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1.
Vet Rec ; 181(24): 657, 2017 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29051316

RESUMO

Pig farmers are strongly encouraged to reduce their antimicrobial usage because of the rising threat from antimicrobial resistance. However, such efforts should not compromise the herd health status and performance. This study aimed to describe the profile of so-called 'top-farms' that managed to combine both high technical performance and low antimicrobial usage. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 227 farrow-to-finish farms in Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden. Among them, 44 farms were allocated to the top-farms group and were compared with the 'regular' farms group in terms of farm characteristics, biosecurity and health status. Top-farms had fewer gastrointestinal symptoms in suckling pigs and fewer respiratory symptoms in fatteners, which could partly explain their reduced need for antimicrobials and higher performance. They also had higher biosecurity and were located in sparsely populated pig areas. However, 14 farms of the top-farms group were located in densely populated pig areas, but still managed to have low usage and high technical performance; they had higher internal biosecurity and more extensive vaccination against respiratory pathogens. These results illustrate that it is possible to control infectious diseases using other approaches than high antimicrobial usage, even in farms with challenging environmental and health conditions.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Fazendas/organização & administração , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Suínos , Vacinação/veterinária
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28405435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High antimicrobial usage and the threat of antimicrobial resistance highlighted the need for reduced antimicrobial usage in pig production. Prevention of disease however, is necessary to obtain a reduced need for antimicrobial treatment. This study aimed at assessing possible associations between the biosecurity level, antimicrobial usage and farm and production characteristics in order to advice on best practices for a low antimicrobial usage and maximum animal health and production. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 227 farrow-to-finish pig herds in Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden between December 2012 and December 2013. Associations between biosecurity status, antimicrobial usage, and production parameters were evaluated with multivariable general linear models, according to an assumed causal pathway. RESULTS: The results showed that higher antimicrobial usage in sows tended to be associated with higher antimicrobial usage from birth until slaughter (p = 0.06). The antimicrobial usage from birth until slaughter was positively associated with the number of pathogens vaccinated against (p < 0.01). A shorter farrowing rhythm (p < 0.01) and a younger weaning age (p = 0.06) tended to be also associated with a higher antimicrobial usage from birth until slaughter whereas a better external biosecurity (p < 0.01) was related with a lower antimicrobial usage from birth until slaughter. CONCLUSION: Management practices such as weaning age and biosecurity measures may be important factors indirectly impacting on antimicrobial usage. We therefore promote a holistic approach when assessing the potential to reduce the need for antimicrobial treatments.

3.
Porcine Health Manag ; 2: 18, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28405444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing problem and reducing AM use is critical in limiting its severity. The underlying causes of antimicrobial use at pig farm level must be understood to select effective reduction measures. We previously showed that antimicrobial use on Swedish pig farms is comparatively low but varies between farms, although few farms are high users. In the present survey of a convenience sample of 60 farrow-to-finish herds in Sweden, we investigated farmers' attitudes to antimicrobials and the influence of information provided by veterinarians about antimicrobial resistance. Farm characteristics were also recorded. We had previously quantified antimicrobial use for different age categories of pigs during one year, as well as external and internal biosecurity. Risk factors based on hypothetical causal associations between these and calculated treatment incidence (TI) for the different age categories were assessed here in a linear regression model. RESULTS: There were no significant associations between biosecurity and TI for any pig age category. Increasing farmer age was associated with higher TI for suckling piglets and fatteners. For suckling piglets, the age group with the highest frequency of treatment, TI was also significantly associated with farmer and education of the staff, where female farmers, and university educated staff was associated with a higher TI. Larger farms were associated with a higher TI in fatteners. CONCLUSIONS: In the investigated Swedish pig farms, factors that influenced antimicrobial usage were more related to characteristics of the individual farmer and his/her staff than to biosecurity level, other management factors or farmers' attitudes to antimicrobials.

