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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615055

RESUMO

In humans, studies based on Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept and targeting short half-lived chemicals, including many endocrine disruptors, generally assessed exposures from spot biospecimens. Effects of early-life exposure to atmospheric pollutants were reported, based on outdoor air pollution levels. For both exposure families, exposure misclassification is expected from these designs: for non-persistent chemicals, because a spot biospecimen is unlikely to capture exposure over windows longer than a few days; for air pollutants, because indoor levels are ignored. We developed a couple-child cohort relying on deep phenotyping and extended personal exposure assessment aiming to better characterize the effects of components of the exposome, including air pollutants and non-persistent endocrine disruptors, on child health and development. Pregnant women were included in SEPAGES couple-child cohort (Grenoble area) from 2014 to 2017. Maternal and children exposure to air pollutants was repeatedly assessed by personal monitors. DNA, RNA, serum, plasma, placenta, cord blood, meconium, child and mother stools, living cells, milk, hair and repeated urine samples were collected. A total of 484 pregnant women were recruited, with excellent compliance to the repeated urine sampling protocol (median, 43 urine samples per woman during pregnancy). The main health outcomes are child respiratory health using early objective measures, growth and neurodevelopment. Compared to former studies, the accuracy of assessment of non-persistent exposures is expected to be strongly improved in this new type of birth cohort tailored for the exposome concept, with deep phenotyping and extended exposure characterization. By targeting weaknesses in exposure assessment of the current approaches of cohorts on effects of early life environmental exposures with strong temporal variations, and relying on a rich biobank to provide insight on the underlying biological pathways whereby exposures affect health, this design is expected to provide deeper understanding of the interplay between the Exposome and child development and health.

2.
Respir Med ; 158: 70-77, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While uncontrolled asthma in adults is frequent in Europe, the impact of socioeconomic position (SEP) was little investigated. We aimed to investigate the respective association of individual- and area-level SEP with uncontrolled asthma among French elderly women. METHODS: Analyses were conducted in the Asthma-E3N study, among participants with current asthma (i.e., asthma attacks, treatment, or symptoms in previous year). Asthma control was evaluated using Asthma Control Test (uncontrolled: score ≤19); SEP was defined at both individual- and area-level, using educational level (low, medium, high), the French Deprivation index (tertiles defined at national level), and by merging them in a combined-SEP index. Associations between SEP and asthma control were estimated for 2258 women by logistic regression adjusted for age. Analyses were stratified by asthma controller medication use estimated through a drug reimbursement database. RESULTS: Women were 70 years on average and 24% had uncontrolled asthma. A low educational level (11%) was associated with an increased risk of uncontrolled asthma [odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 1.9 (1.4,2.6)], especially among women not using controller medication [3.1 (1.9,5.1)]. Using the combined-SEP index, the highest risk of uncontrolled asthma was observed among women with the most disadvantaged socioeconomic profile (low educational level and low-SEP neighborhood) [2.5 (1.5,4.2)]. CONCLUSIONS: Women with low SEP had more often uncontrolled asthma, which might be partly explained by inadequate asthma treatment. To achieve the best management of asthma for elderly patients, a specific attention should be given not only to disadvantaged population and neighborhoods, but also to disadvantaged populations in affluent neighborhoods.

