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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5495, 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218464

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a multi-factorial disorder including central obesity (CO), insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension which increases the risk of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. CO is considered as an essential component of MetS according to International Diabetes Federation (IDF), which may further modulate distinct signalling pathways compared with the other four MetS risk factors. Given that ghrelin signalling and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF-1) axis regulates energy balance and metabolic homeostasis, this study examined the changes in various ghrelin products and circulating hormones in response to the interaction between CO and other MetS components including blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in 133 Hong Kong Chinese adults. Circulating obestatin and GH were increased and reduced, respectively, by either CO or the other 4-risk factor cluster. These changes were further augmented by the presence of all MetS risk factors. However, changes of ghrelin levels were not mediated by CO but the other MetS risk factors. Our findings suggest that CO does not predict all the dysregulation of signalling pathways in individuals with MetS. Although CO and other MetS may share common signalling targets (i.e., obestatin and GH), CO does not contribute to the perturbation of ghrelin signalling.

2.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 52(1): 56-66, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between the frequency of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and the resultant adaptations is largely unclear. PURPOSE: This study compared the effects of different frequencies of HIIT with those of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on body composition in overweight or obese adults. METHODS: Fifty-six overweight or obese (body mass index = 26.4 ± 2.9) men between 18 and 30 yr old (age = 22.8 ± 3.1 yr) were randomly assigned to the following groups: no-intervention control (CON; n = 14), MICT performed thrice weekly (MICT×3/wk; n = 9), HIIT performed thrice weekly (HIIT×3/wk; n = 14), HIIT performed twice weekly (HIIT×2/wk; n = 10), and HIIT performed once weekly (HIIT×1/wk; n = 9). Each HIIT session consisted of 12 × 1-min bouts at 90% heart rate reserve, interspersed with 11 × 1-min bouts at 70% heart rate reserve. Aerobic capacity, body composition, resting heart rate, vascular function, insulin resistance, and biomarkers of metabolic syndrome risk factor were examined at baseline, after 4 wk, and after 8 wk of intervention. RESULTS: Aerobic capacity and percent fat-free mass significantly increased in all exercise groups compared with those in the CON group (CON vs all exercise groups, P < 0.05), whereas body fat mass and systolic blood pressure significantly decreased after 8 wk of intervention in all exercise groups compared with those in the CON group (CON vs all exercise groups, P < 0.05). Body fat mass significantly decreased after 4 wk in all HIIT groups compared with those in the CON group (CON vs all HIIT groups, P < 0.05) but not in the MICT×3/wk group. CONCLUSION: These novel results demonstrated that performing HIIT once weekly, even with a lower weekly volume of exercise, improved cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, and blood pressure in overweight/obese adults. Low-frequency HIIT might be a feasible and effective strategy for the prescription of an initial exercise program for inactive, overweight, or obese young men.

3.
Phys Ther ; 99(12): 1616-1627, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the evidence suggests that general fatigue is a strong indicator of rapid aging, frailty, and disability, general fatigue is undertreated in gerontological care. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate whether an individualized exercise program with and without behavioral change enhancement (BCE) strategies for older people who are frail and have general fatigue will reduce their fatigue and symptoms of frailty. DESIGN: A 3-arm, single-blind, cluster randomized controlled trial registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03394495) will be conducted. SETTING: The study will be conducted in a community setting. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred eighty-five community-dwelling older people with general fatigue will be recruited from 12 district community health centers. INTERVENTION: People from each center will be randomized to one of three groups. The combined group will receive a 16-week combined intervention consisting of individualized exercise training and the BCE program, plus two booster sessions at 2 and 6 months after the program. The exercise group will receive exercise training and health talks only. The control group will receive health talks only. MEASUREMENTS: Outcome measures will be collected at baseline, at the midpoint (week 8) of the program, and then at 1 week, 6 months, and 12 months after the end of the program. The primary outcome---level of fatigue---will be measured using the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. Secondary outcomes will include the participants' frailty status, strength, mobility, exercise self-efficacy, and habitual physical activity. LIMITATIONS: A self-reported level of fatigue will be used. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of exercise and BCE strategies on general fatigue among older people who are frail is not known. This study will be a pioneering interventional study on how general fatigue among older people who are frail can be managed and how fatigue-related frailty can be prevented or minimized.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438638