4.
Prev Vet Med ; 121(3-4): 257-64, 2015 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26211838

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to quantify antimicrobial consumption in Swedish farrow-to-finish pig herds. Sixty herds with 100 sows or more producing more than 500 fatteners per year participated in a study where data on antimicrobial consumption over a period of one year were collected. Data on antimicrobial use were collected by substance, administration route and per age category. Antimicrobial use was measured as defined daily doses and expressed as treatment incidence (TI) per 1000 pig-days at risk. The TIs for growing pigs varied between herds, from 1.6 to 116.0 with a median of 14.3. The highest TI was recorded for suckling piglets with a median of 54.7 (range; 1.6-367.9), while the median TIs for weaners, fatteners and adults were 6.2, 2.8 and 8.4, respectively (range; 0.0-260.5; 0.0-64.9; 0.0-45.0, respectively). The within herd TIs for the different age categories were not correlated. Individual treatment, mainly consisting of injectables, was the most common form of application except for weaners for which a majority (54.8%) of the treatments were group treatments. Benzylpenicillin was the most commonly applied substance except for weaners for which oral formulations of tylosin were most common. For fatteners, group treatments constituted 8.4% of the total TI. Group treatments with oral colistin were applied to suckling piglets in five herds. Group treatments were not applied to adult pigs. The TI for weaners was significantly lower for specific pathogen-free herds. The results show that the overall antimicrobial use in Swedish farrow-to-finish pig herds varied to a great extent, and the between-herd variation indicates that there is room for improvement of pig health. Targeting suckling piglets may be most beneficial, but further studies are required to identify specific focus areas which may reduce the need for antimicrobials in this particular age group.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Sus scrofa , Fatores Etários , Animais , Vias de Administração de Medicamentos/veterinária , Feminino , Suécia
5.
Acta Vet Scand ; 57: 14, 2015 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25887040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biosecurity measures are important tools to maintain animal health in pig herds. Within the MINAPIG project, whose overall aim is to evaluate strategies to raise pigs with less antimicrobial use, biosecurity was evaluated in medium to large farrow-to-finish pig herds in Sweden. In 60 farrow-to-finish herds with more than 100 sows, the biosecurity level was evaluated using a previously developed protocol (BioCheck). In a detailed questionnaire, internal and external biosecurity was scored in six subcategories each. An overall score for biosecurity was also provided. Information regarding production parameters as well as gender and educational level of personnel working with the pigs was also collected. Descriptive statistics were used to examine the recorded data. RESULTS: The median scores for external and internal biosecurity were 68 and 59, respectively, where 0 indicates total absence of biosecurity and 100 means maximal possible biosecurity. The subcategories for external and internal biosecurity that had the highest scores were "Purchase of animals" (external) and "Nursery unit"/"Fattening unit" (internal), while "Feed, water and equipment supplies" (external) and "Measures between compartments and equipment"/"Cleaning and disinfection" (internal) received the lowest scores. A female caretaker in the farrowing unit, a farmer with fewer years of experience and more educated personnel were positively associated with higher scores for some of the external and internal subcategories. In herds with <190 sows, fattening pigs were mixed between batches significantly more often than in larger herds. CONCLUSIONS: The herds in this study had a high level of external biosecurity, as well as good internal biosecurity. Strong biosecurity related to the purchase of animals, protocols for visitors, the use of all-in, all-out systems, and sanitary period between batches. Still, there is room for improvement in preventing both the introduction of disease to herds (external) and the spread of infections within herds (internal). Systems for animal transport can be improved and with respect to internal biosecurity, there is especially room for improvement regarding hygiene measures in and between compartments, as well as the staff's working procedures between different groups of pigs.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/etiologia
6.
Prev Vet Med ; 118(4): 457-66, 2015 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25650306

RESUMO

Nineteen alternatives to antimicrobial agents were ranked on perceived effectiveness, feasibility and return on investment (ROI) from 0 (not effective, not feasible, no ROI) to 10 (fully effective, completely feasible, maximum ROI) by 111 pig health experts from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Sweden and Switzerland. The top 5 measures in terms of perceived effectiveness were (1) improved internal biosecurity, (2) improved external biosecurity, (3) improved climate/environmental conditions, (4) high health/Specific Pathogen Free/disease eradication and (5) increased vaccination. The top 5 measures in terms of perceived feasibility were (1) increased vaccination, (2) increased use of anti-inflammatory products, (3) improved water quality, (4) feed quality/optimization and (5) use of zinc/metals. The top 5 measures in terms of perceived ROI were (1) improved internal biosecurity, (2) zinc/metals, (3) diagnostics/action plan, (4) feed quality/optimization and (5) climate/environmental improvements. Univariate linear regression showed that veterinary practitioners rank internal biosecurity, vaccination, use of zinc/metals, feed quality optimization and climate/environmental on average highest, while researchers and professors focused more on increased use of diagnostics and action plans. Financial incentives/penalties ranked low in all countries. Belgian respondents ranked feed quality significantly lower compared to the German respondents while reduction of stocking density was ranked higher in Belgium compared to Denmark. Categorical Principal Component Analysis applied to the average ranking supported the finding that veterinary practitioners had a preference for more practical, common and already known alternatives. The results showed that improvements in biosecurity, increased use of vaccination, use of zinc/metals, feed quality improvement and regular diagnostic testing combined with a clear action plan were perceived to be the most promising alternatives to antimicrobials in industrial pig production based on combined effectiveness, feasibility and ROI.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Ração Animal , Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Europa (Continente) , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Suínos , Vacinação/veterinária , Zinco/uso terapêutico
7.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 70(1): 294-302, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25223972