3.
Environ Health ; 18(1): 90, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidences that oxidative stress plays a role in the associations between outdoor air pollution and asthma are growing. We aimed to study the role of plasma fluorescent oxidation products levels (FlOPs; an oxidative stress-related biomarker), as potential mediators, in the associations between outdoor air pollution and persistent asthma. METHODS: Analyses were conducted in 204 adult asthmatics followed up in the French case-control and family study on asthma (EGEA; the Epidemiological study of the Genetic and Environmental factors of Asthma). Persistent asthma was defined as having current asthma at EGEA2 (baseline, 2003-2007) and EGEA3 (follow-up, 2011-2013). Exposures to nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, road traffic, particulate matter with a diameter ≤ 10 µm (PM10) and ≤ 2.5 µm were estimated by ESCAPE models (2009-2010), and ozone (O3) by IFEN models (2004). We used a mediation analysis to assess the mediated effect by FlOPs levels and the interaction between FlOPs levels and air pollution. RESULTS: FlOPs levels increased with PM10 and O3 (adjusted ß = 0.04 (95%CI 0.001-0.08), aß = 0.04 (95%CI 0.009-0.07) per 10 µg/m3, respectively), and the risk of persistent asthma increased with FlOPs levels (aOR = 1.81 (95%CI 1.08-3.02)). The risk of persistent asthma decreased with exposures to NO2, NOx and PM2.5 (aOR ranging from 0.62 to 0.94), and increased with exposures to PM10, O3, O3-summer and road traffic, the greater effect being observed for O3 (aOR = 1.78, 95% CI 0.73-4.37, per 10 µg/m3). Using mediation analysis, we observed a positive total effect (aOR = 2.16, 95%CI 0.70-11.9), a positive direct effect of O3 on persistent asthma (OR = 1.68, 95%CI 0.57-7.25), and a positive indirect effect mediated by FIOPs levels (aOR = 1.28 (95%CI 1.01-2.29)) accounting for 41% of the total effect. CONCLUSIONS: Our results add insights on the role of oxidative stress in the association between air pollution and persistent asthma.

4.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 203, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492144

RESUMO

High Fluorescent oxidation products level (FlOPs), a global oxidative stress biomarker, was associated cross-sectionally with poor asthma outcomes but its longitudinal association with asthma evolution has never been examined. We aimed to study the associations between FlOPs level at baseline and changes in current asthma, asthma attacks and asthma control status over 8 years. We used data from the second survey of the French EGEA cohort study as baseline and the third survey as follow-up. At baseline, the mean age of the 489 participants with ever asthma was 39 (± 16) years, 49% were women. Among participants with controlled asthma at baseline, high FlOPs level was significantly associated with worsening of asthma control at follow-up (odds-ratio adjusted for age, sex and smoking status (95% CI): 2.27 (1.32-3.90). No other significant associations were observed. In conclusion, results suggest FlOPs as a predictor of asthma evolution in adults and a good candidate marker in asthma management.

5.
Epidemiology ; 30(5): 756-767, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Within-subject biospecimens pooling can theoretically reduce bias in dose-response functions from biomarker-based studies when exposure assessment suffers from classical-type error. However, collecting many urine voids each day is cumbersome. We evaluated the empirical validity of a within-subject pooling approach and compared several options to avoid sampling each void. METHODS: In 16 pregnant women who collected a spot of each urine void over several nonconsecutive weeks, we compared concentrations of 10 phenols in daily, weekly, and pregnancy within-subject pools. We pooled either three or all daily samples. In a simulation study using these data, we quantified bias in dose-response functions when using one to 20 urine samples per subject to assess methylparaben (a compound with moderate within-subject variability) and bisphenol A (high variability) exposures. RESULTS: Correlations between exposure estimates from pools of all and of only three voids per day were above 0.80 for all time windows and compounds, except for benzophenone-3 and triclosan in the daily time window (correlations, 0.57-0.68). With one spot sample to assess pregnancy exposure, correlations were all below 0.74. Using only one biospecimen led to attenuation bias in the dose-response functions of 29% (methylparaben) and 69% (bisphenol A); four samples for methylparaben and 18 for bisphenol A decreased bias to 10%. CONCLUSIONS: For nonpersistent chemicals, collecting and pooling three samples per day instead of all daily samples efficiently estimates exposures over a week or more. Collecting around 20 biospecimens can strongly limit attenuation bias for nonpersistent chemicals such as bisphenol A.

