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1.
Acad Emerg Med ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: More than 2 million patients present to a U.S. emergency department (ED) annually and leave without being seen (LWBS) due to delays in initiating care. We evaluated whether tele-intake at the time of presentation would reduce LWBS rates and ED throughput measures. METHODS: We conducted a before-and-after study at an urban community hospital. The intervention was use of a tele-intake physician to triage patients from 11 am to 6 pm, 7 days per week. Tele-intake providers performed a triage history and physical examination, documented findings, and initiated orders in the medical record. We assessed the impact of this program using the domains of the National Quality Forum framework evaluating access, provider experience, and effectiveness of care. The main outcome was 24-hour LWBS rate. Secondary outcomes were overall door to provider and door to disposition times, left without treatment complete (LWTC), left against medical advice (AMA), left without treatment (LWOT), and physician experience. We compared the 6-month tele-intake period to the same period from the prior year (October 1 to April 1, 2017 vs. 2016). Additionally, we conducted a survey of our physicians to assess their experience with the program. RESULTS: Total ED volume was similar in the before and after periods (19,892 patients vs. 19,646 patients). The 24-hour LWBS rate was reduced from 2.30% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.0% to 2.5%) to 1.69% (95% CI = 1.51% to 1.87%; p < 0.001). Overall door to provider time decreased (median = 19 [interquartile range {IQR} = 9 to 38] minutes vs. 16.2 [IQR = 7.8 to 34.3] minutes; p < 0.001), but ED length of stay for all patients (defined as door in to door out time for all patients) minimally increased (median = 184 [IQR = 100 to 292] minutes vs. 184.3 [IQR = 104.4 to 300] minutes; p < 0.001). There was an increase in door to discharge times (median = 146 [IQR = 83 to 231] minutes vs. 148 [IQR = 88.2 to 233.6] minutes; p < 0.001) and door to admit times (median = 330 [IQR = 253 to 432] minutes vs. 357.6 [IQR = 260.3 to 514.5] minutes; p < 0.001). We saw an increase in LWTC (0.59% [95% CI = 0.49% to 0.70%] vs. 1.1% [95% CI = 0.9% to 1.2%]; p < 0.001), but no change in AMA (1.4% [95% CI = 1.2% to 1.6%] vs. 1.6% [95% CI = 1.4% to 1.78%]; p = 0.21) or LWOT (4.3% [95% CI = 4.1% to 4.6%] vs. 4.4% [95% CI = 4.1% to 4.7%]; p = 0.7). Tele-intake providers thought tele-intake added value (12/15, 80%) and allowed them to effectively address medical problems (14/15, 95%), but only (10/15, 67%) thought that it was as good as in-person triage. Of the receiving physicians, most agreed with statements that tele-intake did not interfere with care (19/22, 86%), helped complement care (19/21, 90%), and gave the patient a better experience (19/22, 86%). CONCLUSIONS: Remote tele-intake provided in an urban community hospital ED reduced LWBS and time to provider but increased LWTC rates and had no impact on LWOT.

2.
Telemed J E Health ; 25(2): 137-142, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30048210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preadmission testing (PAT) before surgical procedures ensures patient safety and decreases last minute case cancellations. INTRODUCTION: PAT before surgery improves efficiency for the health system; however, the process is often inconvenient for the patient. We sought to determine the impact of telemedicine on the presurgical assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review comparing patients who participated in telemedicine-based PAT to patients who had a routine, on-site PAT. Our outcomes aligned with National Quality Forum recommended domains for telehealth measures: access (time spent in evaluation), experience (patient satisfaction), and effectiveness (case cancellation rate). RESULTS: There were 7,803 people evaluated; 361 with telemedicine and 7,442 without telemedicine. Compared with those not using telemedicine, the telemedicine group spent less time in the PAT by 24 min (95% confidence interval, 21.4-26.5), and had no case cancellations (0% vs. 1.1%; 95% confidence interval for the difference, 0.028-1.25%). Patient experience showed high rates of satisfaction with telemedicine. DISCUSSION: We found that using telemedicine for PAT had benefits in terms of access, patient experience, and effectiveness, the three domains recommended for use in telehealth quality measures by the National Quality Forum. The improvements in evaluation times are beneficial for both patients and providers. CONCLUSIONS: PAT utilizing telemedicine reduced overall patient time in the PAT and improved patient satisfaction without increasing the operative case cancellation rate.


