Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 94
Filtrar
1.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483438

RESUMO

Importance: Cardiac troponin is associated with incident heart failure and greater left ventricular (LV) mass. Its association with LV systolic and diastolic functions is unclear. Objectives: To define the association of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) with LV systolic and diastolic functions in the general population, and to evaluate the extent to which that association accounts for the correlation between hs-cTnT concentration and incident heart failure overall, heart failure with preserved LV ejection fraction (LVEF; HFpEF), and heart failure with LVEF less than 50%. Design, Setting, and Participants: This analysis of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, an ongoing epidemiologic cohort study in US communities, included participants without cardiovascular disease (n = 4111). Available hs-cTnT measurements for participants who attended ARIC Study visits 2 (1990 to 1992), 4 (1996 to 1998), and 5 (2011 to 2013) were assessed cross-sectionally against echocardiographic measurements taken at visit 5 and against incident health failure after visit 5. Changes in hs-cTnT concentrations from visits 2 and 4 were also examined. Data analyses were performed from August 2017 to July 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cardiac structure and function by echocardiography at visit 5, and incident heart failure during a median 4½ years follow-up after visit 5. Results: Of the 6538 eligible participants, 4111 (62.9%) without cardiovascular disease were included. Among these participants, 2586 (62.9%) were female, and the mean (SD) age was 75 (5) years. Median (interquartile range) hs-cTnT concentration at visit 5 was 9 (7-14) ng/L and was detectable in 3946 participants (96.0%). After adjustment for demographic and clinical covariates, higher hs-cTnT levels were associated with greater LV mass index (adjusted mean [SE] for group 1: 33.8 [0.5] vs group 5: 40.1 [0.4]; P for trend < .001) and with worse diastolic function, including lower tissue Doppler imaging e' (6.00 [0.07] vs 5.54 [0.06]; P for trend < .001), higher E/e' ratio (11.4 [0.2] vs 12.9 [0.1]; P for trend < .001), and greater left atrial volume index (23.4 [0.4] vs 26.4 [0.3]; P for trend < .001), independent of LV mass index; hs-cTnT level was not associated with measures of LV systolic function. Accounting for diastolic function attenuated the association of hs-cTnT concentration with incident HFpEF by 41% and the association with combined heart failure with midrange and reduced ejection fraction combined (LVEF <50) by 17%. Elevated hs-cTnT concentration and diastolic dysfunction were additive risk factors for incident heart failure. For any value of late-life hs-cTnT levels, longer duration of detectable hs-cTnT from midlife to late life was associated with greater LV mass in late life but not with worse LV systolic or diastolic function. Conclusions and Relevance: This study shows that higher hs-cTnT concentrations were associated with worse diastolic function, irrespective of LV mass, but not with systolic function; these findings suggest that high levels of hs-cTnT may serve as an early marker of subclinical alterations in diastolic function that may lead to a predisposition to heart failure.

2.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407235

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of defects and effective radiation dose from various myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) strategies in congenital heart disease (CHD) is unknown. METHODS: We studied 75 subjects with complex CHD (ages 5 to 80 years) referred for MPI between 2002 and 2015. A rest and exercise or pharmacologic stress MPI was performed using 99mTechnetium sestamibi, 82rubidium or 13N-ammonia, and Sodium iodide SPECT (single-photon emission computed tomography), SPECT/CT or Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) SPECT or PET (positron emission tomography)/CT scanners. Deidentified images were interpreted semi-quantitatively in three batches: stress only MPI, stress/rest MPI, and stress/rest MPI with taking into account a history of ventricular septal defect repair. Effective radiation dose was estimated for stress/rest MPI and predicted for 1-day stress-first (normal stress scans), and for 2-day stress/rest MPI (abnormal stress scans). RESULTS: The median age was 18.6 years. The most common type of CHD was transposition of the great arteries (63%). Rest/stress MPI was abnormal in 43% of subjects and 25% of the abnormal scans demonstrated reversible defects. Of the subjects with abnormal MPI, 33% had significant underlying anatomic coronary artery obstruction. Estimated mean effective radiation dose ranged from 2.1 ± 0.6 mSv for 13N-ammonia PET/CT to 12.5 ± 0.9 mSv for SPECT/CT. Predicted effective radiation dose was significantly lower for stress-first MPI and for 2-day stress/rest protocols. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the relatively high prevalence of abnormal stress MPI, tailored protocols with a stress-first MPI as well as the use of 2-day protocols and advanced imaging technologies including CZT SPECT, novel image reconstruction software, and PET MPI could substantially reduce radiation dose in complex CHD.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(6): e195321, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199443