RESUMO

Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) as a typical mind-body practice has been investigated for its preventive role on negative emotions and has demonstrated its efficacy in healthy populations. However, the results are not consistent. We performed a meta-analysis and systematically evaluated the effect of TCC on selected negative emotions (i.e., anxiety and depression). Fourteen experimental studies from three English-and two Chinese-language databases were evaluated. The results showed that the positive effects of TCC on negative emotions were moderately to largely significant. In addition, although TCC significantly improved negative emotions in both the young adults and the older adults, old adults benefited more from TCC than young adults. These findings suggest that TCC is a worthy complementary non-pharmacological resource towards depression and anxiety and, thus, has great implications for the public health domain.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/terapia , Depressão/terapia , Tai Ji , Humanos
5.
J Adv Nurs ; 75(12): 3758-3767, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441100

RESUMO

AIM: This study aims to evaluate the effects of a community-based program entitled 'Brain Vitality Enhancement (BRAVE)' on the cognitive function, physical and mental well-being of persons with mild cognitive impairment. STUDY DESIGN: This is a parallel wait list randomized controlled trial. METHODS: The BRAVE program consists of two phases. Phase 1 is an empowerment workshop for training 50 peer mentors to be the exercise ambassadors, while Phase 2 is a supervised exercise program for 250 persons with mild cognitive impairment. They will be randomly allocated to intervention or wait list control groups. For the intervention group, the peer mentors and mentees will be matched according to gender and residential areas to form mentor-mentee groups to attend an 8-week supervised exercise training. The mentor-mentee groups will continue to participate mentor-directed exercise sessions in the community thereafter. A mobile application will be developed for self-directed learning. We hypothesize that persons with mild cognitive impairment receiving the BRAVE program will demonstrate better cognitive function and health-related quality of life than the control group who receive usual care. This study is funded by a grant from the Food and Health Bureau of the Government of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region in April 2018. DISCUSSION: This study will empower a group of golden-aged adults to be the ambassadors to promote brain health in the community and persons with mild cognitive impairment to integrate moderate-intensity exercise into their lifestyle to achieve long-term beneficial effects on their cognition and well-being. IMPACT: Given the population with mild cognitive impairment is growing rapidly and expected to keep escalating in coming decades and limited treatment options for cognitive decline and its significant burden on the health and social care system, this study is timely to promote active ageing in the society and reduce the burden associated with cognitive decline.

6.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 470, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164801

RESUMO

Research suggests that maternal exercise in pregnancy may have beneficial effects on the brain function of offspring. This study sought to determine if voluntary wheel running during pregnancy improves depression-like behavior, temporal order memory, and hippocampal neurogenesis in both female and male offspring mice. Pregnant mice were allowed to run voluntarily by introducing running wheels into the housing cages throughout the gestational period. Male and female mice offspring at the age of 8- to 9-week-old were then tested on the temporal order task and forced swim test, then euthanized for immunostaining for examining adult hippocampal cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Results showed that both male and female pups had reduced depression-like behavior, while only male offspring demonstrated improvement in temporal order memory. Immunostaining revealed that male offspring showed an increase in the number of immature neurons in the ventral hippocampus, whereas female offspring showed enhanced cell proliferation in the dorsal hippocampus. These findings indicate that maternal voluntary wheel running benefits both female and male offspring on reducing depression-like behavior, but with gender effect on promoting hippocampal cell proliferation, neuronal differentiation, and temporal order memory.