Assuntos
Eficiência Organizacional , Satisfação do Paciente , Período Pré-Operatório , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Adulto , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Popul Health Manag ; 21(4): 271-277, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28976250

RESUMO

In January 2015, the US Secretary of Health and Human Services announced targets for the transformation of Medicare reimbursement from a fee-for-service model to payments based on alternative payment models. People now use technology for virtually everything - from paying bills to purchasing almost anything; it is therefore natural to think that they will use technology to take ownership of their own health care. The remote provision of health care, where providers and patients are not in the same location, will allow patients to receive the right care, at the right time, at the right place, and in the manner they consider right for them. To date, much of the technological advances in medicine have been led by the technology creators rather than providers or patients. A meeting of leaders from academic medical centers was convened to brainstorm and explore new opportunities to educate the workforce, expand the science, and improve the delivery of quality care to patients through the use of telemedicine. The academic community needs to develop an evidence base that can inform new care delivery models, including the role for remote monitoring and wearable technology, as well as the methods by which the best patient-centered care can be provided. It is important that the future of medicine be determined by solid research and education rather than the latest "cool toy" to reach the market. Academic medical centers are in a unique position to help shape this future direction, collaborating to create innovative and efficient solutions for patient care. Specific calls for action are summarized.


Assuntos
Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Telemedicina , Assistência à Saúde , Educação Continuada , Humanos , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Telemedicina/métodos , Telemedicina/organização & administração
4.
AACN Adv Crit Care ; 23(3): 330-6, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22828067

RESUMO

Tele-intensive care units (ICUs) typically provide remote monitoring for ICUs of acute care, short-stay hospitals. As part of a joint venture project to establish a long-term acute level of care, Good Shepherd Penn Partners became the first facility to use tele-ICU technology in a nontraditional setting. Long-term acute care hospitals care for patients with complex medical problems. We describe describes the benefits and challenges of integrating a tele-ICU program into a long-term acute care setting and the impact this model of care has on patient care outcomes.


Assuntos
Administração Hospitalar , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Organizacionais
5.
Acad Emerg Med ; 13(1): 13-8, 2006 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16365321

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Patients presenting with chest pain or related symptoms suggestive of myocardial ischemia, without ST-segment elevation (NSTE) on their presenting electrocardiograms, often present a diagnostic challenge in the emergency department (ED). Prompt and accurate risk stratification to identify those patients with NSTE chest pain who are at highest risk for adverse events is essential, however, to optimal management. Although validated and used frequently in patients already enrolled in acute coronary syndrome trials, the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score never has been examined for its value in risk stratification in an all-comers, non-trial-based ED chest pain population. METHODS: An analysis of an ED-based prospective observational cohort study was conducted in 3,929 adult patients presenting with chest pain syndrome and warranting evaluation with an electrocardiogram. These patients had TIMI risk scores determined at ED presentation. The main outcome was the composite of death, acute myocardial infarction (MI), and revascularization within 30 days. RESULTS: The TIMI risk score at ED presentation successfully risk-stratified this unselected cohort of chest pain patients with respect to 30-day adverse outcome, with a range from 2.1%, with a score of 0, to 100%, with a score of 7. The highest correlation of an individual TIMI risk indicator to adverse outcome was for elevated cardiac biomarker at admission. Overall, the score had similar performance characteristics to that seen when applied to other databases of patients enrolled in clinical trials and registries using a 14-day end point. CONCLUSIONS: The TIMI risk score may be a useful tool for risk stratification of ED patients with chest pain syndrome.