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To establish a consensus defined daily dose animal (DDDA) for each active substance (AS) and administration route for porcine veterinary antimicrobial products authorized in four European countries, thus allowing cross-country quantification and comparison of antimicrobial usage data. METHODS: All veterinary antimicrobial products authorized for porcine use in Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden were listed for each administration route. First, separate DDDAs for each product were defined based on the recommended dosing for the main indication. Second, a consensus DDDA was established by taking the mean of the DDDAs for each product within a certain category of AS plus administration route. RESULTS: One-hundred-and-fifty-nine, 240, 281 and 50 antimicrobial products were licensed in Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden, respectively, in February 2013. Large variations were observed for dosage and treatment duration recommendations between products and between countries for the same ASs. Only 6.8% of feed/water and 29.4% of parenteral AS groups had the same recommended dosage in the four countries. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents a consensus DDDA list for use in the quantification and comparison of antimicrobial consumption. Four major recommendations have been formulated: (i) urgent need for harmonization of authorization and recommended summary of product characteristics (SPC) dosages; (ii) expand the developed preliminary DDDA list to include all authorized veterinary medicinal products in all EU member states and for all (food-producing) animal species; (iii) improved accessibility of country-specific SPC data would be preferable; and (iv) statement of the 'long-acting' duration of a product in the SPC.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/normas , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Medicina Veterinária/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Drogas Veterinárias/administração & dosagem , Drogas Veterinárias/uso terapêutico , Medicina Veterinária/normas
8.
Acta Vet Scand ; 52: 23, 2010 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20334700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of pleurisies recorded at slaughter is increasing in Sweden, and acute outbreaks of actinobacillosis that require antimicrobial treatments have become more frequent. As an increased use of antimicrobials may result in the development of antimicrobial resistance it is essential to develop alternative measures to control the disease. Vaccinations present an appealing alternative to antimicrobial treatments. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of two different vaccination strategies in a specialized fattening herd affected by actinobacillosis. METHODS: The study was conducted in a specialized fattening herd employing age segregated rearing in eight units. The herd suffered from infections caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2, confirmed by necropsy and serology. The study included 54 batches of pigs grouped into five periods. Batches of pigs of the second period were vaccinated against actinobacillosis twice, and pigs in the fourth period were vaccinated three times. Batches of pigs of the first, third and fifth period were not vaccinated. Concentrations of serum antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae and serum amyloid A (SAA) were analysed and production data were recorded. RESULTS: Despite vaccinating, medical treatments were required to reduce the impact of the disease. The mean incidence of individual treatments for respiratory diseases during the rearing period ranged from 0 to 4.7 +/- 1.8%, and was greatest during the triple vaccination period (period IV; p < 0.05 when compared to other groups). A large proportion of the vaccinated pigs seroconverted to A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 in the absence of a SAA-response. The prevalence of pleuritis decreased from 25.4 +/- 6.5% in the first period to 5.0 +/- 3.7% in the fifth period (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The vaccine did not effectively prevent clinical expression of A. pleuropneumoniae infections, but seroconversion to A. pleuropneumoniae in the absence of a SAA-response in a large number pigs indicated that the vaccine had activated the immune system. Further, the prevalence of pleuritis decreased with time. This indicates that vaccinations together with intensified medical treatments of affected pigs could be useful in reducing the impact of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Actinobacillus/veterinária , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Infecções por Actinobacillus/prevenção & controle , Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae/fisiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/análise , Suínos , Vacinação/métodos
9.
Vet Microbiol ; 139(3-4): 279-83, 2009 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19556080

RESUMO

Various ear lesions, often caused by ear biting, are common in pigs. Some herds have a high frequency of ear necrosis, a syndrome characterized by necrotic lesions along the rim of the pinna, often bilateral and sometimes resulting in loss of the entire ear. In samples from such lesions spirochetes have been observed microscopically but never isolated or identified. In this study two herds with periodic outbreaks of ear necrosis among weaners were investigated. Samples were collected from ear lesions and from the gingiva of the pigs. Spirochetes were observed in silver stained histological sections and by phase contrast microscope in scrapings from the necrotic lesions. From an ear lesion a pure spirochete isolate was obtained and identified as a yet unnamed species of genus Treponema, closely related to spirochetes found in digital dermatitis in cattle. From the oral samples two pure isolates were obtained. One of these isolates was identified as the same species as in the ear lesion and one as Treponema socranskii. Species identification was based on 16S rRNA gene sequences.


Assuntos
Dermatite/veterinária , Necrose/veterinária , Sus scrofa , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Treponema/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Treponema/veterinária , Animais , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Dermatite/microbiologia , Orelha Externa/microbiologia , Orelha Externa/patologia , Gengiva/microbiologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Necrose/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Treponema/classificação , Treponema/genética , Infecções por Treponema/microbiologia
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