6.
Eur Respir J ; 54(3)2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285304

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Evidence is accumulating that Staphylococcus aureus plays an important role as disease modifier in upper and lower airway diseases. Sensitisation to S. aureus enterotoxins (SEs) was associated with an increased risk of severe asthma in previous cross-sectional studies, but evidence from longitudinal studies is lacking. We aimed to assess associations between SE-sensitisation and the subsequent risk for asthma severity and exacerbations. METHODS: This is a nested case-control study from the 20-year Epidemiological Study of the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA) cohort, including 225 adults (75 without asthma, 76 with mild asthma and 74 with severe asthma) in EGEA2 (2003-2007). For 173 of these individuals, SE-sensitisation was measured on samples collected 11 years earlier (EGEA1). Cross-sectional associations were conducted for EGEA1 and EGEA2. Longitudinal analyses estimated the association between SE-sensitisation in EGEA1 and the risk of severe asthma and asthma exacerbations assessed in the follow-up. Models were adjusted for sex, age, smoking, parental asthma/allergy and skin-prick test to house dust mite. RESULTS: SE-sensitisation varied between 39% in controls to 58% and 76% in mild and severe asthma, respectively, in EGEA1. An adjusted cross-sectional association showed that SE-sensitisation was associated with an increased risk of severe, but not for mild asthma. SE-sensitisation in EGEA1 was associated with severe asthma (adjusted OR 2.69, 95% CI 1.18-6.15) and asthma exacerbations (adjusted OR 4.59, 95% CI 1.40-15.07) assessed 10-20 years later. CONCLUSION: For the first time, this study shows that being sensitised to SEs is associated with an increased subsequent risk of severe asthma and asthma exacerbations.

7.
Allergy ; 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim was to study the association between allergic multimorbidity and adult-onset asthma considering the number of allergic diseases and the age effect. METHODS: We used population-based data from Finnish national registers including 1205 adults over 30 years of age with recently diagnosed asthma (age range: 30-93), matched for gender, age, and living region with one or two controls (n = 2050). Allergic rhinitis (AR), allergic conjunctivitis (AC), and allergic dermatitis (AD) were defined from self-completed questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression adjusted on potential confounders (smoking, growing in countryside, childhood hospitalized infection/pneumonia, parental asthma/allergy, parental smoking, education level, professional training, number of siblings, and birth order) was applied to estimate the asthma risk associated with allergic multimorbidity. RESULTS: A total of 1118 cases with asthma and 1772 matched controls were included [mean (SD, min-max) 53 (11, 31-71) years, 37% men)]. AR, AC, and AD were reported by 50.2%, 39.6%, and 33.8%, respectively, among subjects with asthma and 26.1%, 20.0%, and 23.5%, respectively, among controls. Compared to nonatopics, adult-onset asthma increased with the number of allergic diseases; adjusted OR for asthma [95% CI] associated with 1, 2, and 3 allergic diseases was 1.95 [1.52-2.49], 2.87 [2.19-3.77], and 4.26 [3.07-5.90], respectively. The association between adult-onset asthma and ≥ 1 allergic multimorbidity decreased with increasing age (3.52 [2.51-4.94], 2.44 [1.74-3.42], and 1.68 [1.04-2.71]) in subjects < 50 years, 50-62 years, and > 62 years, respectively (p for age*≥1 allergic multimorbidity interaction, 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Adult-onset asthma was positively associated with the number of allergic diseases, and this association decreases with age.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146441

RESUMO

Ambient air pollution is a leading environmental risk factor and its broad spectrum of adverse health effects includes a decrease in lung function. Socioeconomic status (SES) is known to be associated with both air pollution exposure and respiratory function. This study assesses the role of SES either as confounder or effect modifier of the association between ambient air pollution and lung function. Cross-sectional data from three European multicenter adult cohorts were pooled to assess factors associated with lung function, including annual means of home outdoor NO2. Pre-bronchodilator lung function was measured according to the ATS-criteria. Multiple mixed linear models with random intercepts for study areas were used. Three different factors (education, occupation and neighborhood unemployment rate) were considered to represent SES. NO2 exposure was negatively associated with lung function. Occupation and neighborhood unemployment rates were not associated with lung function. However, the inclusion of the SES-variable education improved the models and the air pollution-lung function associations got slightly stronger. NO2 associations with lung function were not substantially modified by SES-variables. In this multicenter European study we could show that SES plays a role as a confounder in the association of ambient NO2 exposure with lung function.

