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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360420

RESUMO

Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is an adapted form of cognitive behavioural therapy. ACT focuses on how thinking affects behaviour and promotes psychological flexibility. The prevalence of psychological distress among people living with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is high, and ACT may offer an alternative treatment approach. This scoping review explored the use of ACT as an intervention to support adults living with CVD and/or T2DM. A systematic search of the literature resulted in the inclusion of 15 studies. Studies were reviewed using the Joanna Briggs Institute approach to conducting scoping reviews. Most studies (n = 13) related to people living with T2DM, and most (n = 10) used a pre-post design, four studies were randomised controlled trials, and one was a qualitative study. Eight studies reported an improvement in the outcome(s) assessed post-intervention, suggesting that ACT was an acceptable and valid intervention to support people living with CVD or T2DM. However, studies were underpowered and only limited studies involved people living with CVD. ACT was assessed as a valuable approach to improve a range of patient-reported outcomes for those living with CVD or T2DM, and further research involving robust study designs and larger cohorts are warranted.


Assuntos
Terapia de Aceitação e Compromisso , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Atenção à Saúde , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
2.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 177, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caregivers are major contributor to the self-care of patients with heart failure. The Caregiver Contribution to Self-Care of Heart Failure Index (CC-SCHFI) measures these contributions across three scales: self-care maintenance (symptom monitoring and treatment adherence); self-care management (dealing with symptoms); and confidence in contributing to the self-care (self-efficacy in managing self-care) of patients with heart failure. Informal caregivers play a vital role in supporting family members with heart failure in Thailand, yet no validated tool exists to measure their contribution. We examined the psychometric properties of the CC-SCHFI in a Thai population. METHODS: The CC-SCHFI was translated into Thai using a standard forward and backward translation procedure. A cross-sectional design was used to examine the psychometric properties of the Thai version of the CC-SCHFI in 100 family caregivers of heart failure patients in Southern Thailand. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess construct validity, and factor score determinacy coefficients were computed to evaluate internal consistency reliability. RESULTS: The Thai version of the CC-SCHFI demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (composite reliability of each scale ranged from 0.76 to 0.99). Reliability estimates were adequate for each scale (McDonald's omega ranged from 0.75 to 0.96). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the original factor structure of the instrument, with good fit indices for all three scales (comparative fit index = 0.98-1.00; root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.00-0.07). CONCLUSIONS: The Thai version of the CC-SCHFI appears to be a valid and reliable instrument for measuring caregiver contributions to self-care maintenance and self-care management as well as contributing to caregiver confidence in the self-care of Thai heart failure patients.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Insuficiência Cardíaca/enfermagem , Autocuidado/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria/instrumentação , Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tailândia , Traduções
3.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 21(1): 96, 2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental health problems are highly prevalent in people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), which adversely impact physical health and quality of life. This study aimed to explore the experiences of people with T1DM who had completed the Mental health IN DiabeteS Optimal Health Program (MINDS OHP), a novel intervention developed to bridge the gap between physical and mental health care. METHOD: Participants with T1DM were invited to take part in a focus group or semi-structured interviews. Participants were recruited from outpatient and community settings. The focus group and interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic content analysis was used and identified themes were cross-validated by researchers and member-checked by participants. RESULTS: Ten people with T1DM were included. Two key themes emerged: 'MINDS OHP experiences' and 'lived experiences of diabetes'. MINDS OHP experiences included five sub-themes: program benefits, follow-up and timing, suggested improvements, collaborative partners, and materials suitability. Lived experiences also included five sub-themes: bridging the gap between mental and physical health, support networks, stigma and shame, management intrusiveness, and adolescence and critical life points. CONCLUSIONS: The MINDS OHP for people with T1DM was generally well received, though study findings suggest a number of improvements could be made to the program, such as including family members, and consideration being given to its routine early inclusion in diabetes management, ideally in primary care.

