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1.
J Clin Med ; 10(21)2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768484

RESUMO

Choices regarding coping strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak may imply the development as well as the severity of emotional disorders. The aim of this web-based cross-sectional study was to: (1) assess the coping strategies for stress in a population of Polish students and (2) evaluate the impact of those strategies on the severity of depression, stress, and anxiety symptoms during the COVID-19 lockdown. To evaluate emotional distress, we used the DASS-21 scale and coping strategies Brief-COPE Inventory. The study included 2172 respondents (73% female, 27% male) with a mean age of 22.1 ± 2.2. Students more frequently chose stress coping strategies belonging to the 'approach' coping strategies (M = 29.60 ± 6.89) compared to 'avoidant' coping strategies (M = 22.82 ± 5.78). The intensification of distress in women caused a turn to religion (p = 0.001), while men used substances (p < 0.001) and a sense of humor (p < 0.001). Medical students coped best with emotional distress, which is very encouraging for their future profession. The highest level of DASS total score was associated with the usage of avoidant coping strategies, prior use of psychiatric or psychological support, and loneliness. Planning interventions to prevent emotional disorders in students requires the identification of factors contributing to increased emotional distress.

2.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571840

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is most known to cause a wide spectrum of gastrointestinal impairments; however, an increasing number of studies indicates that H. pylori infection might be involved in numerous extragastric diseases such as neurological, dermatological, hematologic, ocular, cardiovascular, metabolic, hepatobiliary, or even allergic diseases. In this review, we focused on the nervous system and aimed to summarize the findings regarding H. pylori infection and its involvement in the induction/progression of neurological disorders. Neurological impairments induced by H. pylori infection are primarily due to impairments in the gut-brain axis (GBA) and to an altered gut microbiota facilitated by H. pylori colonization. Currently, regarding a potential relationship between Helicobacter infection and neurological disorders, most of the studies are mainly focused on H. pylori.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/microbiologia , Animais , Humanos
3.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 129: 117-132, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339708

RESUMO

The identification of biomarkers as diagnostic tools and predictors of response to treatment of neurological developmental disorders (NDD) such as schizophrenia (SZ), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or autism spectrum disorder (ASD), still remains an important challenge for clinical medicine. Metallomic profiles of ASD patients cover, besides essential elements such as cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, selenium, also toxic metals burden of: aluminum, arsenic, mercury, lead, beryllium, nickel, cadmium. Performed studies indicate that children with ASD present a reduced ability of eliminating toxic metals, which leads to these metals' accumulation and aggravation of autistic symptoms. Extensive metallomic studies allow a better understanding of the importance of trace elements as environmental factors in the pathogenesis of ASD. Even though a mineral imbalance is a fact in ASD, we are still expecting relevant tests and the elaboration of reference levels of trace elements as potential biomarkers useful in diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Mercúrio , Oligoelementos , Criança , Humanos , Zinco
4.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804368

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has a significant impact on both physical and mental health. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to (1) evaluate depression, anxiety, and stress levels among students from Polish universities during the first weeks of the COVID-19 pandemic and (2) assess the risk factors of the higher intensity of emotional distress. We conducted an online survey using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) to assess well-being. The study included 2172 respondents (73% female, 27% male) with a mean age of 22.1 ± 2.2. Moderate to extremely severe scores of depression, anxiety, and stress were reported by 43.4%, 27.3%, and 41.0% of the respondents, respectively. Higher scores of DASS-21 were related to female sex (odds ratio (OR) = 3.01), studying sciences (OR = 2.04), co-residence with the roommates (OR = 1.25), suffering from a mental disorder (OR = 5.88), loneliness (OR = 293.30), the usage of psychiatric support before pandemic (OR = 8.06), poor economic situation (OR = 13.49), and the lower scores were found for being currently employed (OR = 0.4). This study highlights an urgent need for (1) crisis-oriented psychological and psychiatric support for students during the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and (2) preparing appropriate psychological interventions to improve the mental health of students for a possible similar situation in the future.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(24)2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334078

RESUMO

The alterations in serum trace element levels are common phenomena observed in patients with different psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, or major depressive disorder. The fluctuations in the trace element concentrations might act as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of many psychiatric and neurological disorders. This paper aimed to assess the alterations in serum trace element concentrations in patients with a diagnosed schizophrenia. The authors made a systematic review, extracting papers from the PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Among 5009 articles identified through database searching, 59 of them were assessed for eligibility. Ultimately, 33 articles were included in the qualitative synthesis. This review includes the analysis of serum levels of the following trace elements: iron, nickel, molybdenum, phosphorus, lead, chromium, antimony, uranium, magnesium, aluminum, zinc, copper, selenium, calcium, and manganese. Currently, there is no consistency regarding serum trace element levels in schizophrenic patients. Thus, it cannot be considered as a reliable prognostic or diagnostic marker of schizophrenia. However, it can be assumed that altered concentrations of those elements are crucial regarding the onset and exaggeration of either psychotic or negative symptoms or cognitive dysfunctions.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Esquizofrenia/sangue , Oligoelementos/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Esquizofrenia/etiologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
6.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570709

RESUMO

Macronutrients and trace elements are important components of living tissues that have different metabolic properties and functions. Trace elements participate in the regulation of immunity through humoral and cellular mechanisms, nerve conduction, muscle spasms, membrane potential regulation as well as mitochondrial activity and enzymatic reactions. Excessive alcohol consumption disrupts the concentrations of crucial trace elements, also increasing the risk of enhanced oxidative stress and alcohol-related liver diseases. In this review, we present the status of selected macroelements and trace elements in the serum and plasma of people chronically consuming alcohol. Such knowledge helps to understand the mechanisms of chronic alcohol-use disorder and to progress and prevent withdrawal effects, also improving treatment strategies.

