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2.
Neurology ; 92(22): e2594-e2603, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053667

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize hand stereotypies (HS) in a large cohort of participants with Rett syndrome (RTT). METHODS: Data from 1,123 girls and women enrolled in the RTT Natural History Study were gathered. Standard tests for continuous and categorical variables were used at baseline. For longitudinal data, we used repeated-measures linear and logistic regression models and nonparametric tests. RESULTS: HS were reported in 922 participants with classic RTT (100%), 73 with atypical severe RTT (97.3%), 74 with atypical mild RTT (96.1%), and 17 females with MECP2 mutations without RTT (34.7%). Individuals with RTT who had classic presentation or severe MECP2 mutations had higher frequency and earlier onset of HS. Heterogeneity of HS types was confirmed, but variety decreased over time. At baseline, almost half of the participants with RTT had hand mouthing, which like clapping/tapping, decreased over time. These 2 HS types were more frequently reported than wringing/washing. Increased HS severity (prevalence and frequency) was associated with worsened measures of hand function. Number and type of HS were not related to hand function. Overall clinical severity was worse with decreased hand function but only weakly related to any HS characteristic. While hand function decreased over time, prevalence and frequency of HS remained relatively unchanged and high. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly all individuals with RTT have severe and multiple types of HS, with mouthing and clapping/tapping decreasing over time. Interaction between HS frequency and hand function is complex. Understanding the natural history of HS in RTT could assist in clinical care and evaluation of new interventions.

4.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2036-2042, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739909

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To define the clinical characteristics of patients with variants in TCF20, we describe 27 patients, 26 of whom were identified via exome sequencing. We compare detailed clinical data with 17 previously reported patients. METHODS: Patients were ascertained through molecular testing laboratories performing exome sequencing (and other testing) with orthogonal confirmation; collaborating referring clinicians provided detailed clinical information. RESULTS: The cohort of 27 patients all had novel variants, and ranged in age from 2 to 68 years. All had developmental delay/intellectual disability. Autism spectrum disorders/autistic features were reported in 69%, attention disorders or hyperactivity in 67%, craniofacial features (no recognizable facial gestalt) in 67%, structural brain anomalies in 24%, and seizures in 12%. Additional features affecting various organ systems were described in 93%. In a majority of patients, we did not observe previously reported findings of postnatal overgrowth or craniosynostosis, in comparison with earlier reports. CONCLUSION: We provide valuable data regarding the prognosis and clinical manifestations of patients with variants in TCF20.

5.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 68(6): 799-805, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664568

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We reviewed medical records and conducted a nationwide survey to characterize the clinical features and determine the prevalence of biliary tract disease in girls and women with Rett syndrome (RTT). METHODS: Sixty-two individuals with RTT and biliary tract disease were identified from the membership of Rett Syndrome Organization and patient files of the principal investigator. Medical records of 46 individuals were reviewed for presenting features, diagnostic tests, and treatment outcomes of biliary tract disease. We designed a questionnaire that probed the frequency of risk factors and treatment outcomes of biliary tract disease in RTT. The questionnaire was completed by 271 parents whose daughters met the clinical criteria for RTT and/or had MECP2 mutations and participated in the Natural History of Rett Syndrome Study. RESULTS: Presenting symptoms identified by record review included abdominal pain (94%), irritability (88%), weight loss (64%), and vomiting (52%). Biliary dyskinesia, cholecystitis, and cholelithiasis were identified in 90%, 77%, and 70%, respectively, by cholescintigraphy, surgical pathology, and abdominal ultrasound. The prevalence of biliary tract disease was 4.4% (n = 12) in the RTT cohort. Risk factors included older age (P < 0.001) and a positive family history (P < 0.01). Diagnoses included cholecystitis (n = 5), biliary dyskinesia (n = 6), and cholelithiasis (n = 7). Ten individuals underwent surgery; 7 had resolution of symptoms after surgical intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Biliary tract disease is not unique to RTT, but may be under-recognized because of the cognitive impairment of affected individuals. Early diagnostic evaluation and intervention may improve the health and quality of life of individuals affected with RTT and biliary tract disease.

6.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 180(1): 55-67, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536762

RESUMO

Mutations in the X-linked gene MECP2 are associated with a severe neurodevelopmental disorder, Rett syndrome (RTT), primarily in girls. It had been suspected that mutations in Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) led to embryonic lethality in males, however such males have been reported. To enhance understanding of the phenotypic spectrum present in these individuals, we identified 30 males with MECP2 mutations in the RTT Natural History Study databases. A wide phenotypic spectrum was observed, ranging from severe neonatal encephalopathy to cognitive impairment. Two males with a somatic mutation in MECP2 had classic RTT. Of the remaining 28 subjects, 16 had RTT-causing MECP2 mutations, 9 with mutations that are not seen in females with RTT but are likely pathogenic, and 3 with uncertain variants. Two subjects with RTT-causing mutations were previously diagnosed as having atypical RTT; however, careful review of the clinical history determined that an additional 12/28 subjects met criteria for atypical RTT, but with more severe clinical presentation and course, and less distinctive RTT features, than females with RTT, leading to the designation of a new diagnostic entity, male RTT encephalopathy. Increased awareness of the clinical spectrum and widespread comprehensive genomic testing in boys with neurodevelopmental problems will lead to improved identification.