4.
Prev Med ; 149: 106608, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984372

RESUMO

Family-based eHealth interventions to reduce cardiovascular disease risk have potential as a primary prevention strategy to improve the health of parents and their children. This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of such interventions in modifying parent and child/adolescent risk factors such as body mass index, physical activity, dietary intakes and alcohol use. Five electronic databases were searched up to April 2020. Of 2193 articles identified, seven randomised controlled trials met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Data were extracted regarding study setting, design, methods, eHealth technology used, intervention and control group components, retention rates, outcome measures, incentives and limitations. Risk of bias and quality assessment were carried out using Cochrane methods. A qualitative narrative data synthesis of the studies was conducted. Our review found that three studies showed an improvement in alcohol use among parents and adolescents as a result of the eHealth intervention. Among children/adolescents, two studies showed an improvement in dietary intake, one study showed an improvement in physical activity, and one study showed an improvement in body mass index as a result of the eHealth intervention. Interventions appeared more likely to be effective if they were theory-based, had longer follow-up periods, were incentivised and included regular interaction. Our findings suggest that, despite a paucity of high-quality trials, there is some evidence that family-based eHealth interventions have potential to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. However, more sufficiently powered, higher-quality trials with theory driven, clearly described interventions and unambiguous outcomes are needed.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Telemedicina , Adolescente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Criança , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Pais , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
5.
Curr Opin Support Palliat Care ; 15(2): 141-146, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905386

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the application of intersectionality to heart failure. Intersectionality refers to the complex ways in which disenfranchisement and privilege intersect to reproduce and influence health and social outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Intersectionality challenges approaches that focus on a single or small number of socio-demographic characteristics, such as sex or age. Instead, approaches should take account of the nature and effects of a full range of socio-demographic factors linked to privilege, including: race and ethnicity, social class, income, age, gender identity, disability, geography, and immigration status. Although credible and well established across many fields - there is limited recognition of the effects of intersectionality in research into heart disease, including heart failure. This deficiency is important because heart failure remains a common and burdensome syndrome that requires complex pharmacological and nonpharmacological care and collaboration between health professionals, patients and caregivers during and at the end-of-life. SUMMARY: Approaches to heart failure clinical care should recognize more fully the nature and impact of patients' intersectionality- and how multiple factors interact and compound to influence patients and their caregivers' behaviours and health outcomes. Future research should explicate the ways in which multiple factors interact to influence health outcomes.

6.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-10, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641545

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition primarily self-managed by the individual. Mastery is a protective factor linked to better control of chronic conditions, effective self-management and improved medication adherence. Mastery appears increasingly important as treatment regimens and self-management demands become more complex and burdensome. Diabetes distress negatively impacts self-management, glycaemic control and treatment adherence. Understanding the relationship between diabetes distress and mastery may provide opportunities to improve condition management and adherence . This relationship may be impacted by other factors affecting the individual's perceived sense of control over their condition. This study examined the role of diabetes empowerment and depression in the relationship between diabetes distress and mastery. Data were drawn from a randomised controlled trial of 131 adults with type 2 diabetes transitioning to injection therapy. Participants completed measures of diabetes distress , mastery , depression and empowerment . Diabetes distress and depression were negatively associated with mastery, whilst diabetes empowerment was positively associated . A significant interaction effect (b = .024, t(112) = 3.79, p = <.005) confirmed the relationship between diabetes distress and mastery was moderated by depression. Findings highlight the additive deleterious effects of depression. Interventions to improve mastery among those living with type 2 diabetes should address diabetes distress and depression to optimise outcomes.

