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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18470, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895779

RESUMO

The appropriate approach to dental patients, developed during the course of dentists' training, is a prerequisite for the holistic treatment of patients. Empathy is an important component of such an approach. This study aimed to determine the levels of empathy among students of dentistry at different stages in their training.The Jefferson Scale of Empathy - Health Profession Students Version was used to conduct the research, and 100 dental students (66 female and 34 male) ranging from first to fifth year participated in the survey. The scale contained 20 questions, with a possible score interval between 20 and 140. A higher score indicates increased ability to express empathy.The level of empathy among dentistry students increased from the first and second to fourth years, where it reached its maximum. During the fifth year, a decrease in levels of empathy was observed.The increase in empathy during the dental course may be correlated with the growth of clinical practice during the subsequent years of study. A slight decrease in empathy in the fifth-year students may be due to the curricular focus on performing procedures, with students having to meet a set target in order to finish the course.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Empatia , Estudantes de Odontologia/psicologia , Adulto , Educação em Odontologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/métodos , Polônia , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 27: 241-247, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy is believed to be a promising treatment for Candida infections. This study evaluated the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) using the 635 nm diode laser light and toluidine blue (TB) in the elimination of selected Candida species cultured on acrylic surface. METHODS: 108 acrylic plates (Methyl Methacrylate Polymer, routinely used for the production of prosthetic dentures) were placed in three sterile Petri dishes and poured with prepared suspensions of Candida strains: C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. krusei. After all procedures of fungi incubation, fungal biofilm was visible on the plates' surfaces. The acrylic plates were divided into nine study groups (B) and nine control groups (K) for further experiments. In the study groups, the acrylic plates with fungal biofilm were immersed in TB and afterwards laser irradiation was applicated with different exposure parameters (groups: B1 - 400 mW, 24 J/cm2, 30 s; B2 - 300 mW, 18 J/cm2, 30 s; B3 - 200 mW, 12 J/cm2, 30 s) separately for each Candida species. The control groups contained following parameters: no exposure to laser light or TB, treatment only with TB without laser irradiation, or only laser irradiation without previous immersion in TB. Calculations of colony forming units (CFUs) were conducted by using aCOlyte (Synbiosis). Differences in CFUs were analyzed by the Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: In all study groups, the reduction in CFUs was statistically significant. The differences in CFUs before and after intervention were insignificant. The K3 C.a. control group showed a statistical reduction of Candida albicans after laser irradiation. CONCLUSION: Our study confirmed the efficacy of aPDT against C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei being dependent on the laser parameters and the type of fungus. The advantage of this study is the validation of aPDT effectiveness in in vitro studies to transpose this data into future clinical trials using photodynamic therapy in the treatment of oral candidiasis.

3.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 27: 255-267, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma is a common cancer of the head and neck region. Due to the frequency of diagnoses, high rate of mortality, mutilating nature of classic therapy and numerous complications, new methods of treatment are being sought. One promising solution for treatment which is utilized in many fields of oncology is photodynamic therapy. The purpose of this article is to present a general overview of the use of photodynamic therapy in preclinical in vitro studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search for articles corresponding to the topic of this review was performed using the PubMed and MEDLINE databases using the following keywords: 'oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma,' 'photodynamic therapy,' 'photosensitizer(s),' 'in vitro,' 'cell culture(s),' 'spheroids,' 'CAM model', and 'in vivo.' RESULTS: Most of the previous work found in the literature search concerns research on the use of various photosensitizers and the determination of their level of phototoxicity against cell lines. CONCLUDING REMARKS: Research on the photodynamic effect in cell lines may be useful in establishing the mechanisms and effectiveness of the photodynamic method as a starting point for clinical trials. Studies on spheroidal models allows for testing photodynamic therapy under more clinical-like conditions. The Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane Assay provides information about the vascular changes after treatment.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23861699