Assuntos
Angina Instável/diagnóstico , Eletrocardiografia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Angina Instável/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Razão de Chances , Pennsylvania , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
6.
Ann Emerg Med ; 45(2): 110-7, 2005 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15671965

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: We determined the additional cost of an extended emergency department (ED) length of stay for chest pain patients awaiting non-ICU, monitored (telemetry) beds. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of all ED chest pain patients aged 24 years or older and admitted to a telemetry bed in an urban university hospital during a 12-month period. Structured ED data collection included demographics, chest pain presentation, medical history, and laboratory test and ECG results. Hospital course was monitored daily, followed by a 30-day telephone follow-up. Risk severity scores (Goldman, Acute Cardiac Ischemia-Time-Insensitive Predictive Instrument, and Charlson) were calculated. Hospital charges, real costs, and revenues were obtained at discharge and 2 years later. The main outcome measure was risk-adjusted additional cost to the hospital of a delayed ED admission. Clinical outcome was a secondary measure. RESULTS: Of the 817 patients with chest pain presenting to the ED during the study period, there were 904 hospitalizations. Of these, 825 patients waited more than 3 hours for their bed (91%). There were 21 patient visits with a final diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. ED length of stay was not associated with total hospital length of stay (r =0.01), hospital costs, or hospital or professional charges, revenues, or collection rates. The annual opportunity cost in lost hospital revenue for chest pain patients was 168,300 US dollars (204 US dollars per patient waiting >3 hours for a hospital bed). CONCLUSION: Extended ED length of stay demonstrated no association with total hospital costs or revenues or total hospital length of stay but imposed substantial ED opportunity costs, with decreased potential revenue. Interventions that reduce ED delays in hospital admissions have the potential to significantly increase hospital revenues.


Assuntos
Dor no Peito/economia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/economia , Número de Leitos em Hospital/economia , Admissão do Paciente/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Dor no Peito/terapia , Aglomeração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Preços Hospitalares , Custos Hospitalares , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Miocárdica/economia , Isquemia Miocárdica/terapia , Pennsylvania , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Acad Emerg Med ; 12(1): 26-31, 2005 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15635134

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to validate a clinical decision rule that young adult (younger than 40 years) chest pain patients without known cardiac disease who had either no cardiac risk factors and/or a normal electrocardiogram (ECG) are at low risk (<1%) for acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and 30-day adverse cardiovascular (CV) events. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of patients 24-39 years old who received an ECG for chest pain from July 1999 to March 2002 were included. Cocaine users were excluded. Data collection was structured at presentation, hospital course was followed daily, and 30-day follow-up was obtained by telephone. The main outcome was 30-day adverse CV events (death, acute myocardial infarction, percutaneous intervention, and coronary artery bypass graft). Descriptive statistics were used. RESULTS: Of 4,492 visits for chest pain, 1,023 met criteria. Patients were most often female (61%) and African American (73%). Ninety-eight percent were available for 30-day follow-up. The overall risks of ACS and 30-day adverse CV events were 5.4% and 2.2%, respectively, in our entire cohort. For patients with no cardiac history and no cardiac risk factors, the risk of ACS and 30-day adverse CV events was 1.8%. The risk in patients with no cardiac history and a normal ECG was 1.3%. Patients with no cardiac history, no cardiac risk factors, and a normal ECG had a risk of 1.0%. A modified clinical decision rule found that in young adult patients without a known cardiac history, either no classic cardiac risk factors or a normal ECG, and initially normal cardiac marker studies, the risk of ACS was also extremely low (0.14%) and there were no adverse CV events at 30-day follow-up (95% confidence interval = 0.1% to 0.2%). CONCLUSIONS: A modified clinical decision rule described a group of patients with a 0.14% risk of ACS that was free from 30-day adverse CV events.


Assuntos
Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Dor no Peito/epidemiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Coortes , Tomada de Decisões , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Eletrocardiografia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Seguimentos , Testes de Função Cardíaca , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Probabilidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais
8.
Crit Pathw Cardiol ; 4(3): 117-20, 2005 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18340195

RESUMO

Patients admitted with acute and potential acute coronary syndromes (ACS) frequently required accompaniment by a registered nurse from the emergency department (ED) to inpatient telemetry beds. We tested the hypothesis that telemetry transport monitoring for patients with acute and potential ACS is of limited utility. We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients who were admitted from the ED with acute and potential ACS. Endpoints were life threatening ventricular dysrhythmias requiring intervention and duration of transport time. The setting was an urban tertiary-care emergency department with 55,000 annual visits, and the subjects were adult patients admitted from the ED to inpatient beds (intensive care unit or floor telemetry) with ACS and potential ("rule-out") ACS. Main outcome measures were the development of a life threatening ventricular dysrhythmias during transport, any intervention by the transporting nurse, and the total transport time. Of 315 total admissions involving 310 patients, there were no life threatening ventricular dysrhythmias and interventions during transport [0%; 95% confidence interval 0-0.95%]. The total nurse time out of the ED spent transporting was 13.6 minutes (SD 5.2, range 4-40). The routine use of nurses accompanying patients admitted with acute and potential acute coronary syndromes is of limited utility. Patient transportation without nurses may help alleviate ED overcrowding by saving almost 15 minutes of nursing time currently being used for transport without measurable benefit.