RESUMO

Importance: Undifferentiated dyspnea is common in late life, but the relative contribution of subclinical cardiac dysfunction is unknown. Impairments in cardiac structure and function may be characteristics of undifferentiated dyspnea in elderly people, providing potential insights into occult heart failure (HF). Objective: To quantify the association of undifferentiated dyspnea with cardiac dysfunction after accounting for other potential contributors. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used data from Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study participants 65 years and older who attended the fifth study visit (from 2011 to 2013) and had not been diagnosed with HF, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, morbid obesity, or severe kidney disease. Analyses were conducted from October 2017 to June 2018. Exposures: Dyspnea measured using the modified Medical Research Council scale, with a score less than 2 classified as none to mild and a score of 2 or more classified as moderate to severe. Main Outcomes and Measures: Using multivariable logistic regression, the association of undifferentiated dyspnea was defined using cardiac structure, systolic and diastolic function, pulmonary pressure (echocardiography), pulmonary function (spirometry), glomerular filtration rate, hemoglobin, body mass index, depression, and physical performance. The population-attributable risk was calculated for each dysfunction metric. Results: Among 4342 participants (mean [SD] age, 75.9 [5.0] years; 2533 [58.3%] women), 1173 (27.0%) had undifferentiated dyspnea. Moderate to severe dyspnea was present in 574 participants (13.2%) and was associated with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (odds ratio [OR], 1.53; 95% CI, 1.25-1.87; P < .001) and LV diastolic (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.20-1.78; P < .001) and systolic (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.05-1.56; P = .02) dysfunction. Moderate to severe dyspnea was also associated with obstructive (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.28-1.99; P < .001) and restrictive (OR, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.99-3.27; P < .001) findings on spirometry, renal impairment (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.08-1.61; P = .01), anemia (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.39-2.12; P < .001), lower (OR, 2.77; 95% CI, 2.18-3.51; P < .001) and upper (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.49-2.23; P < .001) extremity weakness, depression (OR, 3.01; 95% CI, 2.24-4.25; P < .001), and obesity (OR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.95-2.83; P < .001). After accounting for these, moderate to severe dyspnea was associated with LV hypertrophy (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.01-1.67; P = .04) and was not associated with systolic or diastolic function. In contrast, in the fully adjusted model, other organ system measures were associated with dyspnea, except for glomerular filtration rate and grip strength. The population-attributable risk of dyspnea associated with obesity alone was 22.6% compared with 5.8% for LV hypertrophy. Conclusions and Relevance: Undifferentiated dyspnea is multifactorial in older adults, and this study showed an association with obesity. When accounting for other relevant organ systems, cardiovascular function poorly discriminated those with vs those without dyspnea. Therefore, dyspnea should not be assumed to represent occult HF in this population.

4.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 12(6): e008975, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177817

RESUMO

Background The diagnostic yield of cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) by endomyocardial biopsy is limited. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may facilitate noninvasive diagnosis, but the accuracy of this approach is not well defined. We aimed to correlate findings from FDG PET and cardiac MRI with histological findings from explanted hearts of patients who underwent cardiac transplantation. Methods We analyzed the explanted heart histology for all patients who underwent cardiac transplant at our center from April 2008 to July 2018 and had pretransplant FDG PET (n=18) or cardiac MRI (n=31). The likelihood of CS based on FDG PET or cardiac MRI was categorized in a blinded fashion using a previously published method. RESULTS: Using a CS probable cutoff for FDG PET resulted in a sensitivity of 100.0% (95% CI, 54.1%-100.0%) and a specificity of 33.3% (95% CI, 9.9%-65.1%). Three of the 9 CS probable by FDG PET cases were found to be arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy. The test characteristics of cardiac MRI are more challenging to comment on using our data as there was only one confirmed case of CS on post-transplant histological assessment. Of the 8 CS highly probable or probable cases by cardiac MRI, 3 were found to be dilated cardiomyopathy, and 2 were found to be end-stage hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Conclusions FDG PET and cardiac MRI can help facilitate the diagnosis of CS in patients with advanced heart failure with a high degree of sensitivity but lower specificity.