7.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516940

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become an epidemiological threat and a worldwide concern. SARS-CoV-2 has spread to 210 countries worldwide and more than 6,500,000 confirmed cases and 384,643 deaths have been reported, while the number of both confirmed and fatal cases is continually increasing. COVID-19 is a viral disease that can affect every age group-from infants to the elderly-resulting in a wide spectrum of various clinical manifestations. COVID-19 might present different degrees of severity-from mild or even asymptomatic carriers, even to fatal cases. The most common complications include pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Fever, dry cough, muscle weakness, and chest pain are the most prevalent and typical symptoms of COVID-19. However, patients might also present atypical symptoms that can occur alone, which might indicate the possible SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this paper is to review and summarize all of the findings regarding clinical manifestations of COVID-19 patients, which include respiratory, neurological, olfactory and gustatory, gastrointestinal, ophthalmic, dermatological, cardiac, and rheumatologic manifestations, as well as specific symptoms in pediatric patients.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(7)2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268527

RESUMO

Infection with Helicobacter pylori, a Gram-negative, microaerophilic pathogen often results in gastric cancer in a subset of affected individuals. This explains why H. pylori is the only bacterium classified as a class I carcinogen by the World Health Organization. Several studies have pinpointed mechanisms by which H. pylori alters signaling pathways in the host cell to cause diseases. In this article, the authors have reviewed 234 studies conducted over a span of 18 years (2002-2020). The studies investigated the various mechanisms associated with gastric cancer induction. For the past 1.5 years, researchers have discovered new mechanisms contributing to gastric cancer linked to H. pylori etiology. Alongside alteration of the host signaling pathways using oncogenic CagA pathways, H. pylori induce DNA damage in the host and alter the methylation of DNA as a means of perturbing downstream signaling. Also, with H. pylori, several pathways in the host cell are activated, resulting in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), together with the induction of cell proliferation and survival. Studies have shown that H. pylori enhances gastric carcinogenesis via a multifactorial approach. What is intriguing is that most of the targeted mechanisms and pathways appear common with various forms of cancer.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/imunologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/etiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Sistema Imunitário/patologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
9.
Cells ; 9(4)2020 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340207

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common human pathogens, affecting half of the world's population. Approximately 20% of the infected patients develop gastric ulcers or neoplastic changes in the gastric stroma. An infection also leads to the progression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition within gastric tissue, increasing the probability of gastric cancer development. This paper aims to review the role of H. pylori and its virulence factors in epithelial-mesenchymal transition associated with malignant transformation within the gastric stroma. The reviewed factors included: CagA (cytotoxin-associated gene A) along with induction of cancer stem-cell properties and interaction with YAP (Yes-associated protein pathway), tumor necrosis factor α-inducing protein, Lpp20 lipoprotein, Afadin protein, penicillin-binding protein 1A, microRNA-29a-3p, programmed cell death protein 4, lysosomal-associated protein transmembrane 4ß, cancer-associated fibroblasts, heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF), matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7), and cancer stem cells (CSCs). The review summarizes the most recent findings, providing insight into potential molecular targets and new treatment strategies for gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Helicobacter pylori/fisiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/microbiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(4)2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098238

RESUMO

The objective of this paper is to review and summarize conclusions from the available literature regarding Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS). The authors have independently reviewed articles from 1977 onwards, primarily focusing on the etiopathology, symptoms, differentiation between similar psychiatric conditions, immunological reactions, alterations in the nervous system and gut microbiota, genetics, and the available treatment for PANDAS. Recent research indicates that PANDAS patients show noticeable alterations within the structures of the central nervous system, including caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and striatum, as well as bilateral and lentiform nuclei. Likewise, the presence of autoantibodies that interact with basal ganglia was observed in PANDAS patients. Several studies also suggest a relationship between the presence of obsessive-compulsive disorders like PANDAS and alterations to the gut microbiota. Further, genetic predispositions-including variations in the MBL gene and TNF-α-seem to be relevant regarding PANDAS syndrome. Even though the literature is still scarce, the authors have attempted to provide a thorough insight into the PANDAS syndrome, bearing in mind the diagnostic difficulties of this condition.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes , Gânglios da Base/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/psicologia , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/imunologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/psicologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/genética , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/imunologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/genética , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/psicologia , Síndrome
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2020 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383973

RESUMO

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) constitutes one of the hallmarks of carcinogenesis consisting in the re-differentiation of the epithelial cells into mesenchymal ones changing the cellular phenotype into a malignant one. EMT has been shown to play a role in the malignant transformation and while occurring in the tumor microenvironment, it significantly affects the aggressiveness of gastric cancer, among others. Importantly, after EMT occurs, gastric cancer patients are more susceptible to the induction of resistance to various therapeutic agents, worsening the clinical outcome of patients. Therefore, there is an urgent need to search for the newest pharmacological agents targeting EMT to prevent further progression of gastric carcinogenesis and potential metastases. Therapies targeted at EMT might be combined with other currently available treatment modalities, which seems to be an effective strategy to treat gastric cancer patients. In this review, we have summarized recent advances in gastric cancer treatment in terms of targeting EMT specifically, such as the administration of polyphenols, resveratrol, tangeretin, luteolin, genistein, proton pump inhibitors, terpenes, other plant extracts, or inorganic compounds.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/etiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
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