7.
Prev Med ; 145: 106402, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388336

RESUMO

Men remain at a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) than women and behavioral risk factor modification is an important preventive measure. However, engaging men in behavior change interventions is challenging. Although men often indicate a preference for gender-specific information and support, this rarely occurs. eHealth interventions have the potential to address this gap, though their effectiveness for reducing CVD risk in men is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness of eHealth interventions for reducing CVD risk in men. A search of published randomised controlled trials with no date restrictions up to July 2020 was conducted to identify those targeting at least two major CVD risk factors. Nine trials were identified and reviewed. Study quality ranged from low to unclear, with one trial at a high risk of bias. Compared to those in a control group or receiving printed materials, participants randomised to an eHealth intervention had statistically significant improvements in BMI (Z=-2.75, p=0.01), body weight (Z=-3.25, p=0.01), waist circumference (Z=-2.30, p=0.02) and systolic (Z=-3.57, p=0.01) and diastolic (Z=-3.56, p=0.01) blood pressure. Though less evident, there were also improvements in physical activity and diet in favour of the intervention group. This review suggests that eHealth interventions can reduce CVD risk in adult men through behavior change. However, we were unable to determine the association between intervention characteristics and outcomes. Also, overall, participant adherence to the intervention was poor. Both of these issues should be considered in future studies.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Telemedicina , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 26(5): 442-453, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484221

RESUMO

AIM: The current study evaluated the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a psychosocial intervention, the Kidney Optimal Health Program, in reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety in individuals with advanced chronic kidney disease. METHODS: Patients with stage 4 or 5 chronic kidney disease were randomized to either a nine-session psychosocial intervention programme or usual care. Feasibility was assessed through recruitment and retention rates and programme acceptability. Participants completed assessments of depression, anxiety and psychosocial health at baseline and at 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-up. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare groups on outcomes over time. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-eight patients were screened for eligibility; 84 consented to participant and were randomized to receive the intervention (N = 42) or usual care (N = 42). 27 (32.1%) participants withdrew prior to baseline assessment. Of those who completed the baseline assessment (N = 57), trial retention was high (75.4% at 3-month, 80.7% at 6-month and 70.2% at 12-month follow-up). Participants reported high levels of programme acceptability. The patients who completed the intervention (N = 17) demonstrated significantly decreased depression at 12-month follow-up compared to the usual care group (N = 13). CONCLUSION: The results support the feasibility of the Kidney Optimal Health Program intervention in recruitment, retention and programme acceptability with an improved screening protocol. Preliminary support is provided for improvement in depressive symptoms in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. Further investigation through a fully powered randomized controlled trial is warranted.

9.
J Clin Psychol Med Settings ; 28(1): 174-180, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974748

RESUMO

This study evaluated the mediating role of self-efficacy, coping, depression and anxiety on the relationship between illness perceptions and quality of life in stroke survivors (n = 72; 32 females; mean [SD] age 65.09 [14.14] years; male mean [SD] age 69.83 [11.81]). Illness perceptions (Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire; BIPQ), coping styles (Carver Brief-COPE scale; B-COPE), depression/anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; HADS), self-efficacy (General Self-Efficacy Scale; GSE) and quality of life (Assessment of quality of life; AQOL-6D) were analysed. Correlation analyses showed illness perception, maladaptive coping, self-efficacy, depression and anxiety to have a significant negative relationship with quality of life. Mediation analyses showed that while maladaptive coping and self-efficacy did not mediate the relationship between illness perception and quality of life, depression and anxiety did. The final model explained 76.74% of the variance in quality of life. Although based on a relatively small sample size, these results provide evidence for the important role of psychosocial factors in quality of life in post-stroke cohorts.

10.
Aust Crit Care ; 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Readmission after percutaneous coronary intervention is common in the early postdischarge period, often linked to limited opportunity for education and preparation for self-care. Attending a nurse-led clinic within 30 d after discharge has the potential to enhance health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to synthesise the available literature on the effectiveness of nurse-led clinics, during early discharge (up to 30 d), for patients who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention. REVIEW METHOD USED: A systematic review of randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials was undertaken. DATA SOURCES: The databases included PubMed, OVID, CINAHL, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, and ProQuest. REVIEW METHODS: Databases were searched up to November 2018. Two independent reviewers assessed studies using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. RESULTS: Of 2970 articles screened, only four studies, representing 244 participants, met the review inclusion criteria. Three of these studies had low to moderate risk of bias, with the other study unclear. Interventions comprised physical assessments and individualised education. Reported outcomes included quality of life, medication adherence, cardiac rehabilitation attendance, and psychological symptoms. Statistical pooling was not feasible owing to heterogeneity across interventions, outcome measures, and study reporting. Small improvements in quality of life and some self-management behaviours were reported, but these changes were not sustained over time. CONCLUSIONS: This review has identified an important gap in the research examining the effectiveness of early postdischarge nurse-led support after percutaneous coronary intervention on outcomes for patients and health services. More robust research with sufficiently powered sample sizes and clearly defined interventions, comparison groups, and outcomes is recommended to determine effectiveness of nurse-led clinics in the early discharge period.

