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1.
Hosp Pediatr ; 11(1): 79-87, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386296

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Understanding the risk factors, predictors, and clinical presentation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pediatric patients with severe disease. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of pediatric patients admitted between March 1, 2020, and May 31, 2020, to a large health network in New Jersey with positive test results for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 on reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, rapid testing, or serum immunoglobulin G testing; we included demographic characteristics, clinical features, and outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 81 patients ≤21 years old were admitted with positive test results for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 on reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and/or serum immunoglobulin testing. Sixty-seven patients (82.7%) were admitted for management of acute COVID-19 infection, whereas 14 (17.3%) were admitted for management of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Of the 81 hospitalized patients, 28 (34.6%) required intensive care. A majority of patients (42 [51.9%]) admitted for both acute COVID-19 infection and MIS-C were Hispanic. Underlying chronic health conditions were not present in most patients. Obesity (mean BMI of 41.1) was noted in the patients with MIS-C requiring ICU care, although not statistically significant. Absolute lymphopenia and elevated levels of inflammatory markers were statistically significant in the patients with MIS-C treated in the ICU. CONCLUSIONS: This study adds to the growing literature of potential risk factors for severe disease in pediatric patients due to COVID-19 infection and MIS-C. Patients of Hispanic ethnicity represented the majority of patients with both acute COVID-19 infection and MIS-C, despite only representing 10% to 20% of the population our hospitals serve. Infants and patients with chronic health conditions were not at increased risk for severe disease. Absolute lymphopenia and elevated levels of inflammatory markers were associated with more severe disease.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , /terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , New Jersey , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease (KD) is a significant febrile illness in children and is the leading cause of acquired pediatric heart disease in developed countries. Its recommended treatment is high-dose intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) plus aspirin. However, IVIG-related adverse events are seen frequently in this population. Premedication is commonly used to reduce this risk, but evidence supporting this practice is conflicting. Ultimately, practices vary among institutions and no standard guidelines regarding IVIG premedication currently exist. METHODS: Electronic medical records for pediatric patients presenting to an academic, tertiary care medical center diagnosed with KD and who received at least one dose of IVIG were reviewed for: patient demographics, treatment characteristics, premedication use, adverse events, and coronary abnormalities at discharge. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate study findings. RESULTS: Sixty-six patients receiving a total of 81 distinct IVIG administrations were evaluated. Most patients (64/66, 97%) were premedicated prior to infusion with 26% of patients (17/66) experiencing an IVIG-related adverse event, totaling 25 documented adverse events. The most common events included chills and vomiting. Overall, the average duration of hospitalization was 4.37 days. Despite appropriate medication management, five patients (7.6%) developed coronary abnormalities. CONCLUSION: Practitioners demonstrated a widespread use of premedication for IVIG. However, 26% of patients still experienced an adverse event. While premedication was not shown to have an adverse impact on patient outcomes, it also did not demonstrate a notable reduction from a historic adverse event incidence.

3.
J Opioid Manag ; 16(3): 189-196, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421839

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Finnegan Neonatal Abstinence Scoring System (FNASS) is the most commonly used scoring system for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) both in its original and modified versions, despite challenges related to tool length and observer bias. The purpose of this study was to determine the most frequent symptoms of NAS that led to score elevation and prompted initiation of drug therapy on the Modified Finnegan (MF). We also sought to identify vital sign changes associated with score elevation. DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective study of neonates diagnosed with NAS, based on ICD-9 codes and charge data for methadone administration. SETTING: The study setting was in a Level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. PATIENTS, PARTICIPANTS: Ninety patients with a total of 286 MF scores recorded from 2011 to 2015 met inclusion criteria. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The primary outcome was overall occurrence for each specific component of the MF scoring tool during symptomatic periods. Secondary outcomes were vital sign changes. RESULTS: Among the MF elements, there were 13 components that were scored more often than others in symptomatic infants. Respiratory rate (RR) was elevated in infants with NAS, but other vital signs did not differ from age-specific norms. CONCLUSIONS: Of the various signs of NAS used to score the MF, few are frequently observed. Our study reinforces literature that proposes a shortened MF assessment tool. Experimental research will be needed to determine the efficacy of a shortened MF tool for diagnosing NAS.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Metadona , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/diagnóstico , Taxa Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
J Patient Saf ; 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168273