5.
Radiology ; 291(2): 330-337, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835188

RESUMO

Background Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of mortality in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the association of NAFLD with coronary microvascular dysfunction is, to our knowledge, unknown. Purpose To determine whether coronary microvascular dysfunction is more prevalent in patients with NAFLD and to determine whether coronary microvascular dysfunction predicts major adverse cardiac events (MACE) independently of NAFLD. Materials and Methods This retrospective study (2006-2014) included patients without evidence of obstructive epicardial coronary artery disease and healthy left ventricular ejection fraction (≥40%) at a clinical rest and stress myocardial perfusion PET/CT. NAFLD was defined by a mean hepatic attenuation of less than 40 HU at CT and coronary microvascular dysfunction as a coronary flow reserve (CFR) of less than 2.0. A composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and hospitalization because of heart failure comprised MACE (130 of 886 patients; 14.7%). The relation between NAFLD and MACE was assessed by using multivariable Cox regression analysis. Results Among 886 patients (mean age, 62 years ± 12 [standard deviation]; 631 women [mean age, 62 years ± 12 years] and 255 men [mean age, 61 years ± 12]; and ejection fraction, 63% ± 9), 125 patients (14.1%) had NAFLD and 411 patients (46.4%) had coronary microvascular dysfunction. Coronary microvascular dysfunction was more prevalent (64.8% vs 43.4%; P < .001) and CFR was lower (1.9 ± 1.1 vs 2.2 ± 0.7; P < .001) in patients with NAFLD compared with those without NAFLD. NAFLD independently predicted coronary microvascular dysfunction (P = .01). The interaction of NAFLD and male sex predicted MACE (hazard ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 1.69; P = .008) and coronary microvascular dysfunction remained associated with MACE (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 2.07; P = .04). Conclusion Coronary microvascular dysfunction was more prevalent in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and predicted major adverse cardiac events independently of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. © RSNA, 2019 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Ambale-Venkatesh and Lima in this issue.

6.
Kidney Int ; 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30473139

RESUMO

The safety and efficacy of spironolactone is uncertain in end-stage renal disease. We randomized 129 maintenance hemodialysis patients to placebo (n=51) or spironolactone 12.5 mg (n=27), 25 mg (n=26), or 50 mg (n=25) daily for 36 weeks in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple dosage trial to assess safety, tolerability and feasibility and to explore cardiovascular efficacy. The primary safety endpoints were hyperkalemia (potassium > 6.5 mEq/L) and hypotension requiring emergency department visit or hospitalization. Diastolic function was assessed by Doppler echocardiography. 125 participants (97%) completed dose escalation, with no significant difference in permanent study drug discontinuation between the groups (27.5% in placebo versus 16.7% in the combined spironolactone groups and 28% in the 50 mg group). Hyperkalemia frequency was similar between spironolactone and placebo (0.49 versus 0.50 events per patient-year) but demonstrated a significant linear trend due primarily to an increased event rate at the 50 mg dose (0.89 events per patient-year). The primary hypotension outcome was infrequent and similar with spironolactone and placebo (0.11 versus 0 events per patient-year). Gynecomastia was rare and did not differ significantly between groups. Change in diastolic function was similar with spironolactone and placebo. Spironolactone appears safe in carefully monitored maintenance hemodialysis patients, but did not affect cardiovascular parameters in this small study. Hyperkalemia occurs more frequently as dosage increases to 50 mg daily.