7.
Front Physiol ; 9: 1321, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30294284

RESUMO

Introduction: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a multiplex cardiometabolic manifestation associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Yoga training has been shown to alleviate MetS. Recently, circulatory ghrelin profile was demonstrated to be associated with MetS. This study examined the effects of 1 year of yoga training on ß-cell function and insulin resistance, and the involvement of metabolic peptides, including unacylated ghrelin (UnAG), acylated ghrelin (AG), obestatin, growth hormone (GH), and insulin, in the beneficial effects of yoga training in centrally obese adults with MetS. Methods: This was a follow up study, in which data of risk factors of MetS, physical performance tests [resting heart rate (HR), chair stand test (CS), chair sit and reach test (CSR), back scratch test (BS), and single leg stand tests (SLS)] and serum samples of 79 centrally obese MetS subjects aged 58 ± 8 years (39 subjects received 1-year yoga training and 40 subjects received no training) were retrieved for analyses. ß-cell function and insulin resistance were examined by Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA). Circulating levels of UnAG, AG, obestatin, GH, and insulin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using fasting serum samples. Generalized estimating equation analysis and Mann-Whitney U-test were used to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Results: Waist circumference (WC) was significantly decreased after yoga intervention (control: +2%; yoga: -4%). Significant improvements in HR (control: +2%; yoga: -5%), CS (control: -1%; yoga: +24%), CSR left (control: worsen by 0.90 cm; yoga: improved by 4.21 cm), CSR right (control: worsen by 0.75 cm; yoga: improved by 4.28 cm), right side of BS (control: improved by 0.19 cm; yoga: improved by 4.31 cm), SLS left (control: -10%; yoga: +86%), and SLS right (control: -6%; yoga: +47%) were observed after 1-year yoga training. No significant difference was found between the two groups in insulin, HOMA indices, and disposition index. Yoga training significantly increased circulating GH (control: -3%; yoga: +22%), total circulating ghrelin (control: -26%; yoga: +13%), and UnAG (control: -27%; yoga: +14%), whereas decreased AG (control: -7%; yoga: -33%) and obestatin (control: +24%; yoga: -29%). Conclusion: One-year of yoga training modulated total ghrelin, UnAG, AG, obestatin, and GH while exerting beneficial effects on physical functions and central obesity in adults with MetS. The beneficial effects of yoga may be associated with the alteration of ghrelin gene product and GH.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30258404

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to investigate how central obesity and hypertension modulate unacylated ghrelin (UnAG), acylated ghrelin (AG), obestatin, growth hormone (GH), and the ratios of UnAG/obestatin, AG/obestatin, and total ghrelin/obestatin. Methods: Circulatory abundances of UnAG, AG, obestatin and GH were determined in 387 Hong Kong Chinese female adults with age between 24 to 86 years based on a 2 × 2 factorial design of hypertension (blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg) and central obesity (waist circumference or WC ≥80 cm). Participants were categorized as neither hypertensive nor centrally obese (NHNO; n = 105), hypertensive but not centrally obese (HNO; n = 102), centrally obese but not hypertensive (NHO; n = 74) and hypertensive and centrally obese (NO; n = 106). Pearson's correlation analyses were performed to detect the association between the peptides examined with WC and blood pressure. The main and interaction effects of hypertension and central obesity were examined by generalized estimating equations analyses. Results: Correlation analyses revealed that systolic blood pressure was negatively correlated with AG/obestatin, UnAG/obestatin and total ghrelin/obestatin ratios, AG, total ghrelin, and GH, while diastolic blood pressure was negatively correlated with UnAG/obestatin, total ghrelin/obestatin ratios, and GH. WC was negatively correlated with AG/obestatin, UnAG/obestatin, and total ghrelin/obestatin ratios, UnAG, AG, total ghrelin, GH, and obestatin. Interaction effects of hypertension and central obesity were observed on UnAG/obestatin, AG/obestatin and total ghrelin/obestatin ratios, and obestatin. Obestatin in NHO group was significantly higher compared to NHNO and HO groups. UnAG/obestatin, AG/obestatin, and total ghrelin/obestatin ratios were higher in NHNO group compared to HNO and HO groups. Main effects of central obesity and hypertension were observed in UnAG, total ghrelin and GH. The HO group manifested the lowest level of UnAG, total ghrelin and GH among all the groups studied. Main effect of hypertension was observed on AG, suggesting that hypertensive individuals exhibited lower levels of AG regardless of central obesity. Conclusion: Circulatory ghrelin gene products and GH exhibit different modes of modulation in response to the co-manifestation of multiple cardiovascular risk factors compared with a single risk factor alone.