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Medications often require manipulations to measure and administer the correct dose for pediatric patients. These manipulations pose medication safety risks. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of drug formulation manipulations in the pediatric inpatient population and compare the findings to a parallel adult inpatient population. METHODS: Observations were conducted at four sites with 1 day of data collection per week by a randomized schedule for 5 weeks. All pediatric inpatients at each study site were included as well as an equivalent number of medication orders from adult inpatients with similar levels of care. The percentage of medication orders requiring a manipulation were evaluated and compared between pediatric and adult patients. RESULTS: A total of 15,722 medication orders were analyzed. Drug formulation manipulation was required in 3925 (49.9%) of 7861 pediatric orders versus 1301 of 7861 adult orders (16.6%) (P < 0.05). By pediatric service, drug manipulations were required most frequently (71.5% of orders) in the neonatal intensive care unit. The most common dosage forms requiring manipulation for pediatric patients were oral liquids (45.7% of orders) and intravenous medications (44.6% of orders). By pediatric patient age, drug manipulation was required most often in patients aged 1 to 12 months (69.8% of orders). CONCLUSIONS: Drug formulation manipulation was three times more common in pediatric inpatient practice compared with adult inpatient practice in this study. This study demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of drug formulation manipulation between pediatric and adult inpatients.

5.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 76(19): 1511-1520, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504147

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Current literature and clinical practice guidelines on pediatric pain management are reviewed. SUMMARY: Acute pain is commonly present in neonatal and pediatric patients due to underlying disease states or procedures. Especially in institutions with limited pediatric pain services, it is imperative to describe the appropriate management of pain and pharmacotherapy options that are effective and safe in pediatric patients. Despite the knowledge of pain being an important aspect in the management of children, barriers exist, leading to suboptimal treatment. Addressing these barriers through education of healthcare practitioners, families, and patients will lead to optimizing the patient pain experience. Tools for pain assessment vary depending on the type of pain, the child's age and understanding of pain, and the clinical situation. Pharmacotherapy options for pain management in neonates and pediatric patients include opioid and nonopioid agents. Efficacy and safety data on the use of medications for the treatment of pain in pediatric patients is described. The delivery of medication encompasses patient-specific factors and preferences. Strategies for opioid stewardship and management of iatrogenic withdrawal pose a unique challenge in pediatric patients. CONCLUSION: The management of acute pain in neonates and pediatric patients should be a priority for all practitioners caring for these patients. Use of age-appropriate pain assessment tools and understanding of the mechanisms of action and roles in therapy of various nonopioid and opioid therapies can help optimize treatment of pain in neonatal and pediatric patients.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/normas , Manejo da Dor/normas , Medição da Dor/normas , Dor Aguda/diagnóstico , Fatores Etários , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
6.
J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther ; 24(3): 183-193, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093017

RESUMO

An increasing number of pediatric clinical pharmacists are pursuing careers in academia. Once in an academic position, questions, challenges and benefits related to the processes of academic evaluation and advancement unique to pediatric academia often arise. This is the second article in a 2-part series that attempts to demystify pediatric faculty positions and address gaps in the literature regarding careers in pediatric-focused academic positions. The purpose of this article is to review key aspects pertaining to academic evaluation and the preparation for and process of academic advancement/promotion. A question and answer format is used to discuss common questions related to these processes and tips for success are provided. This article is primarily intended to be used as a helpful guide for junior faculty members as well as mid-level individuals seeking advancement; however, it will also benefit students, trainees, and practicing pharmacists seeking increased knowledge of pediatric academic career paths.

7.
J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther ; 24(2): 79-89, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31019400

RESUMO

Pediatric clinical pharmacy is a growing and evolving field with an increasing number of pediatric clinical pharmacists in academia. In 2017, pediatric practice faculty members represented approximately 7.6% of all pharmacy practice faculty in the United States. The benefits of practicing in an academic environment are many, including, but not limited to, the ability to shape the future of pharmacy practice through the training of the next generation of pharmacists, contributing to science through research and scholarly activities for the care of pediatric patients, and positively impacting patient care for the most vulnerable of patients. Part one of this two-part series describes careers in academic pediatric pharmacy, as well as faculty roles and responsibilities, and provides information and advice related to the preparation and transition into careers in academic pediatric pharmacy.