10.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(6): 469-471, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036434
11.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(4): 47007, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The exposome is defined as the totality of environmental exposures from conception onwards. It calls for providing a holistic view of environmental exposures and their effects on human health by evaluating multiple environmental exposures simultaneously during critical periods of life. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association of the urban exposome with birth weight. METHODS: We estimated exposure to the urban exposome, including the built environment, air pollution, road traffic noise, meteorology, natural space, and road traffic (corresponding to 24 environmental indicators and 60 exposures) for nearly 32,000 pregnant women from six European birth cohorts. To evaluate associations with either continuous birth weight or term low birth weight (TLBW) risk, we primarily relied on the Deletion-Substitution-Addition (DSA) algorithm, which is an extension of the stepwise variable selection method. Second, we used an exposure-by-exposure exposome-wide association studies (ExWAS) method accounting for multiple hypotheses testing to report associations not adjusted for coexposures. RESULTS: The most consistent statistically significant associations were observed between increasing green space exposure estimated as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and increased birth weight and decreased TLBW risk. Furthermore, we observed statistically significant associations among presence of public bus line, land use Shannon's Evenness Index, and traffic density and birth weight in our DSA analysis. CONCLUSION: This investigation is the first large urban exposome study of birth weight that tests many environmental urban exposures. It confirmed previously reported associations for NDVI and generated new hypotheses for a number of built-environment exposures. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3971.

12.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(6): 894-898, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004416

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a likely risk factor for asthma. However, underlying mechanisms by which obesity affects asthma activity remain poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the role of leptin, an adipocyte-derived proinflammatory protein, as a mediator in the association between body adiposity (assessed using BMI, waist circumference, and body fat percentage) and persistent asthma. METHODS: A causal approach to mediation analysis was used to disentangle total and direct effects and the indirect effect mediated by leptin, using data from the French prospective French Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA) (baseline: 2003-2007; follow-up: 2011-2013; mean follow-up time: 7 years). A total of 331 participants with current asthma at baseline were included. RESULTS: Per 1-SD increment in BMI, waist circumference, and body fat percentage, the adjusted odds ratios of the total effect were 1.59 (95% CI: 0.95-2.97), 2.06 (1.06-4.00), and 3.25 (1.01-9.41), respectively; the odds ratios of the indirect effect mediated by leptin were 1.68 (1.09-2.46), 1.55 (0.99-2.57), and 1.99 (0.94-4.83), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Leptin partly (> 60%) mediated the association between high body adiposity and persistent asthma over time. Using a newly developed analytic approach, this longitudinal study brought new insight into one mechanism by which obesity may affect asthma activity.

13.
Presse Med ; 48(3 Pt 1): 262-273, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910274

RESUMO

The prevalence of asthma has increased rapidly since the early 1970s, and only changes in exposure to environmental factors; which go together with changes in lifestyle, are likely to explain such a rapid increase. Exposure to allergens is a risk factor for allergic sensitization, and allergic sensitization is a risk factor for allergic asthma. However, apart from indoor mold exposure as a risk factor for childhood asthma, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that the associations between allergen exposure and asthma development are causal. A new challenge for research is to analyze the huge amount of data derived from the metagenomic characterization of the environmental and human microbiome, to understand the role of interactions between viruses, bacteria and allergens in the development of asthma. It is recognized that prenatal and postnatal exposure to air pollution and maternal smoking increase the risk of developing asthma in children. In adults, the data are scarce and the results remain controversial as regards these exposures and asthma incidence. Further research is needed to appraise the effect of exposure to phenols, phthalates and perfluorinated compounds, which are widespread in the environment and may be associated with asthma, especially in children. Frequent use of chemicals for home cleaning especially in the form of sprays - which is a common practice at the population level - is a risk factor for the development of adult asthma. The domestic use of cleaning products might also be a risk factor for asthma in children exposed at home. The chemicals involved in these relationships are still to be identified. Occupational asthma is a major phenotype of adult asthma. A significant part of these asthma cases might relate to occupational exposure to cleaning products. While there is evidence of associations between diet during pregnancy or during childhood and the risk of developing asthma in children, the data in adults are insufficient. Beyond genetic factors, body composition is influenced by dietary choices and physical activity. Further research is needed to clarify the complex interplay between these nutritional factors and asthma development. The new challenge for research is to decipher the role of all the environmental factors to which the individual is exposed since conception ("exposome") in the development of asthma, using a holistic approach.