7.
J Card Fail ; 24(11): 753-762, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We studied the relationship between resting heart rate (HR), chronotropic response to exercise, and clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF) across the spectrum of left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF). METHODS AND RESULTS: Resting HR and chronotropic index (CIx) were assessed in 718 patients with HF (53 ± 14 years of age, 66% male) referred for exercise testing. Associations with the composite outcome of left ventricular assist device implantation, transplantation, or death (151 events, 4.4 [range 3.0-5.8] years of follow-up) were assessed with the use of Cox models adjusted for age, sex, HF etiology, diabetes, LVEF, beta-blocker use, device therapy, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and peak oxygen uptake. Resting HR was 73 ± 15 beats/min, CIx was 0.60 ± 0.26, LVEF was 34% ± 15%, and 39% had an LVEF ≥40%. Resting HR correlated poorly with CIx (r = 0.08; P = .04) and did not predict (P = .84) chronotropic incompetence (CIx <0.60). Both higher resting HR (per 5 beats/min increase: adjusted hazard ratio [HR] -1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-1.11) and CIx (per SD change: adjusted HR -0.77, 95% CI 0.62-0.94) were independent prognostic markers. No heterogeneity of effect was noted based on LVEF (P >.05). CONCLUSION: Higher resting HR and lower CIx are both associated with more severe HF, but correlated poorly with each other. They provide independent and additive prognostic information in HF across the LVEF spectrum.

8.
Heart ; 2018 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29764969

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study compared the clinical features, cardiac structure and function evaluated by echocardiography, cardiopulmonary response to exercise and long-term clinical outcomes between patients with heart failure (HF) induced by cancer therapy (CTHF) and heart failure not induced by cancer therapy (NCTHF). METHODS: We evaluated 75 patients with CTHF and 894 with NCTHF who underwent clinically indicated cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and followed these individuals for a median of 4.5 (3.0-5.8) years, during which 187 deaths and 256 composite events (death, heart transplantation and left ventricular (LV) assistant device implantation) occurred. RESULTS: Compared with NCTHF, patients with CTHF were younger, with lower prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities, higher LV ejection fraction (LVEF), but similar global longitudinal strain. LV diastolic function (higher E/e' ratio) and compliance (higher end-diastolic pressure/LV end-diastolic volume index ratio) were worse in CTHF and were both associated with adverse outcomes. Despite a favourable clinical profile, peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 slope were similarly impaired in CTHF and NCTHF. In multivariable Cox regression analysis including clinical characteristics, cardiopulmonary exercise testing variables and LVEF, CTHF was associated with a significantly higher risk of death (HR 2.64; 95% CI 1.53 to 4.55; p=0.001) and composite events (HR 1.79; 95% CI 1.10 to 2.91; p=0.019) compared with NCTHF. CONCLUSIONS: CTHF is characterised by a distinct clinical profile, better LVEF but worse LV diastolic properties, and similarly impaired global longitudinal strain, functional capacity and ventilatory efficiency. Accounting for differences in clinical characteristics, CTHF was associated with worse long-term prognosis than NCTHF.

10.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 11(1): e007030, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29335272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and positron emission tomography (PET) detect different pathological attributes of cardiac sarcoidosis (CS), the complementary value of these tests has not been evaluated. Our objective was to determine the value of combining CMR and PET in assessing the likelihood of CS and guiding patient management. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this retrospective study, we included 107 consecutive patients referred for evaluation of CS by both CMR and PET. Two experienced readers blinded to all clinical data reviewed CMR and PET images and categorized the likelihood of CS as no (<10%), possible (10%-50%), probable (50%-90%), or highly probable(>90%) based on predefined criteria. Patient management after imaging was assessed for all patients and across categories of increasing CS likelihood. A final clinical diagnosis for each patient was assigned based on a subsequent review of all available imaging, clinical, and pathological data. Among 107 patients (age, 55±11 years; left ventricular ejection fraction, 43±16%), 91 (85%) had late gadolinium enhancement, whereas 82 (76%) had abnormal F18-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on PET, suggesting active inflammation. Among the 91 patients with positive late gadolinium enhancement, 60 (66%) had abnormal F18-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake. When PET data were added to CMR, 48 (45%) patients were reclassified as having a higher or lower likelihood of CS, most of them (80%) being correctly reclassified when compared with the final diagnosis. Changes in immunosuppressive therapies were significantly more likely among patients with highly probable CS. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with suspected CS, combining CMR and PET provides complementary value for estimating the likelihood of CS and guiding patient management.