9.
Acad Emerg Med ; 11(12): 1272-7, 2004 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15576516

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Reduction in emergency department (ED) overcrowding is a major Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) initiative. One major source of ED overcrowding is patients waiting for telemetry beds. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether, in patients admitted with a potential acute coronary syndrome, a negative evaluation for underlying coronary artery disease would reduce ED and hospital revisits over the subsequent year compared with patients who did not receive an evaluation for underlying coronary artery disease. METHODS: Nine hundred ninety-nine consecutive patients admitted for potential acute coronary syndromes through the ED during a one-year period were screened for inclusion. Patients who had a negative evaluation for underlying coronary disease were compared with patients who were not evaluated for underlying coronary artery disease for subsequent ED visits, hospital admissions, and cardiac resource utilization over the year following the index visit via a health system-wide computerized record review. Patients with positive tests or biomarkers at the index visit were excluded. Each repeat visit was rated as "potentially cardiac" or "noncardiac." Results of echocardiograms, stress tests, and catheterizations and information about in-hospital deaths were obtained. RESULTS: Six hundred ninety-two patients met the inclusion criteria: 556 patients received no evaluation for underlying coronary artery disease, 116 had a negative stress test, and 20 had a negative cardiac catheterization during the index visit. Patients with no evaluation for underlying coronary artery disease and patients with a negative evaluation had similar likelihoods of a repeat ED visit (negative test 39.0% vs. no test 40.3%; p = 0.85) and repeat hospital admission (28.7% vs. 31.5%; p = 0.61). The rates of a potentially cardiac-related ED visit (21.3 vs. 23.4%; p = 0.65) and hospital admission (17.7% vs. 20.7%; p = 0.48) were not significantly different. The two populations had similar utilization rates of echocardiograms, stress tests, and catheterizations (p > 0.70 for all). CONCLUSIONS: For patients admitted to the authors' institution with a potential acute coronary syndrome, there was no association between a negative evaluation for underlying coronary artery disease and overall or potentially cardiac ED visits, admissions, or cardiac resource test utilization over the year following the index visit.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Cardiologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Cateterismo Cardíaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Teste de Esforço/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
Ann Emerg Med ; 44(3): 199-205, 2004 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15332058

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Neural networks can risk-stratify emergency department (ED) patients with potential acute coronary syndromes with a high specificity, potentially facilitating ED discharge of patients to home. We hypothesized that the use of "real-time" neural networks would decrease the admission rate for ED chest pain patients. METHODS: We conducted a before-and-after trial. Consecutive ED patients with chest pain were evaluated before and after implementation of a neural network in an urban university ED. Data included 40 variables used in neural networks for acute myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndrome. Data were obtained in real time, and neural network outputs were provided to the treating physician while patients were in the ED. On hospital discharge, attending physicians received feedback, including neural network output, their initial clinical impression, cardiac test results, and final diagnosis. The main outcome was the actual admit/discharge decision made before versus after the implementation of the neural network. RESULTS: Before implementation, 4,492 patients were enrolled; after implementation, 432 patients were enrolled. Implementation of the neural network did not decrease the hospital admission rate (before: 62.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 61.3% to 64.1%] versus after: 66.6% [95% CI 62.2% to 71.0%]). Additionally, the ICU admission rates were not different (11.4% [95% CI 10.5% to 12.3%] versus 9.3% [95% CI 6.6% to 12.0%]). Physician query found that the neural network changed management in only 2 cases (<1%). CONCLUSION: The use of real-time neural network feedback did not influence the admission decision for ED patients with chest pain, most likely because the neural network output was delayed until the return of cardiac markers, and the disposition decision had already been made by that time.


