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1.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287766

RESUMO

Under continuous dual-task conditions, participants show better memory for background information appearing at the same time as a response target in a concurrent task than for information appearing with a nontarget (the attentional boost effect, or ABE). While this effect has been demonstrated across a wide range of stimuli, few studies have examined the perceptual specificity of the memory difference. Here, we explored whether the ABE affects general category memory or perceptually specific exemplar memory. In an encoding phase, participants memorized images of objects presented in a continuous stream. At the same time, they pressed the space bar when a square appearing in the center of each image appeared in a target color, ignoring distractor-colored squares. The following four-alternative forced-choice memory test included the previously seen image, a perceptually distinct exemplar from the same category as the previously seen image, and two images from a new category. Regardless of whether images appeared during encoding three times (Experiment 1) or once (Experiment 2), participants recognized the correct exemplar more often during testing for images that had appeared with a target in encoding than for images that had appeared with a distractor. The difference in exemplar memory was not associated with a difference in false memories for within-category foils. This suggests that the ABE reflects modulation of perceptually detailed exemplar memory, which may be related to facilitation of pattern separation by detection-induced changes in cortical-hippocampal connectivity.

2.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 6(1): 41, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046743

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has considerably heightened health and financial concerns for many individuals. Similar concerns, such as those associated with poverty, impair performance on cognitive control tasks. If ongoing concerns about COVID-19 substantially increase the tendency to mind wander in tasks requiring sustained attention, these worries could degrade performance on a wide range of tasks, leading, for example, to increased traffic accidents, diminished educational achievement, and lower workplace productivity. In two pre-registered experiments, we investigated the degree to which young adults' concerns about COVID-19 correlated with their ability to sustain attention. Experiment 1 tested mainly European participants during an early phase of the pandemic. After completing a survey probing COVID-related concerns, participants engaged in a continuous performance task (CPT) over two, 4-min blocks, during which they responded to city scenes that occurred 90% of the time and withheld responses to mountain scenes that occurred 10% of the time. Despite large and stable individual differences, performance on the scene CPT did not significantly correlate with the severity of COVID-related concerns obtained from the survey. Experiment 2 tested US participants during a later phase of the pandemic. Once again, CPT performance did not significantly correlate with COVID concerns expressed in a pre-task survey. However, participants who had more task-unrelated thoughts performed more poorly on the CPT. These findings suggest that although COVID-19 increased anxiety in a broad swath of society, young adults are able to hold these concerns in a latent format, minimizing their impact on performance in a demanding sustained attention task.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Atenção/fisiologia , COVID-19 , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 6(1): 21, 2021 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761042

RESUMO

When a visual search target frequently appears in one target-rich region of space, participants learn to search there first, resulting in faster reaction time when the target appears there than when it appears elsewhere. Most research on this location probability learning (LPL) effect uses 2-dimensional (2D) search environments that are distinct from real-world search contexts, and the few studies on LPL in 3-dimensional (3D) contexts include complex visual cues or foraging tasks and therefore may not tap into the same habit-like learning mechanism as 2D LPL. The present study aimed to establish a baseline evaluation of LPL in controlled 3D search environments using virtual reality. The use of a virtual 3D search environment allowed us to compare LPL for information within a participant's initial field of view to LPL for information behind participants, outside of the initial field of view. Participants searched for a letter T on the ground among letter Ls in a large virtual space that was devoid of complex visual cues or landmarks. The T appeared in one target-rich quadrant of the floor space on half of the trials during the training phase. The target-rich quadrant appeared in front of half of the participants and behind the other half. LPL was considerably greater in the former condition than in the latter. This reveals an important constraint on LPL in real-world environments and indicates that consistent search patterns and consistent egocentric spatial coding are essential for this form of visual statistical learning in 3D environments.

4.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 82(6): 2862-2875, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483660

RESUMO

Frequently finding a target in the same location within a familiar context reduces search time, relative to search for objects appearing in novel contexts. This learned association between a context and a target location requires several blocks of training and has long-term effects. Short-term selection history also influences search, where previewing a subset of a search context shortly before the appearance of the target and remaining distractors speeds search. Here we explored the interactions between contextual cueing and preview benefit using a modified version of a paradigm from Hodsoll and Humphreys (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 31(6), 1346-1358, 2005). Participants searched for a T target among L distractors. Half of the distractors appeared 800 ms before the addition of the other distractors and the target. We independently manipulated the repetition of the previewed distractors and the newly added distractors. Though the previewed set never contained the target, repetition of either the previewed or the newly added context yielded contextual cueing, and the effect was greater when the previewed context repeated. Another experiment trained participants to associate the previewed context with a target location, then disrupted the association in a testing phase. This disruption eliminated contextual cueing, suggesting that learning of the previewed context was associative. These findings demonstrate an important interaction between distinct kinds of selection history effects.