9.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0201585, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30114249

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) or prediabetes is a complex disorder that is defined by a clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors, including obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, hypertension, and insulin resistance. Among cardiometabolic risk factors, central obesity plays a key role in the development of MetS through alterations in the secretion of adipokines and interacts with other MetS risk factors to unfavorably influence overall cardiometabolic risk. Obesity has grasped epidemic proportions in Asia, which has the highest number of people with diabetes in the world. But, the importance of central obesity in the clustering of all four MetS risk factors or vice versa in predicting severity of MetS has not yet been investigated in Asian population. Therefore, the present study examined the influence of central obesity on circulating levels of adipokines through its interaction with the clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors of MetS including hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension in Hong Kong Chinese adults. SUBJECTS: Blood samples from 83 Hong Kong Chinese adults, who were previously screened for MetS according to the guideline of the United States National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were selected. Insulin and adipokines, including visfatin, chemerin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), resistin, C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), leptin and adiponectin were assessed. RESULTS: The interacting effect of central obesity with all of the other four MetS risk factors increased the proinflammatory status of adipokines (TNF-α, leptin) and decreased the anti-inflammatory status of adipokine (adiponectin). CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the inflammatory status of MetS may be more severe in the presence of central obesity. Adipokines, as biomarkers for pathophysiological changes, may help to improve early patient identification and to predict MetS-associated morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Obesidade Abdominal/metabolismo , Adiponectina/sangue , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/sangue , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
10.
J Diabetes Res ; 2018: 8956509, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29670915

RESUMO

Background: Visceral adiposity is associated with higher productions of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Inflammation of obese adipose tissues could contribute to systemic metabolic dysregulation, especially thermogenic activity of white adipose tissues, namely, beige adipogenesis, characterized by altered irisin expression. Thus, we investigated the roles of inflammation and adipocyte beiging in Chinese centrally obese (CO) adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 54 CO and 58 non-CO subjects drawn from 1492 Chinese people with age and sex matched during November 2010 and August 2013. Twenty (37.0%) of the CO subjects fulfilled the IDF worldwide definition of MetS. Serum CRP, IL-6, and irisin levels were examined. Results: Higher CRP and IL-6, but lower irisin, levels were manifested in MetS versus non-MetS subjects with or without CO. Multiple linear regression identified high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level as the only independent risk factor for irisin level. Categorized by median of CRP and IL-6 levels, a lower irisin level was only observed in high CRP group. Conclusion: Under the condition of central obesity, chronic inflammation and impaired beige adipogenesis are associated with MetS in Chinese adults.


Assuntos
Adipócitos Bege/metabolismo , Adipogenia/fisiologia , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Fibronectinas/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Obesidade Abdominal/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Front Physiol ; 9: 294, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29636702

RESUMO

Central obesity and hypertension are common risk factors for the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular and renal diseases. Studies have shown that it is more difficult to control blood pressure and prevent end-organ damage in obese individuals with hypertension compared to their non-obese counterparts, especially among women. Obese females have a 6 times higher risk of developing hypertension than non-obese females while obese males are at a 1.5 times higher risk of developing hypertension, compared to their non-obese counterparts. Indeed, the inter-relationship between obesity and hypertension is unclear. Adipokines have been proposed to play a mediating role in the relationship between obesity and hypertension and are involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Therefore, this study sought to determine the role of adipokines (adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α) in hypertensive Hong Kong Chinese women with central obesity. A total of 387 women aged 58 ± 11 years who were examined with a 2 × 2 factorial design for central obesity (waist circumference ≥ 80 cm) and hypertension (blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg), were recruited from a pool of 1,492 Hong Kong Chinese adults who were previously screened for metabolic syndrome. Subjects with hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and dyslipidemia were excluded to eliminate confounding effects. Our findings revealed that hypertensive women with central obesity had a lower anti-inflammatory status (adiponectin) and a higher pro-inflammatory status (TNF-α) than obese alone or hypertensive alone women. Also, women with central obesity had higher circulatory PAI-1 and leptin concentrations than their non-obese counterparts. We conclude that obesity may shift toward a more pro-inflammatory state and may become more severe in the presence of hypertension or vice versa.