Assuntos
Angina Pectoris/diagnóstico , Dor no Peito , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Adulto , Idoso , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão do Paciente , Alta do Paciente
11.
Acad Emerg Med ; 11(2): 200-3, 2004 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14759967

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare patient enrollment in six clinical studies using shared coverage (24 emergency department [ED] rooms-two students share enrollment responsibility) with enrollment using split coverage (12 rooms each per student). The academic associate (AA) program uses undergraduate students to collect data for clinical studies in the ED by providing double coverage 16 hours/day, seven days/week. Prior studies have shown that this system captures >85% of eligible patients. Methods to obtain closer to 100% enrollment are desired. METHODS: During consecutive 15-day periods with the same 24 AAs, the daily ED census, hours of AA coverage, and enrollment in each of six studies were evaluated prospectively in the ED. Data are presented as means with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: There was no difference between the shared and split enrollment periods with respect to hours of AA coverage (30.3 vs. 30.7 hours/day; p = 0.7) or average daily ED census (133.7 vs. 141.8; p = 0.15). Overall, the percentages of ED patients recruited for study participation were not different depending on whether the split versus shared recruitment strategy was used (907 patients recruited out of 2005 ED patients (45.2%; 95% CI = 43.0 to 47.4) vs. 937 of 2127 (44.0%; 95% CI = 41.9 to 46.1). The 95% CI for the 1.2% difference was -1.8% to 4.2%. Patient enrollments in six individual studies were similar regardless of recruitment strategy. Following the 30-day trial, AAs were surveyed: 17 of 24 (71%) found the split strategy to be "more helpful in enrolling subjects," and 20 of 24 (83%) found split strategy helped them "keep better track" of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Study subject enrollment was not affected by the use of either the shared or split responsibility strategy for recruitment. Students generally preferred the split strategy because it was more helpful and easier to monitor. Therefore, this may be the best option for similar student-oriented data collection programs.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/métodos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Seleção de Pacientes , Pesquisadores/organização & administração , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Humanos , Pennsylvania , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudantes de Medicina
12.
Ann Emerg Med ; 43(1): 71-6, 2004 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14707944

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Low-risk patients with chest pain are often admitted to monitored beds; however, the use of telemetry beds in this cohort is not evidence based. We tested the hypothesis that monitoring admitted low-risk patients with chest pain for dysrhythmia is low yield (<1% detection of life-threatening dysrhythmias requiring treatment). METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of emergency department (ED) patients with chest pain with a Goldman risk score of less than 8%, a normal initial creatine kinase-MB level, and a negative initial troponin I level admitted to non-ICU monitored beds. Investigators followed the hospital course daily. The main outcome was cardiovascular death and life-threatening ventricular dysrhythmia during telemetry. RESULTS: Of 3,681 patients with chest pain who presented to the ED, 1,750 patients were admitted to non-ICU monitored beds. Of these, 1,029 patients had a Goldman risk score of less than 8%, a troponin I level of less than 0.3 ng/mL, and a creatine kinase-MB level of less than 5 ng/mL (accounting for 59% of all chest pain telemetry admissions). During hospitalization, there were no patients with sustained ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation requiring treatment on the telemetry service (0%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0% to 0.3%). There were 2 deaths: neither was cardiovascular in nature or preventable by monitoring (cardiovascular preventable death rate=0%; 95% CI 0.0% to 0.3%). CONCLUSION: The routine use of telemetry monitoring for low-risk patients with chest pain is of limited utility. Admission to nonmonitored beds might help alleviate ED crowding without increasing risk of adverse events caused by dysrhythmia in patients with a Goldman risk of less than 8%, an initial troponin I level of less than 0.3 ng/mL, and a creatine kinase-MB level of less than 5 ng/mL.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Morte , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Telemetria/estatística & dados numéricos , Disfunção Ventricular/diagnóstico , Arritmias Cardíacas/sangue , Leitos , Causas de Morte , Dor no Peito/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Creatina Quinase Forma MB , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Isoenzimas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Troponina I/sangue , Disfunção Ventricular/sangue
13.
Am J Emerg Med ; 21(4): 282-7, 2003 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12898483