Assuntos
Atenção , Sinais (Psicologia) , Percepção Visual , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Tempo de Reação
5.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 46(9): 1645-1658, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271063

RESUMO

The attentional boost effect refers to the observation that when simultaneously performing a scene memory task and a target detection task, participants better remember scenes that appear at the same time as the detection target than scenes that coincide with distractors. The attentional boost effect is thought to result from a transient increase in attention during an acute behaviorally relevant event, resulting from a temporal orienting response. But can endogenous orienting to predictable targets trigger this response in the same manner as exogenous orienting to unpredictable targets? Until now, the attentional boost effect has only been tested under conditions in which the target's appearance was unpredictable. Because of the distinction between exogenous and endogenous orienting, target predictability could attenuate the attentional boost effect, or it could increase temporal orienting efficiency and enhance the effect. To test the attentional boost effect under predictable conditions, participants memorized scenes while responding to a target digit, 0, among a stream of digits appearing in the center of those scenes. In some blocks, the 0 predictably followed the digit sequence 3-2-1. In these predictable blocks, participants showed a robust attentional boost effect. This shows that both endogenous orienting to temporally predictable targets and exogenous orienting to unpredictable targets enhance concurrent task processing. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
6.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 82(1): 294-311, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119703

RESUMO

It is widely accepted that features and locations are represented independently in an initial stage of visual processing. But to what degree are they represented separately at a later stage, after objects enter visual working memory (VWM)? In one of her last studies on VWM, Treisman raised an open question about how people represent locations in VWM, suggesting that locations may be remembered independently of what occupies them. Using photographs of real-world objects, we tested the independence of location memory from object identity in a location change detection task. We introduced changes to object identities between the encoding and test arrays, but instructed participants to treat the objects as placeholders. Three experiments showed that location memory was disrupted when the placeholders changed shape or orientation. The disruption was more noticeable for elongated than for round placeholders and was comparable between real-world objects and rectangles of similar aspect ratio. These findings suggest that location representation is sensitive to the placeholders' geometric properties. Though they contradict the idea that objects are just placeholders in location working memory (WM), the findings support Treisman's proposal that the items in VWM are bound to the global configuration of the memory array.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Teoria Psicológica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental
7.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 46(4): 669-683, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343251

RESUMO

Mounting evidence suggests that monetary reward induces an incidentally learned selection bias toward highly rewarded features. It remains controversial, however, whether learning of reward regularities has similar effects on spatial attention. Here we ask whether spatial biases toward highly rewarded locations are learned implicitly, or are instead associated with explicit knowledge of reward structure. Participants completed a hybrid search and choice task involving multiple targets among multiple distractors. Targets garnered varying magnitudes of reward, and participants were instructed to search for targets and guess and click on the 1 that they thought would yield the highest reward. Unbeknownst to participants, 1 side of the display offered higher reward than the other. We measured the spatial bias for targets on the high-reward side of the screen and probed explicit awareness via a multiquestion interview. Participants who were aware of the reward structure (N = 48) showed a selection bias for targets appearing on the high-reward side of the screen. Contrary to previous findings, unaware participants (N = 24) showed only a significant central bias, despite spending just as much time on the task. The strong association between explicit awareness and reward-driven spatial attention in this paradigm suggests that instead of directly affecting the attentional priority map, probabilistic spatial reward learning more frequently affects attention indirectly by modulating task goals. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Conscientização/fisiologia , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Recompensa , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 105: 115-125, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400351

RESUMO

When searching for an object in a familiar environment, we may automatically orient to locations where this object was often placed previously. Contextual cueing refers to the guidance of attention by repeated search context. As an implicit mechanism with high capacity, contextual cueing may be important for people whose cognitive function is compromised, immature, or in decline. Here we review and synthesize the last two decades of research on contextual cueing, focusing on neuropsychological and developmental evidence. Contextual cueing is largely preserved in young children, older adults, and individuals with autism spectrum disorders or mild intellectual impairment. Some, though not all, studies find a deficit in contextual cueing in amnesic patients, patients with basal ganglia damage, children with ADHD, and individuals with psychiatric disorders. Although the medial temporal lobe, the basal ganglia, and the posterior parietal cortex are implicated in contextual cueing, definitive evidence for their necessity is lacking. These findings suggest that contextual cueing is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that is exceptionally robust to damages to single brain sites.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Gânglios da Base/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Gânglios da Base/fisiopatologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Humanos
9.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 81(8): 2571-2589, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410759

