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1.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(12): 3465-3471, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184156

RESUMO

Herein we employed a first-principles method based on density functional theory to investigate the surface energy and growth kinetics of wurtzite nanoplatelets to elucidate why nanoplatelets exhibit a uniform thickness of eight monolayers. We synthesized a series of wurtzite nanoplatelets (ZnSe, ZnS, ZnTe, and CdSe) with an atomically uniform thickness of eight monolayers. As a representative example, the growth mechanism of 1.39 nm thick (eight monolayers) wurtzite ZnSe nanoplatelets was studied to substantiate the proposed growth kinetics. The results show that the growth of the seventh and eighth layers along the [112̅0] direction of 0.99 nm (six monolayers) ZnSe magic-size nanoclusters is accessible, whereas the growth of the ninth layer is unlikely to occur because the formation energy is large. This work not only gives insights into the synthesis of atomically uniform thick wurtzite semiconductor nanoplatelets but also opens up new avenues to their applications in light-emitting diodes, catalysis, detectors, and lasers.

2.
Nanoscale ; 11(21): 10190-10197, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112179

RESUMO

Herein we report a nanorod couple heterostructure made of dual semiconductors, in which two parallelly aligned ZnSe nanorods are connected by the growth of ZnS on both end and side facets, producing hetero-ZnS (short arms)-ZnSe (long arms)/ZnS shell nanorod couples. As evidenced by electronic structure studies, both experimental and theoretical, such core/shell nanorod couple heterostructures can act as a platform to precisely tailor the quantum confinement of charge carriers between the constituting components within a single nano-object, generating blue fluorescence after the overgrowth of an alloyed ZnCdS layer on the heterostructures. We foresee the mechanistic insights gained and electronic structures revealed in this work would shed light on the rational design of more complex heterostructures with novel functionalities.

3.
Small ; 12(11): 1432-9, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26797691

RESUMO

Chemically functional core/shell microtubes made of biodegradable polymers are fabricated using coaxial electrospinning. The luminal walls are chemically functionalized, allowing for regioselective chemical binding or adsorption inside the microtube. Attaching catalytic nanoparticles or enzymes to the luminal walls converts the microtubes into bubble-propelled microrockets. Upon exposure to ultrasound, the microtubes undergo shape shifting, transforming them into picoliter-scale containers.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Polímeros/química , Ácido Láctico/química , Microscopia Confocal , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico , Prata/química , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo
4.
Nano Lett ; 15(5): 3341-50, 2015 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25817944

RESUMO

Nanoscale detectors hold great promise for single molecule detection and the analysis of small volumes of dilute samples. However, the probability of an analyte reaching the nanosensor in a dilute solution is extremely low due to the sensor's small size. Here, we examine the use of a chemical potential gradient along a surface to accelerate analyte capture by nanoscale sensors. Utilizing a simple model for transport induced by surface binding energy gradients, we study the effect of the gradient on the efficiency of collecting nanoparticles and single and double stranded DNA. The results indicate that chemical potential gradients along a surface can lead to an acceleration of analyte capture by several orders of magnitude compared to direct collection from the solution. The improvement in collection is limited to a relatively narrow window of gradient slopes, and its extent strongly depends on the size of the gradient patch. Our model allows the optimization of gradient layouts and sheds light on the fundamental characteristics of chemical potential gradient induced transport.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(15): 5066-73, 2015 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25774673

RESUMO

Materials which induce molecular motion without external input offer unique opportunities for spatial manipulation of molecules. Here, we present the use of polyacrylamide hydrogel films containing built-in chemical gradients (enthalpic gradients) to direct molecular transport. Using a cationic tertiary amine gradient, anionic molecules were directionally transported up to several millimeters. A 40-fold concentration of anionic molecules dosed in aerosol form on a substrate to a small region at the center of a radially symmetric cationic gradient was observed. The separation of mixtures of charged dye molecules was demonstrated using a boronic acid-to-cationic gradient where one molecule was attracted to the boronic acid end of the gradient, and the other to the cationic end of the gradient. Theoretical and computational analysis provides a quantitative description of such anisotropic molecular transport, and reveals that the gradient-imposed drift velocity is in the range of hundreds of nanometers per second, comparable to the transport velocities of biomolecular motors. This general concept of enthalpy gradient-directed molecular transport should enable the autonomous processing of a diversity of chemical species.