RESUMO

The role of immediate stress testing in low-risk patients with a potential acute coronary syndrome has not been rigorously evaluated with respect to impact on 30-day cardiovascular events. We evaluated the impact of inpatient, outpatient, or no stress testing (ETT) on 30-day cardiovascular outcomes. We performed a prospective cohort study in which consecutive patients with chest pain were admitted to a non-intensive-care telemetry bed over 16 months. Patients were identified in the ED, followed daily through hospitalization, and contacted by telephone at 30 days. Patients were excluded if they were admitted to the coronary care unit, died during hospitalization, sustained an acute myocardial infarction (AMI), or received cardiac catheterization before ETT. Patients were stratified according to whether they received an ETT as an inpatient, outpatient, or no ETT. Main outcomes were 30-day cardiac death, AMI, percutaneous interventions (PCI), and coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Data are presented as percentages with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for main outcomes. A total of 832 patients were admitted 962 times. A total of 205 patients (21%) received an in-house ETT. Seventy-four patients (10%) without an inpatient ETT received an outpatient ETT. At baseline, the groups were similar with respect to likelihood of ischemia based on mean ACI-TIPI score and Goldman risk score. A total of 98% of patients had 30-day follow-up. The cardiovascular outcomes (with 95% confidence interval) for patients with inpatient ETT versus outpatient ETT versus no ETT were as follows: death, 0% (0-1.5%) vs 0% (0-4.1%) vs 1% (0.3-1.7%); AMI, 1% (0.1-2.4%) vs 1.4% (0.1-4.1%) vs 0.3% (0.1-0.7%); PCI, 0.5% (0.1-1.5%) vs 1.3% (0.1-4.1%) vs 0% (0-0.4%); and CABG, 0.5% (0.1-1.5%) vs 0% (0-4.1%) vs 0.2% (0.1-0.4%). There was no statistical difference in 30-day cardiovascular outcomes among patients who received inpatient, outpatient, or no ETT within 30 days. This suggests that patients with chest pain who are admitted to non-intensive-care telemetry (or observation unit) beds might not need stress testing before hospital release.


Assuntos
Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Teste de Esforço , Dor no Peito/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Eletrocardiografia , Tolerância ao Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Telemetria
14.
Prehosp Emerg Care ; 7(3): 363-7, 2003.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12879387

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Emergency incident rehabilitation (EIR) is the process by which firefighters receive medical screening and monitoring as well as oral rehydration while on the scene of intense or extended fire or rescue operations. A crucial parameter in EIR medical monitoring is temperature determination because heat-related illnesses are common. The objective of this study was to compare the use of oral temperature versus infrared tympanic temperature determinations of firefighters in the outdoor environment of EIR operations. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of firefighters participating in training scenarios involving heavy smoke and fire conditions at municipal fire training facilities. Outdoor temperature and relative humidity were obtained for each training session. Subjects were outfitted fully for fire fighting duties including full protective clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Immediately on exiting the fire building, firefighters removed their SCBA masks, protective hoods, and helmets, and had simultaneous oral and tympanic temperatures taken (time 0). The subjects then sat outdoors for 10 minutes and their temperatures were again obtained (time 10). Oral and tympanic temperatures for both time points were calculated as means +/- SD. An intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated to determine how closely the simultaneously obtained oral and tympanic temperatures determinations at T-0 and T-10 correlated with each other. RESULTS: Forty-two firefighters (mean age, 44.6 years; SD 9.6) were enrolled during four separate training days. There was poor correlation between oral and tympanic temperatures in firefighters both at time 0 (r = 0.10) and at time 10 (r = 0.18). CONCLUSIONS: There is poor correlation between tympanic and oral temperature determinations in the EIR setting. Oral temperature determinations may be preferable to tympanic temperature determination in the EIR setting.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Fogo/prevenção & controle , Mucosa Bucal/fisiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Membrana Timpânica/fisiologia , Adulto , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Capacitação em Serviço , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Pennsylvania , Estudos Prospectivos , Roupa de Proteção/efeitos adversos , Pesquisa , Termômetros , Fatores de Tempo
15.
J Emerg Med ; 24(4): 361-7, 2003 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12745035