12.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 3689, 2018 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29487339

RESUMO

Pressure-induced injury (PI), such as a pressure ulcer, in patients with limited mobility is a healthcare issue worldwide. PI is an injury to skin and its underlying tissue such as skeletal muscle. Muscle compression, composed of mechanical deformation of muscle and external load, leads to localized ischemia and subsequent unloading reperfusion and, hence, a pressure ulcer in bed-bound patients. Although the gross factors involved in PI have been identified, little is known about the exact disease mechanism or its links to apoptosis, autophagy and inflammation. Here, we report that PI is mediated by intrinsic apoptosis and exacerbated by autophagy. Conditional ablation of Bax and Bak activates the Akt-mTOR pathway and Bnip3-mediated mitophagy and preserves mitochondrial contents in compressed muscle. Moreover, we find that the presence/absence of Bax and Bak alters the roles and functions of autophagy in PI. Our results suggest that manipulating apoptosis and autophagy are potential therapeutic targets for treatment and prevention of PI.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Pressão/efeitos adversos , Proteína Killer-Antagonista Homóloga a bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo , Animais , Western Blotting , Morte Celular/genética , Morte Celular/fisiologia , Imunoprecipitação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína Killer-Antagonista Homóloga a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética
13.
Am J Chin Med ; 46(2): 231-259, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29542330

RESUMO

Tai Chi Chuan (TCC), a traditional Chinese martial art, is well-documented to result in beneficial consequences in physical and mental health. TCC is regarded as a mind-body exercise that is comprised of physical exercise and meditation. Favorable effects of TCC on body balance, gait, bone mineral density, metabolic parameters, anxiety, depression, cognitive function, and sleep have been previously reported. However, the underlying mechanisms explaining the effects of TCC remain largely unclear. Recently, advances in neuroimaging technology have offered new investigative opportunities to reveal the effects of TCC on anatomical morphologies and neurological activities in different regions of the brain. These neuroimaging findings have provided new clues for revealing the mechanisms behind the observed effects of TCC. In this review paper, we discussed the possible effects of TCC-induced modulation of brain morphology, functional homogeneity and connectivity, regional activity and macro-scale network activity on health. Moreover, we identified possible links between the alterations in brain and beneficial effects of TCC, such as improved motor functions, pain perception, metabolic profile, cognitive functions, mental health and sleep quality. This paper aimed to stimulate further mechanistic neuroimaging studies in TCC and its effects on brain morphology, functional homogeneity and connectivity, regional activity and macro-scale network activity, which ultimately lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of TCC on human health.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Neuroimagem Funcional , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Tai Ji , Cognição/fisiologia , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/reabilitação , Transtornos do Humor/reabilitação , Dor/reabilitação , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/reabilitação
14.
Trials ; 19(1): 69, 2018 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29370818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Moderate sleep complaints are major gerontological issue affecting as many as 80% of older adults. More intriguing findings have indicated that moderate sleep complaints were associated with cognitive decline, functional deterioration, clinical depression, and even morbidity and mortality among older adults. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of an activity-based lifestyle intervention on moderate sleep complaint among community-dwelling older adults. METHODS/DESIGN: This sequential quantitative-qualitative mixed method study will randomly allocate 224 individuals to receive either the 16-week group-based moderate-intensity stepping exercise or 16-week health education. The exercise group receives three 60-min stepping exercises per week, whereas the education group receives weekly educative talks on health topics other than sleep. The primary outcomes are sleep quality as measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and sleep pattern as measured by the actiwatch. Physical fitness and mood status are measured as mediating variables by using the Rockport walking test and Profile of Mood States. The qualitative part will invite 30 individuals from the exercise group who have different sleep-related treatment responses to participate in individual interviews to explore their overall perception of using stepping exercise as a lifestyle intervention to improve sleep. Mixed effects model with intention-to-treat analysis will be used for quantitative data. Inductive thematic analysis with a prior coding framework will be used for the qualitative data. DISCUSSION: By investigating the effects and the mediating mechanism of a moderate-intensity exercise program on moderate sleep complaints among older adults, this study will generate evidence of high scientific value and important public health implication. Understanding the sleep-promoting effects and acceptability of exercise informs how to apply lifestyle promotion as a public health practice to improve late-life moderate sleep complaints and forestall its progression to level of clinical severity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trial Registry Team, Center for Clinical Research and Biostatistics CUHK, CCRB00491 . Registered on 1 December 2015.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Envelhecimento Saudável , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/terapia , Sono , Afeto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aptidão Física , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 28(3): 1130-1138, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29205515