Assuntos
Asma/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Asma/microbiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 33, 2019 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30764884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early life exposure to tobacco smoke has been extensively studied but the role of second-hand smoke (SHS) for new-onset respiratory symptoms and lung function decline in adulthood has not been widely investigated in longitudinal studies. Our aim is to investigate the associations of exposure to SHS in adults with respiratory symptoms, respiratory conditions and lung function over 20 years. METHODS: We used information from 3011 adults from 26 centres in 12 countries who participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Surveys I-III and were never or former smokers at all three surveys. Associations of SHS exposure with respiratory health (asthma symptom score, asthma, chronic bronchitis, COPD) were analysed using generalised linear mixed-effects models adjusted for confounding factors (including sex, age, smoking status, socioeconomic status and allergic sensitisation). Linear mixed-effects models with additional adjustment for height were used to assess the relationships between SHS exposure and lung function levels and decline. RESULTS: Reported exposure to SHS decreased in all 26 study centres over time. The prevalence of SHS exposure was 38.7% at baseline (1990-1994) and 7.1% after the 20-year follow-up (2008-2011). On average 2.4% of the study participants were not exposed at the first, but were exposed at the third examination. An increase in SHS exposure over time was associated with doctor-diagnosed asthma (odds ratio (OR): 2.7; 95% confidence interval (95%-CI): 1.2-5.9), chronic bronchitis (OR: 4.8; 95%-CI: 1.6-15.0), asthma symptom score (count ratio (CR): 1.9; 95%-CI: 1.2-2.9) and dyspnoea (OR: 2.7; 95%-CI: 1.1-6.7) compared to never exposed to SHS. Associations between increase in SHS exposure and incidence of COPD (OR: 2.0; 95%-CI: 0.6-6.0) or lung function (ß: - 49 ml; 95%-CI: -132, 35 for FEV1 and ß: - 62 ml; 95%-CI: -165, 40 for FVC) were not apparent. CONCLUSION: Exposure to second-hand smoke may lead to respiratory symptoms, but this is not accompanied by lung function changes.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Sistema Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Bronquite Crônica/epidemiologia , Bronquite Crônica/etiologia , Dispneia/epidemiologia , Dispneia/etiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , União Europeia , Seguimentos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Incidência , Prevalência , Testes de Função Respiratória , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Lancet Planet Health ; 3(2): e81-e92, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several single-exposure studies have documented possible effects of environmental factors on lung function, but none has relied on an exposome approach. We aimed to evaluate the association between a broad range of prenatal and postnatal lifestyle and environmental exposures and lung function in children. METHODS: In this analysis, we used data from 1033 mother-child pairs from the European Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX) cohort (consisting of six existing longitudinal birth cohorts in France, Greece, Lithuania, Norway, Spain, and the UK of children born between 2003 and 2009) for whom a valid spirometry test was recorded for the child. 85 prenatal and 125 postnatal exposures relating to outdoor, indoor, chemical, and lifestyle factors were assessed, and lung function was measured by spirometry in children at age 6-12 years. Two agnostic linear regression methods, a deletion-substitution-addition (DSA) algorithm considering all exposures simultaneously, and an exposome-wide association study (ExWAS) considering exposures independently, were applied to test the association with forced expiratory volume in 1 s percent predicted values (FEV1%). We tested for two-way interaction between exposures and corrected for confounding by co-exposures. FINDINGS: In the 1033 children (median age 8·1 years, IQR 6·5-9·0), mean FEV1% was 98·8% (SD 13·2). In the ExWAS, prenatal perfluorononanoate (p=0·034) and perfluorooctanoate (p=0·030) exposures were associated with lower FEV1%, and inverse distance to nearest road during pregnancy (p=0·030) was associated with higher FEV1%. Nine postnatal exposures were associated with lower FEV1%: copper (p=0·041), ethyl-paraben (p=0·029), five phthalate metabolites (mono-2-ethyl 5-carboxypentyl phthalate [p=0·016], mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate [p=0·023], mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate [p=0·0085], mono-4-methyl-7-oxooctyl phthalate [p=0·040], and the sum of di-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites [p=0·014]), house crowding (p=0·015), and facility density around schools (p=0·027). However, no exposure passed the significance threshold when corrected for multiple testing in ExWAS, and none was selected with the DSA algorithm, including when testing for exposure interactions. INTERPRETATION: Our systematic exposome approach identified several environmental exposures, mainly chemicals, that might be associated with lung function. Reducing exposure to these ubiquitous chemicals could help to prevent the development of chronic respiratory disease. FUNDING: European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (HELIX project).