8.
Pharmacotherapy ; 39(1): 109-113, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488976

RESUMO

Levetiracetam (LEV) is a pyrrolidine derivative antiepileptic medication used for the treatment of seizures in pediatric and adult patients. We report a case of probable LEV-induced aseptic meningitis in a 13-year-old girl. The patient received LEV for a generalized seizure disorder and presented with symptoms 5 days after medication initiation. Ten days after LEV initiation, the patient presented to the hospital for further management. During her hospital course, infectious etiologies were ruled out with clinical and diagnostic testing. Upon discontinuation of LEV, the patient's symptoms resolved. Although select antiepileptic medications have been associated with drug-induced aseptic meningitis (DIAM), to date, no reports have been published about DIAM following the administration of LEV. We describe and categorize the probability of DIAM in association with LEV, as observed in a patient case.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Levetiracetam/efeitos adversos , Meningite Asséptica/induzido quimicamente , Adolescente , Anticonvulsivantes/administração & dosagem , Epilepsia Generalizada/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Levetiracetam/administração & dosagem , Meningite Asséptica/diagnóstico
9.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 34(7): 742-7, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25629890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The recommended goal serum trough concentration for vancomycin has increased to 10 to 20 mcg/mL, with a higher range of 15 to 20 mcg/mL for serious infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in children and adults. Although neonatal references have also recommended these higher target concentrations, dosing recommendations remained unchanged. The objective of this study was to assess the percentage of neonates and young infants achieving a serum trough concentration between 10 and 20 mcg/mL with empiric vancomycin dosing based on Neofax® in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) population. METHODS: A multi-institutional retrospective chart review was conducted to identify NICU patients who received a minimum of three doses of intravenous vancomycin and had at least one appropriately drawn trough. Additional outcomes included the duration of vancomycin therapy, number of dose adjustments required to attain goal trough concentrations, time to goal trough, and incidence of nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. RESULTS: Of the 171 vancomycin serum trough concentrations included in the primary outcome, only 25.1% achieved a goal trough of 10 to 20 mcg/mL with empiric dosing. Only 44.6% of patients achieved the goal trough of 10 to 20 mcg/mL at any time during their vancomycin therapy. The average gestational age was 28.2 ± 4.1 weeks, average postnatal age at start of vancomycin was 34.1 ± 34.6 days, and average weight of the patients at start of vancomycin was 1602 ± 1014.5 g. The average and median total daily dose in those patients who achieved an initial vancomycin trough of 10-20 mcg/mL were 32.4 mg/kg/day and 30 mg/kg/day, respectively. CONCLUSION: Dosing of vancomycin based on Neofax® in NICU patients is insufficient in yielding serum trough concentrations of 10 to 20 mcg/mL. Further studies are needed to evaluate the optimal dosing regimen to achieve higher trough concentrations in this patient population.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Estado Terminal , Soro/química , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Vancomicina/administração & dosagem , Vancomicina/farmacocinética , Administração Intravenosa , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Vancomicina/efeitos adversos
10.
J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther ; 20(6): 468-75, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26766936

RESUMO

We describe a novel multihealth system pediatric pharmacy residency program through the Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy at Rutgers University. Pediatric clinical pharmacy is a growing field that has seen an increase in demand for practitioners. Practice sites include freestanding children's hospitals, children's hospitals within adult hospitals, and pediatric units within adult hospitals. To accommodate a residency program in a region with no freestanding children's hospital, the pediatric faculty members at the Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy at Rutgers University developed a multihealth system postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) pediatric pharmacy residency program with 6 pediatric faculty members functioning as preceptors at their 5 respective practice sites. The multihealth system setup of the program provides the resident exposure to a multitude of patient populations, pediatric specialties, and pediatric pharmacy practices. In addition, the affiliation with Rutgers University allows an emphasis on academia with opportunities for the resident to lecture in small and large classrooms, facilitate discussion periods, assist with clinical laboratory classes, and precept pharmacy students. The resident has the unique opportunity to develop a research project with a large and diverse patient population owing to the multihealth system rotation sites. A multihealth system PGY2 residency in pediatric pharmacy provides the resident a well-rounded experience in pediatric clinical practice, research, and academia that will enhance the resident's ability to build his or her own pediatric pharmacy practice.