Assuntos
Resinas Acrílicas/química , Ácidos Borônicos/química , Fracionamento Químico , Difusão , Hidrogel de Polietilenoglicol-Dimetacrilato/química , Hidrólise , Cinética , Estrutura Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula
6.
Nat Mater ; 13(3): 301-7, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24553656

RESUMO

Colloidal nanocrystal synthesis provides a powerful approach for creating unique nanostructures of relevance for applications. Here, we report that wurtzite ZnSe nanorod couples connected by twinning structures can be synthesized by means of a self-limited assembly process. Unlike for individual nanorods, the band-edge states calculated for the nanorod couples are predominantly confined to the short edges of the structure and this leads to low photoluminescence polarization anisotropy, as confirmed by single-particle fluorescence. Through a cation-exchange approach, the composition of nanorod couples can be readily expanded to additional materials, such as CdSe and PbSe. We anticipate that this family of nanorod-couple structures with distinct compositions and controlled properties will constitute an ideal system for the investigation of electronic coupling effects between individual nanorod components on the nanoscale, with relevance to applications in optics, photocatalysis and optoelectronic devices.

7.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 4(3): 502-7, 2013 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26281747

RESUMO

Semiconductor heterostructured seeded nanorods exhibit intense polarized emission, and the degree of polarization is determined by their morphology and dimensions. Combined optical and atomic force microscopy were utilized to directly correlate the emission polarization and the orientation of single seeded nanorods. For both the CdSe/CdS sphere-in-rod (S@R) and rod-in-rod (R@R), the emission was found to be polarized along the nanorod's main axis. Statistical analysis for hundreds of single nanorods shows higher degree of polarization, p, for R@R (p = 0.83), in comparison to S@R (p = 0.75). These results are in good agreement with the values inferred by ensemble photoselection anisotropy measurements in solution, establishing its validity for nanorod samples. On this basis, photoselection photoluminescence excitation anisotropy measurements were carried out providing unique information concerning the symmetry of higher excitonic transitions and allowing for a better distinction between the dielectric and the quantum-mechanical contributions to polarization in nanorods.

9.
ACS Nano ; 6(3): 2758-65, 2012 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22314148

RESUMO

Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) involving a semiconductor nanoparticle (NP) acting as a donor, attached to multiple acceptors, is becoming a common tool for sensing, biolabeling, and energy transfer applications. Such nanosystems, with dimensions that are in the range of FRET interactions, exhibit unique characteristics that are related to the shape and dimensionality of the particles and to the spatial distribution of the acceptors. Understanding the effect of these parameters is of high importance for describing the FRET process in such systems and for utilizing them for different applications. In order to demonstrate these dimensionality effects, the FRET between CdSe/CdS core/shell NPs with different geometries and dimensionalities and Atto 590 dye molecules acting as multiple acceptors covalently linked to the NP surface is examined. Steady-state emission and temporal decay measurements were performed on the NPs, ranging from spherical to rod-like shaped systems, as a function of acceptor concentration. Changes in the NP geometry, and consequently in the distributions of acceptors, lead to distinctively different FRET behaviors. The results are analyzed using a modified restricted geometries model, which captures the dimensionality of the acceptor distribution and allows extracting the concentration of dye molecules on the surface of the NP for both spherical and elongated NPs. The results obtained from the model are in good agreement with the experimental results. The approach may be useful for following the spatial dynamics of self-assembly and for a wide variety of sensing applications.


Assuntos
Corantes/química , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Nanopartículas/química , Compostos de Cádmio/química , Modelos Teóricos , Compostos de Selênio/química , Sulfetos/química
10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 14(10): 3505-12, 2012 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22307543

RESUMO

We investigated systematically the temperature dependence of the spectral properties such as the band gap, bandwidth and fluorescence intensity of CdSe/CdS dot-in-rod nanocrystals. These asymmetry nanoparticles were synthesized by seeded growth techniques with band alignment of the type-I and quasi type-II with initial core sizes of 3.3 and 2.3 nm, respectively. With increasing temperature the band gap decreases and bandwidth increases, largely due to exciton-phonon scattering. Anomalous variations of the band gap and bandwidth were observed at 200-240 K, and the variations are attributed to the anisotropic strain in the CdSe/CdS interface due to temperature dependent lattice mismatch. The integrated intensity of fluorescence shows two variation regimes. In the low temperature regime, the intensity remained roughly constant due to the temperature dependent carrier mobility and trapping by the defect states in the CdS shell. However, in the higher temperature regime, the intensity decreased quickly due to thermal/phonon assisted escape from the CdSe dot. The barrier depths are estimated to be about 557 and 285 meV for type-I and quasi type-II samples, respectively.