16.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 222(3): 446-454, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595366

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy are one of the leading causes of maternal and offspring mortality and morbidity. Exposure to environmental chemicals is suspected to increase blood pressure (BP) but few studies have investigated the impact of non-persistent chemicals, in particular among pregnant women. METHODS: Women included in the study were 152 volunteer participants in the Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX) project. They provided 3 urine samples daily over one week in two pregnancy trimesters (at around 18 and 32 weeks of gestation) to assess their exposure to phthalates (10 metabolites), phenols (7 compounds) and organophosphate pesticides (4 metabolites). BP was measured at the end of the two collection weeks. Associations between biomarkers of exposure and BP were investigated using generalized estimating equations (GEE) and linear regression, and adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: A significant decrease in systolic and/or diastolic BP was observed with exposure to some phthalate metabolites, BPA, and parabens (e.g. ß GEE models for systolic BP = -0.91 mmHg (95%CI: -1.65; -0.17) per doubling of BPA concentrations). These associations were more frequently observed in the second trimester of pregnancy and remained statistically significant after correction for multiple testing for BPA only. No associations were observed with organophosphate pesticides. CONCLUSION: This study investigates the effect of exposure to non-persistent chemicals assessed using multiple biospecimens per subject on BP during pregnancy and suggests that higher exposure to some phthalates and phenols but not pesticides is associated with lower BP during pregnancy.