RESUMO

Propolis-based therapeutic agents represent this potential for the development of new drugs in dental care. The aim of a clinical-cohort study was to determine the influence of application of toothpaste enriched with Brazilian extract of propolis (EEP) on health status of oral cavity. Laboratory analysis was conducted in order to assess the chemical composition of EEP including total phenolic compounds, the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical cation scavenging activity, and FRAP assay. Clinical research involved two groups of subjects comprising 32 adult patients, with assessment based on the preliminary evaluation of the state of their marginal periodontium. The investigation of oral health indices API, OHI, and SBI and microbiological examination of oral microflora were also carried out. Results obtained indicated time-dependent microbial action of EEP at 50 mg/L concentration, with antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The total decrease of API, OHI, and SBI mean values was observed. Hygienic preparations with 3% content of Brazilian ethanol extract of green propolis (EEP) efficiently support removal of dental plaque and improve the state of marginal periodontium.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23762153

RESUMO

The soft and periodontal tissues surrounding dental implants are particularly susceptible to bacteria invasion and inflammatory reactions due to complex histological structures. This study was carried out to investigate the influence of a propolis-containing hygienic agent on selected oral health parameters, oral microflora, and the condition of periodontal health. Sixteen subjects who underwent an oral rehabilitation with dental implants were selected and randomly assigned into two groups, which received a newly formulated propolis-containing toothpaste (3% (CA)) or a negative control without an active ingredient (CC). Approximal plaque index (API), oral hygiene index (OHI, debris component), and sulcus bleeding index (SBI) were assessed in three subsequent stages. During the first and last examinations, the swabs were employed for microbiological inoculation. Propolis-containing toothpaste was found to be distinctively effective in improving oral health and the occurrence of gingivitis triggered by dental plaque. The qualitative and quantitative changes in oral bacteria spectrum were observed. Antibacterial measures containing propolis might be used as a natural adjuvant to other active substances in individuals with a high risk of periodontal problems against pathogenic oral microflora.

6.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 21(1): 81-92, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23214304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the most important measures to be undertaken in order to fight gingivitis and periodontitis is maintenance of proper hygiene of the oral cavity. The research to improve the content of toothpaste has continued for many years so that they should become better in terms of therapeutic abilities. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to determine and investigate the influence of the application of toothpaste and gel with 3% ethanol propolis extract on the state of the oral cavity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The research group comprised 80 adult patients divided into two subgroups: Group I, which comprised 40 patients without pathological changes within the boundaries of the periodontium, and Group II, also 40 patients endangered with the occurrence of periodontitis caused by dental plaque and lack of proper hygiene of the oral cavity. Qualification for both groups was based on an interview and analysis of clinical documentation and assessment of adequate indices such as API, OHI and SBI. The patients underwent three examinations: initial, follow-up after 7 days and after 8 weeks since the beginning of the program. Moreover, the patients were instructed about hygienic procedures of the oral cavity. Four groups (T, G, CT, CG), 20 patients each, were created from research groups I and II. They used the following preparations: T--Dental Polis DX toothpaste with propolis content, G--Dental Polis DX toothpaste without propolis content, CT--Carepolis gel with propolis content, CG--Carepolis gel without propolis content. The patients were informed about the type of hygienic preparation they were given to use (whether it contained propolis or not). Moreover, they were interviewed for their subjective evaluation of the product received. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Results of the research show the effectiveness of hygienic preparations with 3% content of ethanol propolis extract in both groups of patients: without pathological changes within the boundaries of the periodontium and in the case of patients endangered with the occurrence of gingivitis caused by dental plaque


Assuntos
Etanol/química , Gengivite/terapia , Saúde Bucal , Periodontite/terapia , Própole/farmacologia , Solventes/química , Escovação Dentária , Cremes Dentais/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Brasil , Fracionamento Químico , Placa Dentária/diagnóstico , Placa Dentária/terapia , Diagnóstico Bucal , Feminino , Géis , Gengivite/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Periodontite/diagnóstico , Polônia , Própole/química , Cremes Dentais/química , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Molecules ; 16(5): 3701-12, 2011 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21540797

RESUMO

Flavonoids and coumarins are the major bioactive constituents identified in Psoralea corylifolia. The active fraction isolated from fruits, seeds and roots possesses antibacterial, antioxidative and immunomodulatory properties. Neobavaisoflavone is one of the flavonoids found in Psoralea corylifolia. In the present study we investigated in vitro the anti-inflammatory activity of neobavaisoflavone. Macrophages play an important role in inflammation through the release of inflammatory mediators involved in the immune response. Inappropriate and prolonged macrophage activation is largely responsible for the pathology of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. Neobavaisoflavone significantly inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and cytokines: IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, TNF-α in LPS+IFN-γ- or PMA- stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Camundongos
8.
Pharmacol Rep ; 62(4): 608-20, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20885001