11.
JAMA Cardiol ; 3(3): 200-206, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29365021

RESUMO

Importance: Time-updated heart rate (HR) and temporal change in HR (ΔHR) are associated with outcome in individuals with established heart failure (HF). Whether these factors are associated with outcomes in a community-based cohort is unclear. Objective: To determine whether the time-updated analysis of resting HR, defined as the most recent HR value measured before occurrence of an event or the end of study, and ΔHR over time are associated with outcomes in a community-based cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 15 680 participants were enrolled in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort study, with HR recorded at baseline and during 3 follow-up visits from 1987 to 1998, with a median interval between visits of 3.0 (interquartile range, 2.9-4.0) years. The ΔHR was calculated by assessing a change in HR from the preceding visit. Participants were followed up until December 31, 2014, equating to 28 years of follow-up. The present study was conducted from March 2014 to June 2016 with updated analysis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Baseline HR, time-updated HR, and ΔHR associated with outcomes, adjusted for established baseline and time-updated risk factors and medications. The main outcomes measures included all-cause mortality, incident HF, incident myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular and noncardiovascular death. Results: Of the 15 680 participants, 8656 (55.2%) were women, mean (SD) age was 54 (6) years, and 4218 (26.9%) were African American. Time-updated HR and ΔHR were associated with death, incident HF, incident myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular and noncardiovascular death compared with baseline HR. For example, a ΔHR from the preceding visit was significantly associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.10-1.15; P < .001 for every 5-bpm increase in HR from the preceding visit) and time-updated HR was also significantly associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.12-1.17; P < .001 for every 5-bpm higher time-updated HR). Conclusions and Relevance: In a community-based cohort, time-updated HR and ΔHR are associated with mortality and nonfatal outcomes of incident HF, myocardial infarction, and stroke.

12.
Kidney Int ; 93(2): 501-509, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29032954

RESUMO

Microvascular rarefaction is found in experimental uremia, but data from patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are limited. We therefore quantified absolute myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve (the ratio of peak to resting flow) from myocardial perfusion positron emission tomography scans at a single institution. Individuals were classified into standard CKD categories based on the estimated glomerular filtration rate. Associations of coronary flow reserve with CKD stage and cardiovascular mortality were analyzed in models adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors. The coronary flow reserve was significantly associated with CKD stage, declining in early CKD, but it did not differ significantly among individuals with stage 4, 5, and dialysis-dependent CKD. Flow reserve with preserved kidney function was 2.01, 2.06 in stage 1 CKD, 1.91 in stage 2, 1.68 in stage 3, 1.54 in stage 4, 1.66 in stage 5, and 1.55 in dialysis-dependent CKD. Coronary flow reserve was significantly associated with cardiovascular mortality in adjusted models (hazard ratio 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.63-0.92 per tertile of coronary flow reserve) without evidence of effect modification by CKD. Thus, coronary flow reserve is strongly associated with cardiovascular risk regardless of CKD severity and is low in early stage CKD without further decrement in stage 5 or dialysis-dependent CKD. This suggests that CKD physiology rather than the effects of dialysis is the primary driver of microvascular disease. Our findings highlight the potential contribution of microvascular dysfunction to cardiovascular risk in CKD and the need to define mechanisms linking low coronary flow reserve to mortality.

13.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 25(4): 1136-1146, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27613395

RESUMO

There is accumulating evidence for the existence of a phenotype of isolated cardiac sarcoidosis (ICS), or sarcoidosis that only involves the heart. In the absence of biopsy-confirmed cardiac sarcoidosis (CS), existing diagnostic criteria require the presence of extra-cardiac sarcoidosis as an inclusion criterion for the diagnosis of CS. Consequently, in the absence of a positive endomyocardial biopsy, ICS is not diagnosable by current guidelines. Therefore, there is uncertainty regarding the epidemiology, pathobiology, clinical characteristics, prognosis, and optimal treatment of ICS. This review will summarize the available data related to the prevalence and prognosis of ICS and will discuss challenges surrounding the diagnosis and management of this under-recognized entity.