17.
Environ Int ; 123: 189-200, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530161

RESUMO

Characterization of the "exposome", the set of all environmental factors that one is exposed to from conception onwards, has been advocated to better understand the role of environmental factors on chronic diseases. Here, we aimed to describe the early-life exposome. Specifically, we focused on the correlations between multiple environmental exposures, their patterns and their variability across European regions and across time (pregnancy and childhood periods). We relied on the Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX) project, in which 87 environmental exposures during pregnancy and 122 during the childhood period (grouped in 19 exposure groups) were assessed in 1301 pregnant mothers and their children at 6-11 years in 6 European birth cohorts. Some correlations between exposures in the same exposure group reached high values above 0.8. The median correlation within exposure groups was >0.3 for many exposure groups, reaching 0.69 for water disinfection by products in pregnancy and 0.67 for the meteorological group in childhood. Median correlations between different exposure groups rarely reached 0.3. Some correlations were driven by cohort-level associations (e.g. air pollution and chemicals). Ten principal components explained 45% and 39% of the total variance in the pregnancy and childhood exposome, respectively, while 65 and 90 components were required to explain 95% of the exposome variability. Correlations between maternal (pregnancy) and childhood exposures were high (>0.6) for most exposures modeled at the residential address (e.g. air pollution), but were much lower and even close to zero for some chemical exposures. In conclusion, the early life exposome was high dimensional, meaning that it cannot easily be measured by or reduced to fewer components. Correlations between exposures from different exposure groups were much lower than within exposure groups, which have important implications for co-exposure confounding in multiple exposure studies. Also, we observed the early life exposome to be variable over time and to vary by cohort, so measurements at one time point or one place will not capture its complexities.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Poluição do Ar , Criança , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Gravidez , Purificação da Água
18.
Allergy ; 74(5): 953-963, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research based on cluster analyses led to the identification of particular phenotypes confirming phenotypic heterogeneity of asthma. The long-term clinical course of asthma phenotypes defined by clustering analysis remains unknown, although it is a key aspect to underpin their clinical relevance. We aimed to estimate risk of poor asthma events between asthma clusters identified 20 years earlier. METHODS: The study relied on two cohorts of adults with asthma with 20-year follow-up, ECRHS (European Community Respiratory Health Survey) and EGEA (Epidemiological study on Genetics and Environment of Asthma). Regression models were used to compare asthma characteristics (current asthma, asthma exacerbations, asthma control, quality of life, and FEV1 ) at follow-up and the course of FEV1  between seven cluster-based asthma phenotypes identified 20 years earlier. RESULTS: The analysis included 1325 adults with ever asthma. For each asthma characteristic assessed at follow-up, the risk for adverse outcomes differed significantly between the seven asthma clusters identified at baseline. As compared with the mildest asthma phenotype, ORs (95% CI) for asthma exacerbations varied from 0.9 (0.4 to 2.0) to 4.0 (2.0 to 7.8) and the regression estimates (95% CI) for FEV1 % predicted varied from 0.6 (-3.5 to 4.6) to -9.9 (-14.2 to -5.5) between clusters. Change in FEV1 over time did not differ significantly across clusters. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that the long-term risk for poor asthma outcomes differed between comprehensive adult asthma phenotypes identified 20 years earlier, and suggest a strong tracking of asthma activity and impaired lung function over time.

20.
BMJ Open ; 8(9): e021311, 2018 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206078

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Essential to exposome research is the collection of data on many environmental exposures from different domains in the same subjects. The aim of the Human Early Life Exposome (HELIX) study was to measure and describe multiple environmental exposures during early life (pregnancy and childhood) in a prospective cohort and associate these exposures with molecular omics signatures and child health outcomes. Here, we describe recruitment, measurements available and baseline data of the HELIX study populations. PARTICIPANTS: The HELIX study represents a collaborative project across six established and ongoing longitudinal population-based birth cohort studies in six European countries (France, Greece, Lithuania, Norway, Spain and the UK). HELIX used a multilevel study design with the entire study population totalling 31 472 mother-child pairs, recruited during pregnancy, in the six existing cohorts (first level); a subcohort of 1301 mother-child pairs where biomarkers, omics signatures and child health outcomes were measured at age 6-11 years (second level) and repeat-sampling panel studies with around 150 children and 150 pregnant women aimed at collecting personal exposure data (third level). FINDINGS TO DATE: Cohort data include urban environment, hazardous substances and lifestyle-related exposures for women during pregnancy and their offspring from birth until 6-11 years. Common, standardised protocols were used to collect biological samples, measure exposure biomarkers and omics signatures and assess child health across the six cohorts. Baseline data of the cohort show substantial variation in health outcomes and determinants between the six countries, for example, in family affluence levels, tobacco smoking, physical activity, dietary habits and prevalence of childhood obesity, asthma, allergies and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. FUTURE PLANS: HELIX study results will inform on the early life exposome and its association with molecular omics signatures and child health outcomes. Cohort data are accessible for future research involving researchers external to the project.

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