11.
J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther ; 19(3): 147-55, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25309144

RESUMO

The incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) has increased dramatically during the past 15 years, likely due to an increase in antepartum maternal opiate use. Optimal care of these patients is still controversial because of the available published literature lacking sufficient sample size, placebo control, and comparative pharmacologic trials. Primary treatment for NAS consists of opioid replacement therapy with either morphine or methadone. Paregoric and tincture of opium have been abandoned because of relative safety concerns. Buprenorphine is emerging as a treatment option with promising initial experience. Adjunctive agents should be considered for infants failing treatment with opioid monotherapy. Traditionally, phenobarbital has been used as adjunctive therapy; however, results of clonidine as adjunctive therapy for NAS appear to be beneficial. Future directions for research in NAS should include validating a simplified scoring tool, conducting comparative studies, exploring home management options, and optimizing management through pharmacogenomics.

12.
J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther ; 19(2): 91-7, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25024668

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The standard of care for treatment of an asthma exacerbation includes oxygen, inhaled short-acting bronchodilators, and systemic corticosteroids; adjunctive therapies, such as intravenous magnesium sulfate, can be used for patients who are having life-threatening exacerbations. The purpose of this study was to analyze the prescribing patterns as well as the safety of intravenous magnesium sulfate for the treatment of acute asthma exacerbations in pediatric patients across multiple hospitals in New Jersey. METHODS: This retrospective chart review was conducted at 4 medical centers in New Jersey on patients who presented to the emergency department between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2010. RESULTS: Fifty-three patients were included in the study. In the emergency department, 98% of patients received inhaled albuterol plus ipratropium and 85% received systemic corticosteroids before intravenous magnesium sulfate administration. The median dose of magnesium sulfate was 40 mg/kg with a median time of administration of 20 minutes. One patient experienced hypotension that was thought to be related to magnesium sulfate administration. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that weight-based dosage, as well as time of administration of magnesium sulfate for pediatric patients with an acute asthma exacerbation, varies across different institutions in New Jersey. Magnesium sulfate use was safe in this patient population.

13.
J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther ; 19(2): 118-26, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25024672

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To establish standardized, rounded doses of medications for neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) through a multi-institutional peer-reviewed process. METHODS: Pediatric faculty and pediatric pharmacy residents from the Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy (Piscataway, NJ) conducted a systematic review of rounded, weight-based medication information for neonatal patients from September 2010 to April 2011. After initial review, an expanded workgroup of expert neonatal pharmacy clinicians from academic institutions throughout the United States were invited to conduct a final review. The workgroup identified 74 medications or indications in the NICU. Recommended standardized doses were established for discrete weight categories at workgroup consensus web meetings conducted from June to December 2011. Workgroup recommendations were cross-referenced with published neonatal pharmacology resources. Consensus was obtained when references provided insufficient information on medication information. RESULTS: Seventeen weight categories of increasing ranges were used, from 40 g for the lowest weights (e.g., 410-450 g) to 840 g for the highest weights (e.g., 3660-4500 g). Medications were divided into 3 categories of administration routes: oral (n = 4), intermittent intravenous (n = 64), and other (e.g., intramuscular; n=6). A significant majority of standardized doses (84%) were within 15% of their corresponding weight-calculated dose. CONCLUSIONS: Establishment of a portfolio of standardized, rounded doses of medications commonly used in the NICU was feasibly established by a multi-institutional peer review process, with the great majority of standardized doses being within clinically acceptable ranges of administration. Use of standardized, rounded doses for reduction in dosing errors may be feasible on a systematic level.