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Our previous study indicated that people with MetS showed a decrease in waist circumference and a decreasing trend in blood pressure after 1-year yoga. This study investigated the effect of yoga on MetS people with high-normal blood pressure by exploring modulations in proinflammatory adipokines (leptin, chemerin, visfatin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 or PAI-1) and an anti-inflammatory adipokine (adiponectin). A total of 97 Hong Kong Chinese individuals aged 57.6 ± 9.1 years with MetS and high-normal blood pressure were randomly assigned to control (n = 45) and yoga groups (n = 52). Participants in the control group were not given any intervention but were contacted monthly to monitor their health status. Participants in the yoga group underwent a yoga training program with three 1-hour yoga sessions weekly for 1 year. The participants' sera were harvested and assessed for adipokines. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) was used to examine the interaction effect between 1-year time (pre vs post), and intervention (control vs yoga). GEE analyses revealed significant interaction effects between 1-year time and yoga intervention for the decreases in leptin and chemerin and the increase in adiponectin concentration in the sera examined. These results demonstrated that 1-year yoga training decreased proinflammatory adipokines and increased anti-inflammatory adipokine in adults with MetS and high-normal blood pressure. These findings support the beneficial role of yoga in managing MetS by favorably modulating adipokines.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/sangue , Hipertensão/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Ioga , Idoso , Quimiocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/sangue , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/sangue , Fatores de Risco
16.
Front Physiol ; 8: 962, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29225581

RESUMO

Unacylated ghrelin, the predominant form of circulating ghrelin, protects myotubes from cell death, which is a known attribute of pressure ulcers. In this study, we investigated whether unacylated ghrelin protects skeletal muscle from pressure-induced deep tissue injury by abolishing necroptosis and apoptosis signaling and whether these effects were mediated by SIRT1 pathway. Fifteen adult Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to receive saline or unacylated ghrelin with or without EX527 (a SIRT1 inhibitor). Animals underwent two 6-h compression cycles with 100 mmHg static pressure applied over the mid-tibialis region of the right limb whereas the left uncompressed limb served as the intra-animal control. Muscle tissues underneath the compression region, and at the similar region of the opposite uncompressed limb, were collected for analysis. Unacylated ghrelin attenuated the compression-induced muscle pathohistological alterations including rounding contour of myofibers, extensive nucleus accumulation in the interstitial space, and increased interstitial space. Unacylated ghrelin abolished the increase in necroptosis proteins including RIP1 and RIP3 and attenuated the elevation of apoptotic proteins including p53, Bax, and AIF in the compressed muscle. Furthermore, unacylated ghrelin opposed the compression-induced phosphorylation and acetylation of p65 subunit of NF-kB. The anti-apoptotic effect of unacylated ghrelin was shown by a decrease in apoptotic DNA fragmentation and terminal dUTP nick-end labeling index in the compressed muscle. The protective effects of unacylated ghrelin vanished when co-treated with EX527. Our findings demonstrated that unacylated ghrelin protected skeletal muscle from compression-induced injury. The myoprotective effects of unacylated ghrelin on pressure-induced tissue injury were associated with SIRT1 signaling.

17.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2017: 9506925, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29075367

RESUMO

The onsets of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and endothelial dysfunction (ED) in diabetics, especially in those with elevated homocysteine (Hcy), precede the development of cardiovascular (CV) events. Salvianic acid A (SAA) is a renowned Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) that has been applied in the treatment of cardiovascular disease for many decades. In this study, we aimed (1) to investigate the CV protective effects of SAA on ameliorating LVH and ED in db/db mice with elevated blood Hcy level and (2) to decipher whether the observed CV protective effects of SAA are associated with Hcy metabolism by modulating the methylation potential and redox status in the liver of the db/db mice with elevated blood Hcy level. Our results found that the administration of SAA could significantly slow down the build-up of left ventricular mass and ameliorate ED. Immunological assay analysis on the mouse liver tissue also indicated that SAA treatment on db/db mice with elevated Hcy was associated with reduced methylation potential but improved redox status. In conclusion, we revealed that SAA has the potential to protect against the hyperglycemia- and hyperhomocysteinemia-induced oxidative stress on diabetic mice via modulation in Hcy metabolism.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/tratamento farmacológico , Lactatos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Feminino , Lactatos/farmacologia , Camundongos
18.
Br J Nutr ; 118(1): 11-16, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28758603