RESUMO

We compared the predictive properties of an initial absolute creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) to creatine kinase-MB relative index (CK-MB RI) for detecting acute myocardial infarction (AMI), acute coronary syndromes (ACS), and serious cardiac events (SCE). Consecutive patients > 24 years of age with chest pain who received an electrocardiogram (EKG) as part of their Emergency Department (ED) evaluation had CK and CK-MB drawn at presentation. Patients were followed prospectively during their hospital course. The main outcome was AMI, ACS or SCE (death, AMI, dysrhythmias, CHF, PTCA/stent, CABG) within 30 days. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of CK-MB and CK-MB RI to predict AMI, ACS, and SCE were calculated with 95% CIs. We enrolled 2028 patients. There were 105 patients (5.2%) with AMI, 266 (13.1%) with ACS, and 150 with SCE (7.4%). Absolute CK-MB had a higher sensitivity than CK-MB RI for AMI (52.0 vs. 46.9, respectively), ACS (23.5 vs. 20.8, respectively), and SCE (39.6 vs. 36.0, respectively), but a lower specificity than CK-MB RI for AMI (93.2 vs. 96.1, respectively), ACS (93.1 vs. 96.1, respectively) and SCE (93.3 vs. 96.3, respectively); and lower PPV for AMI (35.7 vs. 46.5, respectively), ACS (42.0 vs. 53.4, respectively) and SCE (38.5 vs. 50.5, respectively). The negative predictive values were similar for all outcomes. We conclude that the risk stratification of ED chest pain patients by absolute CK-MB has higher sensitivity, similar NPV, but a lower specificity and PPV than CK-MB relative index for detection of AMI, ACS, and SCE. The optimal test depends upon the relative importance of the sensitivity or specificity for clinical decision-making in an individual patient.


Assuntos
Angina Instável/diagnóstico , Angina Instável/metabolismo , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Isoenzimas/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Idoso , Angina Instável/complicações , Angina Instável/mortalidade , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Creatina Quinase Forma MB , Eletrocardiografia , Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Tratamento de Emergência/normas , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Stents , Troponina I/sangue
16.
J Emerg Med ; 24(2): 125-30, 2003 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12609640

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine whether electronic mail (e-mail) increases contact rates after patients are discharged from the emergency department (ED). Following discharge, patients were randomized to be contacted by telephone or e-mail. The main outcome was success of contact. Secondary outcome was the median time of response. There were 1561 patients initially screened. Of these, 444 had e-mail and were included in the study. Half were contacted by telephone and the rest via e-mail. Our telephone contact rate was 58% (129/222) after two calls in a 48-h period and our e-mail contact was 41% (90/222). The telephone was nearly two times better than e-mail. The median time of response was 48 h for e-mail and 18 h for telephone. It is concluded that the telephone is a better modality of contact than e-mail for patients discharged from the ED.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente/normas , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Correio Eletrônico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Telefone , Adulto , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Alta do Paciente
17.
Ann Emerg Med ; 40(6): 575-83, 2002 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12447333

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Chest pain is the second most common chief complaint presented to the emergency department. Although the causes of chest pain span the clinical spectrum from the trivial to the life threatening, it is often difficult to identify which patients have the most common life-threatening cause, cardiac ischemia. Because of the potential for poor outcome if this diagnosis is missed, physicians have had a low threshold for admitting patients with chest pain to the hospital, the vast majority of whom are found not to have cardiac ischemia. In an earlier study with a large chest pain patient registry, an artificial neural network was shown to be able to identify the subset of patients who present to the ED with chest pain who have sustained acute myocardial infarction. The objective of this study was to use the same registry to determine whether a network could be trained accurately to identify the larger subset of patients who have cardiac ischemia. METHODS: Two thousand two hundred four adult patients presenting to the ED with chest pain who received an ECG were used to train and test an artificial neural network to recognize the presence of cardiac ischemia. Only the data available at the time of initial patient contact were used to replicate the conditions of real-time evaluation. Forty variables from patient history, physical examination, ECG, and the first set of chemical cardiac marker determinations were used to train and subsequently test the network. The network was trained and tested by using the jackknife variance technique to allow for the network to be trained on as many of the features of the small subset of ischemic patients as possible. Network accuracy was compared with 2 existing aids to the diagnosis of cardiac ischemia, as well as a derived regression model. RESULTS: The network had a sensitivity of 88.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 84.8% to 91.4%) and a specificity of 86.2% (95% CI 84.6% to 87.7%) for cardiac ischemia despite the fact that a mean of 5% of all required network input data and 41% of cardiac chemical marker data were missing. The network also performed more accurately than the 3 other tested approaches. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that an artificial neural network might be able to identify which patients who present to the ED with chest pain have cardiac ischemia with useful sensitivities and specificities.