RESUMO

Repeated contexts yield faster response time in visual search, compared with novel contexts. This effect is known as contextual cueing. Despite extensive study over the past two decades, there remains a spirited debate over whether repeated displays expedite search before the target is found (early locus) or facilitate response after the target is found (late locus). Here, we provide a tutorial review of contextual cueing, with a focus on assessing the locus of the effect. We evaluate the evidence from psychophysics, EEG, and eye tracking. Existing studies support an early locus of contextual cueing, consistent with attentional guidance accounts. Evidence for a late locus exists, though it is less conclusive. Existing literature also highlights a distinction between habit-guided attention learned through experience and changes in spatial priority driven by task goals and stimulus salience.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicofísica , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Adulto Jovem
10.
Curr Opin Psychol ; 29: 65-70, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30537679

RESUMO

The control of selective attention is traditionally considered to be either goal-driven or stimulus-driven. Increasing research, however, has linked past experience to attentional selection. Effects of selection history may be transient, as in inter-trial priming, or durable. Here we review several examples of enduring changes of attention and relate them to properties of habits. Like motor habits, reading direction is reinforced over an extended period of time. Despite the brevity of training, probability learning, context learning, value-driven attention, and learned attentional set also exhibit habit-like properties, including automaticity, insensitivity to outcome devaluation, and inflexibility. A consideration of whether a selection history effect is habit-like may help taxonomize diverse forms of experience-driven attention.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Hábitos , Reforço Psicológico , Humanos , Motivação
11.
Neuropsychologia ; 119: 34-44, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30063912

RESUMO

Extensive research has examined how current goals influence spatial attention. Yet the allocation of spatial attention is also guided by previous experience, which may induce consistent spatial preferences when a visual search target is frequently found in one region of space. Here, we examined the role of the dopaminergic system in acquiring and maintaining location probability learning. We tested Parkinson's patients and age-matched controls in a difficult visual search task in two sessions. In Session 1, unbeknownst to the participants, the target appeared most often in one quadrant in an early, training phase of the experiment. The target was randomly located in a later, testing phase. Both Parkinson's patients and controls acquired an attentional preference toward the high-probability quadrant during training that persisted in the testing phase. Learning yielded a large reduction in response time (345 ms) in Parkinson's patients, and this effect was highly significant. In Session 2, administered several days later, the target's high-probability quadrant changed. Both groups acquired a new preference for Session 2's high-probability quadrant, demonstrating reversal learning. These findings contrast with previously observed deficits in PD in acquiring probabilistic learning and contextual cueing. This result suggests that not all habit-like behaviors depend on the basal ganglia and the dopaminergic system. Instead, preservation of location probability learning may compensate for other types of attentional deficits in PD.


Assuntos
Atenção , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade , Percepção Espacial , Aprendizagem Espacial , Atenção/fisiologia , Conscientização/fisiologia , Gânglios da Base/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Tempo de Reação , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Reversão de Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
12.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 80(7): 1647-1653, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30109573

RESUMO

Frequently finding a visual search target in one region of space induces a spatial attentional bias toward that region. Past studies on this effect typically tested fewer than 20 participants. The small sample prevents an investigation of two properties of learning: visual field uniformity and role of explicit awareness. Pooling data from multiple studies, here we examined location probability learning from ~120,000 visual search trials across 420 participants. Participants performed a serial search task. Unbeknownst to them, the target was disproportionately likely to appear in one visual quadrant. Location probability learning (LPL) was measured as the difference in reaction time to targets in the high-probability "rich" quadrant and the low-probability "sparse" quadrants. Results showed a lack of visual field effect. LPL was equivalent for "rich" quadrant in the upper left, upper right, lower left, and lower right. Learning did not induce a hotspot diagonal to the "rich" quadrant. To the contrary, RT was the longest in the diagonal quadrant. Recognition rate of the "rich" quadrant was above chance. However, recognition accuracy was unrelated to the size of LPL. Implicit learning induces visual-field-independent changes in spatial attention.


Assuntos
Viés de Atenção , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade , Campos Visuais , Adulto , Conscientização , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Cogn ; 1(1): 23, 2018 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517197

RESUMO

Is top-down control necessarily scarce, slow, and hence unimportant in visual selection? Here we outline the risks of downplaying top-down control. Contrary to Theeuwes' review, we suggest that not all sources of attention map onto a unitary attentional priority map. Goals and search habits may influence where and how people deploy attention, respectively. Because goals have modulatory effects on sensory processing, their impact on attention is broad and not always deliberate. In addition, when multiple sources influence attention, top-down control often dominates over less deliberate forms of attention. We agree with Theeuwes that selection history can drive attention independent of explicit goals. Nonetheless, top-down control remains a cornerstone of visual selection.

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