11.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-9, 2020 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382635

RESUMO

Cognitive deficits are common in patients with chronic heart failure (HF), but little attention has been given to the investigation of prospective memory (PM) - the ability to execute delayed intentions. Importantly, many aspects of PM are crucial for patient implementation of HF self-care behaviours. Here we provide a replication of our original work involving PM in patients with HF. We compared a group of 51 HF patients to 41 closely matched controls. The primary outcome measure was a laboratory test of PM, Virtual week, which closely simulates PM tasks in daily life. A series of background cognitive tests were also administered. Consistent with our previous work, the HF group had significant PM impairment compared to controls, and these difficulties were generalised across different types of PM tasks. Surprisingly, we did not find any differences in the background cognitive tasks between groups. Compared to controls, the HF group had significant and similar sized deficits on all task parameters assessed (event, time, regular, irregular) of PM function, which likely impacts engagement in HF self-care.

13.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 28(1): 49, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493504

RESUMO

Early intervention for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) presents a challenge for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) across Europe. Strategies designed to address this include education and training initiatives for citizens and building CPR skills capacity and awareness amongst health care professionals. However, there is a need to improve access to volunteer first responders who can commence CPR and defibrillate before the arrival of EMS. In the UK, initiatives such GoodSAM have integrated crowdsourcing technology with ambulance services to allow them autonomy in alerting responders to OHCAs which is parallel to an EMS dispatch. These services are building capacity to improve the initial 'call for help' and time to commence CPR and defibrillation if indicated. The next step is to identify and implement appropriate methods for public engagement, involvement and eventual networking of resources with statutory bodies such as local EMS. As crowdsourcing volunteer responders is at an early stage, there is a need to determine whether crowdsourcing is associated with patient outcomes, what its impact is on those responding to OHCA, whether it facilitates or impedes current services, and whether it is a safe and cost effective way to involve citizens to intervene in the community during cardiac arrest or other medical emergencies? Addressing such issues is likely to provide further insight into the role and effectiveness of new technologies and their potential impact on the wider community.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Despacho de Emergência Médica/organização & administração , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Socorristas , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Idoso , Ambulâncias , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Top Stroke Rehabil ; 27(8): 563-576, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191569

RESUMO

Background and Purpose: Stroke can have a devastating impact on the mental and physical health of stroke survivors and their carers. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel psychosocial intervention designed to improve health outcomes in both groups.Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a personalized psychosocial intervention (eight 1-hour weekly sessions plus one booster) compared to usual care for adult stroke survivors and carers. Participants recruited from hospital services and community referrals completed questionnaires at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. Primary outcomes were quality of life and self-efficacy; secondary outcomes were depressive and anxiety symptoms, coping, illness perception, work and social adjustment, carer strain, and carer satisfaction. Mixed-effect model repeated measures analysis between groups and across time was conducted.Results: Of the 173 participants recruited (89 stroke survivors; 84 carers), a total of 137 participants - 73 stroke survivors (intervention n = 42; usual care n = 31) and 64 carers (intervention n = 35; usual care n = 29) - underwent analysis up to 12 months. No statistically significant differences were found in the primary outcomes between groups over time, though a significant improvement in carer satisfaction was found at 6 months in the intervention group compared to the usual care group.Conclusion: A personalized psychosocial intervention resulted in a significant improvement in carer satisfaction at 6 months but in no other outcomes. A lack of available services and barriers to social engagement may have impeded the effectiveness of this intervention.