14.
J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther ; 17(3): 274-80, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23258971

RESUMO

Severe bleeding in acute immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is rare but can cause significant complications to the patient. Here we report the case of a pediatric patient with acute ITP and hematuria refractory to anti-D immune globulin, high dose intravenous immunoglobulin G, and high dose steroids. Her hematuria was successfully treated with recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa). While further investigation on the use of rFVIIa in ITP is warranted, this case report contributes to the pediatric literature for its use during the course of an initial presentation of ITP with hemorrhagic complications.

15.
Clin Ther ; 33(10): 1331-56, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21982385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of antihypertensive agents on the market has increased dramatically over the past 20 years. Many of these agents are used to treat children and adolescents with hypertension despite there being relatively limited data available supporting such use. Recent legislation has helped to increase the number of studies conducted in children, but many clinical questions remain unanswered. OBJECTIVE: The goals of this article were to review the currently available antihypertensive agents used in the treatment of pediatric hypertension and to assist clinicians in selecting the most appropriate treatment. METHODS: Searches of MEDLINE and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts through July 2011 were conducted. Search terms used included child, pediatric, hypertension, and the following drugs: captopril, enalapril, lisinopril, fosinopril, losartan, valsartan, irbesartan, candesartan, olmesartan, amlodipine, nifedipine, isradipine, felodipine, propranolol, metoprolol, labetalol, minoxidil, furosemide, spironolactone, chlorothiazide, hydrochlorothiazide, hydralazine, and prazosin. Clinical trial data were reviewed and evaluated and were limited to English-language articles. RESULTS: A total of 45 observational and randomized controlled trials were identified and summarized in this review. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and calcium channel antagonists (CCAs) had the strongest data to support their use in pediatric patients. ACE inhibitors and ARBs are preferred agents for children with renal disease and have a favorable safety profile. Many trials, including 2 comparative trials, supported the use of CCAs, particularly amlodipine, in children. CONCLUSIONS: Trials in all 3 classes suggested their efficacy as well as a tolerable adverse-effect profile. More trials in children are needed, particularly with newer antihypertensive agents. Comparative trials of different agents are the most lacking.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Ann Pharmacother ; 44(9): 1448-58, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20628042

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the available treatment options for pediatric atopic dermatitis. DATA SOURCES: A literature review was performed in MEDLINE (1950-February 2010) using the key word atopic dermatitis. The references identified were evaluated in comparative treatment. The references included in this review were limited to studies conducted in children less than 18 years of age and written in the English language. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: All of the literature retrieved that was published within the last 5 years (2005-2010) was included in this review. Other pertinent articles published prior to 2005 were also included. DATA SYNTHESIS: Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that usually begins during infancy. Potential causes include irritants such as soap and detergents, food allergens, contact allergens, and skin infections. Emollients, moisturizing agents that inhibit water loss and provide a protective coating, are recommended in all patients with atopic dermatitis. Additionally, emollients may reduce the need to use topical corticosteroids. Patients receiving desonide 0.05% plus an emollient achieved significant reductions in severity scores compared to those receiving desonide 0.05% as monotherapy (80% vs 70%; p < 0.01). Topical calcineurin inhibitors are not recommended as first-line therapy in pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis; however, their use in children above 2 years of age who fail to respond to topical corticosteroids may be considered. CONCLUSIONS: Emollients are recommended in pediatric patients with a diagnosis of atopic dermatitis regardless of symptoms. Topical corticosteroids reduce the inflammation and pruritus associated with atopic dermatitis and are available in several formulations and strengths. Calcineurin inhibitors may be an alternative in children older than 2 years of age who do not respond to topical corticosteroids.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Dermatite Atópica/terapia , Emolientes/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Administração Tópica , Inibidores de Calcineurina , Criança , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Dieta , Humanos
17.
CNS Drug Rev ; 13(1): 96-106, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17461892

RESUMO

Dextromethorphan (DM) is a noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, which is widely used as an antitussive agent. DM also prevents neuronal damage and modulates pain sensation via noncompetitive antagonism of excitatory amino acids (EAAs). DM has been found to be useful in the treatment of pain in cancer patients and in the treatment of methotrexate-induced neurotoxicity. Clinical studies with DM in cancer patients are reviewed in this article.


Assuntos
Dextrometorfano/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/uso terapêutico , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Dextrometorfano/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/farmacologia , Humanos , Dor/classificação , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/fisiologia
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