RESUMO

To examine the effect of a central noradrenergic lesion on the reactivity of the 5-HT(1B) receptor we compared intact male rats with rats in which noradrenergic nerve terminals were largely destroyed with the neurotoxin DSP-4 (50 mg/kg x 2, on the 1st and 3rd days of postnatal life). When rats attained 10 weeks of age, control and DSP-4 rats were divided into two subgroups receiving either saline or the serotonin (5-HT) synthesis inhibitor (p-chlorophenylalanine; p-CPA; 100 mg/kg). Employing an elevated plus maze test, we demonstrated that CP 94,253 (5-propoxy-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridinyl)-1H-pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyridine hydrochloride) (4.0 mg/kg; 5-HT(1B) agonist) induced an anxiogenic-like action in control rats; however, it failed to elicit this effect in the DSP-4 group. Surprisingly, in p-CPA pretreated rats anxiogenic-like activity was observed both in control and DSP-4 treated rats. CP 94,253 significantly attenuated 5-HT synthesis in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of control rats, and SB 216641 (N-{3-[3-(dimethylamino)ethoxy]-4-methoxyphenyl}-2'-methyl-4'-(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-carboxamide hydrochloride) (4.0 mg/kg; 5-HT(1B) antagonist) was able to antagonize this effect. Conversely, CP 94,253 failed to significantly inhibit the 5-HT synthesis rate in DSP-4-treated rats. In the microdialysis study CP 94,253 induced long-lasting attenuation of 5-HT release in the mPFC of control rats but had no effect in DSP-4 rats. These data lead to the proposal that presynaptic 5-HT(1B) autoreceptors underwent desensitization in DSP-4 treated rats.


Assuntos
Benzilaminas/toxicidade , Fenclonina/farmacologia , Neurotoxinas/toxicidade , Receptor 5-HT1B de Serotonina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Microdiálise , Oxidiazóis/farmacologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Piridinas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptor 5-HT1B de Serotonina/metabolismo
9.
Neurotox Res ; 17(3): 299-304, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19760476

RESUMO

The object of the current study was to determine the effect of L: -3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L: -DOPA) on the in vivo striatal microdialysate levels of the respective dopamine and serotonin metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenlalanine (DOPAC) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and hydroxyl radical level (HO(*); 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,3- and 2,5-DHBA) in adult rats made parkinsonian by treatment at 3 days after birth with the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA; 66.7 microg, base form, on each side; desipramine pretreatment, 1 h). Using HPLC/ED we found that in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats the basal striatal extraneuronal level of DOPAC was dramatically reduced and constituted only approximately 4.5% of referenced value (intact rats). Conversely, the striatal microdialysate level of 5-HIAA was elevated 2-fold in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Acute L: -DOPA (60 mg/kg i.p.; S-carbidopa pretreatment, 12.5 mg/kg i.p., 30 min) produced a rapid rise in the extraneuronal DOPAC in both tested groups but to a much greater extent in intact rats (P < 0.05). Levels of HO(*) (spin-trap products of salicylate, 2,3- and 2,5-DHBA) were elevated 2-fold in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. However, L: -DOPA did not enhance HO(*) production; acute 6-OHDOPA treatment (60 mg/kg i.p.) also did not alter HO(*) production. In summary, L: -DOPA, an effective drug in ameliorating PD symptoms, did not acutely pose a risk for HO(*) generation in parkinsonian rats. We conclude that L: -DOPA is not likely to generate reactive oxygen species in humans nor is L: -DOPA likely to accelerate PD in humans.


Assuntos
Ácido 3,4-Di-Hidroxifenilacético/metabolismo , Antiparkinsonianos/farmacologia , Corpo Estriado/efeitos dos fármacos , Radical Hidroxila/metabolismo , Levodopa/farmacologia , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/patologia , Animais , Antiparkinsonianos/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Ácido Hidroxi-Indolacético/metabolismo , Injeções Intraventriculares , Levodopa/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Microdiálise/métodos , Oxidopamina/toxicidade , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/tratamento farmacológico , Gravidez , Ratos , Simpatolíticos/toxicidade , Fatores de Tempo
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