RESUMO

Vitamin D deficiency (plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D)70 % of participants were vitamin D deficient. No significant correlations and no biomarker differences across 25(OH)D quartiles or groups were seen except for total antioxidant status. A weak direct association (r 0·252, P<0·05) was observed between 25(OH)D and FRAP, and those in the lowest 25(OH)D quartile and group had significantly lower FRAP values. Results did not reveal a clear link between vitamin D status and oxidative stress biomarkers in the absence of advanced age, obesity and disease, though some evidence of depleted antioxidant status in those with vitamin D deficiency was seen. Poor antioxidant status may pre-date increased oxidative stress. Study of effects of correction of deficiency on antioxidant status and oxidative stress in vitamin D-deficient but otherwise healthy subjects is needed.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Calcifediol/sangue , Nível de Saúde , Obesidade/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Deficiência de Vitamina D/metabolismo , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Cobertura de Condição Pré-Existente , Valores de Referência , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Biomed Sci ; 24(1): 50, 2017 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28750629

RESUMO

Plasma free fatty acids levels are increased in subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes, playing detrimental roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Increasing evidence showing that dysfunction of the vascular endothelium, the inner lining of the blood vessels, is the key player in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this review, we aimed to summarize the roles and the underlying mechanisms using the evidence collected from clinical and experimental studies about free fatty acid-mediated endothelial dysfunction. Because of the multifaceted roles of plasma free fatty acids in mediating endothelial dysfunction, elevated free fatty acid level is now considered as an important link in the onset of endothelial dysfunction due to metabolic syndromes such as diabetes and obesity. Free fatty acid-mediated endothelial dysfunction involves several mechanisms including impaired insulin signaling and nitric oxide production, oxidative stress, inflammation and the activation of the renin-angiotensin system and apoptosis in the endothelial cells. Therefore, targeting the signaling pathways involved in free fatty acid-induced endothelial dysfunction could serve as a preventive approach to protect against the occurrence of endothelial dysfunction and the subsequent complications such as atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Humanos
20.
Clin Rehabil ; 31(4): 521-531, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27162189

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and preliminary effects of an individualized exercise programme with and without behavioural change enhancement strategies for frail older people with fatigue. DESIGN: A three-arm, single-blinded, quasi-experimental pilot study. SETTING: Community health centres. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 79 frail older people with fatigue, mean age 79.32 years (±7.72). INTERVENTIONS: The combined group received a 16-week combined intervention consisting of exercise training and a behavioural change enhancement programme. The exercise group received exercise training and health talks, whereas the control group received only health talks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Feasibility was assessed through the participants' recruitment, retention, attendance and adherence, feedback, and reports of adverse events. The preliminary effects were assessed by the participants' level of fatigue, physical endurance, self-efficacy, and self-perceived compliance with exercise. RESULTS: Feasibility was achievable with high recruitment (87.2%) and low overall attrition (7.1%) rates. A similar reduction in fatigue was identified in all groups, but a trend of greater improvement in physical endurance was observed in the combined group than in the other two groups. The combined group also had a significantly better attendance rate [F(2,76) = 5.64, p < 0.01)] and higher self-perceived exercise compliance than the exercise group. CONCLUSION: The combined intervention has the potential to enhance the participants' adherence to exercise regimens by improving their attendance in training sessions and their self-perceived exercise compliance. They are important to maintaining an appropriate level of engagement in daily exercises, especially at the beginning stages of behavioural change, when the participants are establishing the habit of exercising daily.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Fadiga/reabilitação , Idoso Fragilizado , Cooperação do Paciente , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Centros Comunitários de Saúde , Terapia por Exercício/organização & administração , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
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