11.
ACS Nano ; 6(1): 176-82, 2012 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22136306

RESUMO

We utilize single-molecule spectroscopy combined with time-correlated single-photon counting to probe the electron transfer (ET) rates from various types of semiconductor hetero-nanocrystals, having either type-I or type-II band alignment, to single-walled carbon nanotubes. A significantly larger ET rate was observed for type-II ZnSe/CdS dot-in-rod nanostructures as compared to type-I spherical CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots and to CdSe/CdS dot-in-rod structures. Furthermore, such rapid ET dynamics can compete with both Auger and radiative recombination processes, with significance for effective photovoltaic operation.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Semicondutores , Titânio/química , Condutividade Elétrica , Transporte de Elétrons , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Teste de Materiais
12.
Nano Lett ; 11(5): 2054-60, 2011 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21480584

RESUMO

We report the synthesis of CdSe/CdS rod in rod core/shell heterostructures. These rods, synthesized using a seeded-growth approach, show narrow distributions of rod diameters and lengths and exhibit high emission quantum efficiencies and highly polarized emission. The degree of polarization is controlled by the inner core rod dimensions, and it is equal or up to 1.5 times higher than the polarization of equivalent sphere in rod systems. Using the method of photoselection we measure the polarization anisotropy at different excitation wavelengths and study the interplay between electronic contribution and dielectric effects in determining the absorption and emission polarization.


Assuntos
Nanotecnologia/métodos , Nanotubos/química , Absorção , Compostos de Cádmio/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/métodos , Pontos Quânticos , Compostos de Selênio/química , Semicondutores , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Sulfetos/química
13.
Nano Lett ; 10(8): 3068-72, 2010 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20604571

RESUMO

The mixed 0D-1D dimensionality of heterostructured semiconductor nanorods, resulting from the dot-in-rod architecture, raises intriguing questions concerning the location and confinement of the exciton and the origin of the fluorescence in such structures. Using apertureless near-field distance-dependent lifetime imaging together with AFM topography, we directly map the emission and determine its location with high precision along different types of nanorods. We find that the fluorescence is emanating from a sub-20 nm region, correlated to the seed location, clearly indicating exciton localization.

14.
Nano Lett ; 9(10): 3470-6, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19655723

RESUMO

Multiple excitations in core/shell CdSe/CdS-seeded nanorods of different core diameters are studied by quasi-cw multiexciton spectroscopy and envelope function theoretical calculations. For core diameters below 2.8 nm, a transfer from binding to repulsive behavior is detected for the biexciton, accompanied by significant reduction of the triexciton oscillator strength. These characteristics indicate a transition of the electronic excited states from type-I localization in the core to a quasi-type-II delocalization along the entire rod as the core diameter decreases, in agreement with theoretical calculations.

15.
Chemphyschem ; 6(2): 277-85, 2005 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15751350

RESUMO

The effect of surface treatments on p-CdTe/n-CdS solar cell performance was examined. Adsorption of organic molecules with various magnitudes and directions of the dipole moment on p-CdTe resulted in controlled changes in electron affinity and surface bond bending. Similar adsorption on CdTe in state-of-the-art p-CdTe/n-CdS solar cells changes the cell performance, and we explain this by a combination of increased series resistance and changes in light absorption and in cell photovoltage. While at this stage no improvement in performance has been found with these cell structures, which are the result of years of empirical optimization, the molecular effect on the photovoltage shows that it is possible in this way to control the photovoltaic effect at this junction. Separate optimization may well lead to improvement by inserting a dipole layer near the photovoltaic interface. Our results also show that this is even possible when dipole adsorption is performed on the complete polycrystalline thin-film cell.

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