15.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 6(11)2017 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29089342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare the independent and incremental prognostic value of peak oxygen consumption (VO2) and minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2) in heart failure (HF) with preserved (HFpEF), midrange (HFmEF), and reduced (HFrEF) ejection fraction (LVEF). METHODS AND RESULTS: In 195 HFpEF (LVEF ≥50%), 144 HFmEF (LVEF 40-49%), and 630 HFrEF (LVEF <40%) patients, we assessed the association of cardiopulmonary exercise testing variables with the composite outcome of death, left ventricular assist device implantation, or heart transplantation (256 events; median follow-up of 4.2 years), and 2-year incident HF hospitalization (244 events). In multivariable Cox regression analysis, greater association with outcomes in HFpEF than HFrEF were noted with peak VO2 (HR [95% confidence interval]: 0.76 [0.67-0.87] versus 0.87 [0.83-0.90] for the composite outcome, Pinteraction=0.052; 0.77 [0.69-0.86] versus 0.92 [0.88-0.95], respectively for HF hospitalization, Pinteraction=0.003) and VE/VCO2 slope (1.11 [1.06-1.17] versus 1.04 [1.03-1.06], respectively for the composite outcome, Pinteraction=0.012; 1.10 [1.05-1.15] versus 1.04 [1.03-1.06], respectively for HF hospitalization, Pinteraction=0.019). In HFmEF, peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 slope were associated with the composite outcome (0.79 [0.70-0.90] and 1.12 [1.05-1.19], respectively), while only peak VO2 was related to HF hospitalization (0.81 [0.72-0.92]). In HFpEF and HFrEF, peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 slope provided incremental prognostic value beyond clinical variables based on the C-statistic, net reclassification improvement, and integrated diagnostic improvement, with models containing both measures demonstrating the greatest incremental value. CONCLUSIONS: Both peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 slope provided incremental value beyond clinical characteristics and LVEF for predicting outcomes in HFpEF. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing variables provided greater risk discrimination in HFpEF than HFrEF.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço , Tolerância ao Exercício , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto , Idoso , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Progressão da Doença , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Transplante de Coração , Coração Auxiliar , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Ventilação Pulmonar , Fatores de Tempo
16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 6(9)2017 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28939714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure is one of the most important complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, few studies comprehensively investigated left ventricular (LV) structure and function in relation to 2 key CKD measures, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR). METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 4175 ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) participants (aged 66-90 years during 2011-2013), we quantified the association of eGFR and ACR with echocardiogram parameters of LV mass, size, systolic function, and diastolic function. Adjusting for demographic variables, both CKD measures were significantly associated with most echocardiogram parameters. Additionally accounting for other potential confounders, we observed significantly higher LV mass index according to reduced eGFR (82.3 [95% confidence interval (CI), 77.6-87.0] g/m2 for eGFR <30 mL/min per 1.73 m2, 80.9 [95% CI, 77.3-84.6] g/m2 for eGFR 30-44 mL/min per 1.73 m2, and 80.1 [95% CI, 76.7-83.5] g/m2 for eGFR 45-59 mL/min per 1.73 m2 compared with 78.7 [95% CI, 75.3-82.1] g/m2 for eGFR 75-89 mL/min per 1.73 m2; trend P<0.001). Regarding LV size and function, significant differences were observed for some parameters, particularly at eGFR <30 mL/min per 1.73 m2. For ACR, the associations remained significant for most parameters (eg, LV mass index, 91.5 [95% CI, 86.6-96.5] g/m2 for ACR ≥300 mg/g and 82.9 [95% CI, 79.4-86.3] g/m2 for ACR 30-299 mg/g compared with 77.7 [95% CI, 74.4-81.1] g/m2 for ACR <10 mg/g [trend P<0.001]; left arterial volume index, 24.9 [95% CI, 22.9-26.8] and 24.7 [95% CI, 23.4-26.1] mL/m2 compared with 23.4 [95% CI, 22.1-24.7] mL/m2, respectively [trend P=0.010]). Dichotomizing echo parameters with clinical thresholds, the stronger relationships of ACR over eGFR were further evident. CONCLUSIONS: LV mass was related to both CKD measures, whereas LV size and function were robustly associated with albuminuria. These results have implications for pathophysiological processes behind cardiorenal syndrome and targeted cardiac assessment in patients with CKD.