Assuntos
Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Eletrocardiografia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Erros de Diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Sistema de Registros
18.
Acad Emerg Med ; 9(9): 903-9, 2002 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12208679

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: New diagnostic and treatment options for emergency department (ED) patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) may facilitate the ED discharge of some patients. However, some patients require admission to exclude concurrent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) as the precipitant of CHF. The objective of this study was to identify the incidence, clinical characteristics, and hospital course of CHF patients who present to the ED with and without concurrent ACS. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of consecutive patients >23 years of age who presented to the ED with chest pain, received an electrocardiogram (ECG), and either had a known history of CHF or presented with new-onset CHF, between July 1999 and April 2001. The hospital course of each patient was followed daily, and telephone follow-up occurred at 30 days. The main outcomes were the incidence of ACS and comparisons of lengths of hospital stay (LOSs), rates of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), intubations, and death rates among patients with and without ACS. RESULTS: Two hundred ninety-eight CHF patients presented 380 times. The incidence of ACS in the 380 patient visits was 32% (95% CI = 27% to 36%). Compared with patients who did not have ACS, patients who had concurrent ACS were more likely to have known coronary artery disease (CAD) (67% vs. 42%; p < 0.0001) and hypercholesterolemia (36% vs. 18%; p = 0.0002). Patients with concurrent ACS were also more likely to be admitted to the hospital (97% vs 82%; p < 0.0001), had a longer LOS (5.2 [3.9-6.5] vs 3.2 [2.6-3.8] days; p = 0.006), had higher rates of ICU admission (44% vs. 13%; p < 0.0001), were more likely to be intubated (8% vs. 1%, p = 0.002), and were more likely to die (15 vs 7 deaths; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of ACS in ED CHF patients with chest pain was 32%. Patients with CHF complicated by ACS had more prolonged hospital stays, required higher levels of care, and had a higher incidence of death than those patients without ACS. Strategies tailored to early identification and management of these patients would be desirable.


Assuntos
Dor no Peito/complicações , Dor no Peito/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/complicações , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
Ann Emerg Med ; 39(4): 366-73, 2002 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11919522

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Accurate identification of the presence of acute myocardial infarction in adult patients who present to the emergency department with anterior chest pain remains elusive. The artificial neural network is a powerful nonlinear statistical paradigm for the recognition of complex patterns, with the ability to maintain accuracy when some data required for network function are missing. Earlier studies revealed that the artificial neural network is able to accurately identify acute myocardial infarction in patients experiencing chest pain. However, these studies did not measure network performance in real time, when a significant amount of data required for network function may not be available. They also did not use chemical cardiac marker data. METHODS: Two thousand two hundred four adult patients presenting to the ED with anterior chest pain were used to train an artificial neural network to recognize the presence of acute myocardial infarction. Only data available at the time of initial patient evaluation were used to replicate the conditions of real-time patient evaluation. Forty variables from patient histories, physical examinations, ECG results, and chemical cardiac marker determinations were used to train and then test the network. RESULTS: The network correctly identified 121 of the 128 patients (sensitivity 94.5%; 95% confidence interval 90.6% to 97.9%) with myocardial infarction at a specificity of 95.9% (95% confidence interval 93.0% to 98.5%), despite the fact that an average of 5% (individual range 0% to 35%) of the input data required by the network were missing on all patients. CONCLUSION: Network accuracy and the maintenance of that accuracy when some data required for function are unavailable suggest that the artificial neural network may be a potential real time aid to the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction during initial patient evaluation.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Computador , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Angina Pectoris/diagnóstico , Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Biologia Computacional , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Cardiovascular , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos
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