17.
Res Dev Disabil ; 99: 103592, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are at risk of developing long term health conditions, and a preventative health agenda research is emerging. However, little is known about the recruitment settings, delivery contexts, intervention techniques and outcomes of health promotion programmes for this population. Therefore, the aim of this review was to synthesize and evaluate these characteristics. METHOD: A systematic review of studies identified from multiple databases on healthy lifestyle interventions for adolescents and young people with IDD was conducted. Data were synthesized and evaluated using a logic model. Quality of rigour was also assessed. RESULTS: Sixteen geographically diverse studies were selected and evaluated. Participants were most commonly recruited from schools, with interventions typically taking place in a gym setting and involving physical activity training. CONCLUSIONS: This review indicates that physical activity and dietary interventions in people with IDD may lead to lifestyle changes, however more robust evidence is required. Educational settings are conducive, with settings beyond schools requiring further consideration.

18.
Trends Endocrinol Metab ; 31(7): 469-477, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037024

RESUMO

Meditation is a popular practice for reducing stress and improving mental health and wellbeing. Its effects are mediated largely by the endocrine system, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and energy homeostasis. The limited evidence available indicates that changes associated with endocrine function following meditation correspond with improvements in mental health. However, this field of study is hampered by a lack of consensus as to definition and types of meditation and the mixed quality of reported studies. Moreover, the exact mechanisms by which meditation operates remain unclear and more robust studies are required to explore this by delineating the target populations, forms, dosages, and modes of delivery of meditation, comparison groups, and health experiences and outcomes used.

19.
Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs ; 19(6): 495-504, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996016

RESUMO

Cardiac and stroke conditions often coexist because of common risk factors. The occurrence of stroke may have significant consequences for patients with cardiac conditions and their caregivers and poses a major burden on their lives. Although both cardiac and stroke conditions are highly prevalent, primary stroke prevention in cardiac patients is crucial to avert disabling limitations or even mortality. In addition, specific interventions may be needed in the rehabilitation and follow-up of these patients. However, healthcare systems are often fragmented and are not integrated enough to provide specifically structured and individualised management for the cardiac-stroke patient. Cardiac rehabilitation or secondary prevention services are crucial from this perspective, although referral and attendance rates are often suboptimal. This state of the art review outlines the significance of primary stroke prevention in cardiac patients, highlights specific challenges that cardiac-stroke patients and their caregivers may experience, examines the availability of and need for structured, personalised care, and describes potential implications for consideration in daily practice.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Cardíaca/normas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/enfermagem , Enfermagem Cardiovascular/normas , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/normas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/enfermagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
20.
Psychol Health Med ; 25(2): 214-228, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790287

RESUMO

Diabetes has a significant negative impact on mental health and quality of life (QoL). Underpinned by the Common Sense Model (CSM) the mediating role of coping patterns, self-efficacy, anxiety and depression symptoms on the relationship between illness perceptions and QoL in patients diagnosed with diabetes was evaluated. A total of 115 participants with diabetes (56, Type 1; 59, Type 2), 51% female and an average age of 52.69 (SD = 15.89) in Australia completed self-report measures of illness perceptions and psychological wellbeing. Baseline measures included illness perceptions, coping styles, psychological distress (anxiety and depression symptoms), self-efficacy, and quality of life. Mediating relationships were measured using structural equation modelling. A model of good fit was identified explaining 51% of the variation in QoL. Illness perceptions directly influenced QoL, maladaptive coping, self-efficacy, and anxiety symptoms. The relationship between illness perceptions and QoL was partially mediated by anxiety; illness perceptions and depression was fully mediated by maladaptive coping and self-efficacy; and self-efficacy and QoL was partially mediated by depressive symptoms. Findings provide validation of the CSM in a diabetes cohort. Psychological interventions likely to have the most benefit on psychological distress and QoL are those targeting mediating psychological processes, including maladaptive coping and self-efficacy.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Ansiedade/psicologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Depressão/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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