Assuntos
Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Albuminúria/epidemiologia , Albuminúria/fisiopatologia , Albuminúria/urina , Biomarcadores/urina , Creatinina/urina , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/urina , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia
18.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 24(1): 86-99, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27277502

RESUMO

Although the number of clinical applications for fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) has continued to grow, there remains a lack of consensus regarding the ideal method of suppressing normal myocardial glucose utilization for image optimization. This review describes various patient preparation protocols that have been used as well as the success rates achieved in different studies. Collectively, the available literature supports using a high-fat, no-carbohydrate diet for at least two meals with a fast of 4-12 hours prior to 18F-FDG PET imaging and suggests that isolated fasting for less than 12 hours and supplementation with food or drink just prior to imaging should be avoided. Each institution should adopt a protocol and continuously monitor its effectiveness with a goal to achieve adequate myocardial suppression in greater than 80% of patients.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca/métodos , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/métodos , Jejum , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Miocardite/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca/normas , Humanos , Aumento da Imagem/normas , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/normas , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 72(7): 958-964, 2017 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27733425

RESUMO

Background: The contribution of cardiovascular dysfunction to frailty in older adults is uncertain. This study aimed to define the relationship between frailty and cardiovascular structure and function, and determine whether these associations are independent of coexisting abnormalities in other organ systems. Methods: We studied 3,991 older adults (mean age 75.6±5.0 years; 59% female) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study in whom the following six organ systems were uniformly assessed: cardiac (by echocardiography), vascular (by ankle-brachial-index and pulse-wave-velocity), pulmonary (by spirometry), renal (by estimated glomerular filtration rate), hematologic (by hemoglobin), and adipose (by body mass index and bioimpedance). Frailty was defined by the presence of ≥3 of the following: low strength, low energy, slowed motor performance, low physical activity, or unintentional weight loss. Results: Two hundred eleven (5.3%) participants were frail. In multivariable analyses adjusted for demographics, diabetes, hypertension, and measures of other organ system function, frailty was independently and additively associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (odds ratio [OR] = 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30-2.40), reduced global longitudinal strain (reflecting systolic function; OR = 1.68; 95% CI = 1.16-2.44), and greater left atrial volume index (reflecting diastolic function; OR = 1.60; 95% CI = 1.13-2.27), which together demonstrated the greatest association with frailty (OR = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.57-2.82) of the systems studied. Lower magnitude associations were observed for vascular and pulmonary abnormalities, anemia, and impaired renal function. Cardiovascular abnormalities remained associated with frailty after excluding participants with prevalent cardiovascular disease. Conclusions: Abnormalities of cardiac structure and function are independently associated with frailty, and together show the greatest association with frailty among the organ systems studied.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Sistema Cardiovascular , Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/patologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Ecocardiografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Teste de Esforço/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
J Cardiovasc Transl Res ; 9(5-6): 421-428, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27798759

RESUMO

Soluble ST2 is an established biomarker of heart failure (HF) progression. Data about its prognostic implications in patients with mildly symptomatic HF eligible to receive cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators (CRT-D) are limited. In a cohort of 684 patients enrolled in Multicenter Automated Defibrillator Implantation Trial (MADIT)-CRT, levels of soluble ST2 (sST2) were serially assessed at baseline and 1 year (n = 410). In multivariable-adjusted models, elevated baseline sST2 was associated with an increased risk of death, death or HF, and death or ventricular arrhythmia (VA) even when adjusting for baseline brain natriuretic protein (BNP) levels. In addition, patients with lower baseline sST2 levels had greater risk reduction with CRT-D (p = 0.006). Serial assessment revealed increased risk of VA and death or VA (HR per 10 % increase in sST2 1.11 (1.04-1.20), p = 0.004). Among patients with mildly symptomatic HF and eligibility for CRT-D, baseline and serial assessments sST2 may provide important information for risk stratification.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Cardioversão Elétrica/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/sangue , Idoso , Arritmias Cardíacas/sangue , Arritmias Cardíacas/mortalidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/mortalidade , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Progressão da Doença , Cardioversão Elétrica/instrumentação , Cardioversão Elétrica/mortalidade , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Seleção de Pacientes , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Regulação para Cima
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA