future studies are still needed to clarify the impact of DHA on cognition in BD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Adulto , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Eur Psychiatry ; 61: 119-126, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research has consistently shown that language abilities represent a core dimension of psychosis; however, to date, very little is known about syntactic comprehension performance in the early stages of psychosis. This study aims to compare the linguistic abilities involved in syntactic comprehension in a large group of First Episode Psychosis (FEP) patients and healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: A multiple choice test of comprehension of syntax was administered to 218 FEP patients (166 non-affective FEP patients [FEP-NA] and 52 affective FEP patients [FEP-A]) and 106 HCs. All participants were asked to match a sentence they listen with one out of four vignettes on a pc screen. Only one vignette represents the stimulus target, while the others are grammatical or non-grammatical (visual) distractors. Both grammatical and non-grammatical errors and performance in different syntactic constructions were considered. RESULTS: FEP committed greater number of errors in the majority of TCGB language domains compared to HCs. Moreover, FEP-NA patients committed significantly more non-grammatical (z = -3.2, p = 0.007), locative (z = -4.7, p < 0.001), passive-negative (z = -3.2, p = 0.02), and relative (z = -4.6, p < 0.001) errors compared to HCs as well as more passive-affirmative errors compared to both HCs (z = -4.3, p < 0.001) and FEP-A (z = 3.1, p = 0.04). Finally, we also found that both FEP-NA and FEP-A committed more grammatical (FEP-NA: z = -9.2, p < 0.001 and FEP-A: z = -4.4, p < 0.001), total (FEP-NA: z = -8.2, p < 0.001 and FEP-A: z = 3.9, p =  0.002), and active-negative (FEP-NA: z = -5.8, p < 0.001 and FEP-A: z = -3.5, p = 0.01) errors compared to HCs. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the access to syntactic structures is already impaired in FEP patients, especially in those with FEP-NA, ultimately suggesting that language impairments represent a core and inner feature of psychosis even at early stages.


Assuntos
Cognição , Transtornos da Linguagem/etiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/complicações , Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Transtornos da Linguagem/psicologia , Testes de Linguagem , Linguística , Masculino , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Vocabulário
6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2107, 2019 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765713

RESUMO

Few studies have explored the specificities of contextual modulations of the processing of facial expressions at a neuronal level. This study fills this gap by employing an original paradigm, based on a version of the filmic "Kuleshov effect". High-density EEG was recorded while participants watched film sequences consisting of three shots: the close-up of a target person's neutral face (Face_1), the scene that the target person was looking at (happy, fearful, or neutral), and another close-up of the same target person's neutral face (Face_2). The participants' task was to rate both valence and arousal, and subsequently to categorize the target person's emotional state. The results indicate that despite a significant behavioural 'context' effect, the electrophysiological indexes still indicate that the face is evaluated as neutral. Specifically, Face_2 elicited a high amplitude N170 when preceded by neutral contexts, and a high amplitude Late Positive Potential (LPP) when preceded by emotional contexts, thus showing sensitivity to the evaluative congruence (N170) and incongruence (LPP) between context and Face_2. The LPP activity was mainly underpinned by brain regions involved in facial expressions and emotion recognition processing. Our results shed new light on temporal and neural correlates of context-sensitivity in the interpretation of facial expressions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Emoções/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Medo/fisiologia , Felicidade , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Adulto Jovem
7.
Prog Brain Res ; 237: 201-221, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29779735

RESUMO

Nowadays, works of art can be enjoyed in both their original and reproduced format. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the format of a work of art could influence physiological and cognitive responses in beholders. Two abstract works of art and their digital reproductions were selected as experimental stimuli and displayed for 2min to 60 participants in a museum. HRV, HR, and RMSSD were recorded, while participants observed the works of art. Subsequently, participants provided behavioral ratings of color intensity, emotional intensity, aesthetic evaluation, perceived movement, and desire to touch the works of art. Results demonstrated that the faithful high-quality digital reproduction of works of art could be as arousing as the original works of art, but at the same time, they cannot replace the experience of standing in front of an authentic work of art in terms of explicit hedonic attributed values. Furthermore, specific interactions between individual inclinations to identify with fictional characters and acquired art competences in the context of aesthetic experience were found.


Assuntos
Arte , Emoções/fisiologia , Estética , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Julgamento , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Correlação de Dados , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Luminosa , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Front Psychol ; 8: 1684, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29046652

RESUMO

Facial expressions are of major importance in understanding the mental and emotional states of others. So far, most studies on the perception and comprehension of emotions have used isolated facial expressions as stimuli; for example, photographs of actors displaying facial expressions corresponding to one of the so called 'basic emotions.' However, our real experience during social interactions is different: facial expressions of emotion are mostly perceived in a wider context, constituted by body language, the surrounding environment, and our beliefs and expectations. Already in the early twentieth century, the Russian filmmaker Lev Kuleshov argued that such context, established by intermediate shots of strong emotional content, could significantly change our interpretation of facial expressions in film. Prior experiments have shown behavioral effects pointing in this direction, but have only used static images as stimuli. Our study used a more ecological design with participants watching film sequences of neutral faces, crosscut with scenes of strong emotional content (evoking happiness or fear, plus neutral stimuli as a baseline condition). The task was to rate the emotion displayed by a target person's face in terms of valence, arousal, and category. Results clearly demonstrated the presence of a significant effect in terms of both valence and arousal in the fear condition only. Moreover, participants tended to categorize the target person's neutral facial expression choosing the emotion category congruent with the preceding context. Our results highlight the context-sensitivity of emotions and the importance of studying them under ecologically valid conditions.

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