7.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4619, 2018 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397230

RESUMO

Chromatin remodeling is of crucial importance during brain development. Pathogenic alterations of several chromatin remodeling ATPases have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. We describe an index case with a de novo missense mutation in CHD3, identified during whole genome sequencing of a cohort of children with rare speech disorders. To gain a comprehensive view of features associated with disruption of this gene, we use a genotype-driven approach, collecting and characterizing 35 individuals with de novo CHD3 mutations and overlapping phenotypes. Most mutations cluster within the ATPase/helicase domain of the encoded protein. Modeling their impact on the three-dimensional structure demonstrates disturbance of critical binding and interaction motifs. Experimental assays with six of the identified mutations show that a subset directly affects ATPase activity, and all but one yield alterations in chromatin remodeling. We implicate de novo CHD3 mutations in a syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, macrocephaly, and impaired speech and language.

8.
Clin Case Rep ; 6(11): 2252-2255, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455931

RESUMO

Presented are two patients with autosomal dominant omodysplasia and mutations in the FZD2 gene. The mutations identified have been recently reported, suggesting the possibility of recurrent mutations. The phenotypes of these patients overlap with what has been previously reported, though intellectual disability as seen in our patient is not typical.

9.
Brain Dev ; 2018 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217666

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with known behavioral abnormalities, both internalizing (e.g., anxiety, social withdrawal) and externalizing (e.g., aggression, self-abuse). However, a broad evaluation of behavioral abnormalities in a large cohort is lacking. OBJECTIVE: In this report, we describe profiles of internalizing and externalizing behaviors in individuals evaluated in the multi-center U.S. Rett Natural History Study. METHODS: Cross-sectional and longitudinal data were collected from 861 females with RTT and from 48 females who have MECP2 mutations without meeting criteria for RTT. Standard statistical methods including linear regression evaluated internalizing behavioral components from the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-PF50) and externalizing components from the Motor Behavioral Assessment (MBA). RESULTS: We found mildly to moderately severe internalizing behaviors in nearly all individuals with RTT, while externalizing behaviors were mild and uncommon. Internalizing behavior in RTT was comparable to groups with psychiatric disorders. Participants with mixed (internalizing and externalizing) behaviors were younger and less affected overall, but showed prominent self-injury and worsening internalizing behaviors over time. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that internalizing behaviors are common at a clinically significant level in RTT. Understanding clinical features associated with behavioral profiles could guide treatment strategies.

10.
Transl Sci Rare Dis ; 3(1): 49-53, 2018 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29682453

RESUMO

Two individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for Rett syndrome (RTT) but lacking a mutation in MECP2, the gene predominantly associated with this disorder, were provided additional genetic testing. This testing revealed pathogenic mutations in a gene not previously associated with RTT, CTNNB1, mutations in which lead to an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder affecting cell signaling and transcription factors as well as a likely pathogenic mutation in the WDR45 gene, which is associated with developmental delay in early childhood and progressive neurodegeneration in adolescence or adulthood related to iron accumulation in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra. These two individuals are described in relation to previous reports linking multiple other genes with RTT failing to show an MECP2 mutation. These individuals underscore the need to pursue additional molecular testing in RTT when a mutation in MECP2 is not detected.

11.
Brain Dev ; 40(7): 515-529, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29657083

RESUMO

Rett syndrome (RTT), an X-linked dominant neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in MECP2, is associated with a peculiar breathing disturbance exclusively during wakefulness that is distressing, and can even prompt emergency resuscitation. Through the RTT Natural History Study, we characterized cross sectional and longitudinal characteristics of awake breathing abnormalities in RTT and identified associated clinical features. Participants were recruited from 2006 to 2015, and cumulative lifetime prevalence of breathing dysfunction was determined using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. Of 1205 participants, 1185 had sufficient data for analysis, including 922 females with classic RTT, 778 of whom were followed longitudinally for up to 9.0 years, for a total of 3944 person-years. Participants with classic or atypical severe RTT were more likely to have breathing dysfunction (nearly 100% over the lifespan) compared to those with atypical mild RTT (60-70%). Remission was common, lasting 1 year on average, with 15% ending the study in terminal remission. Factors associated with higher odds of severe breathing dysfunction included poor gross and fine motor function, frequency of stereotypical hand movements, seizure frequency, prolonged corrected QT interval on EKG, and two quality of life metrics: caregiver concern about physical health and contracting illness. Factors associated with lower prevalence of severe breathing dysfunction included higher body mass index and head circumference Z-scores, advanced age, and severe scoliosis or contractures. Awake breathing dysfunction is common in RTT, more so than seizures, and is associated with function, quality of life and risk for cardiac dysrhythmia.


Assuntos
Transtornos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Rett/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos Respiratórios/epidemiologia , Transtornos Respiratórios/etiologia , Transtornos Respiratórios/genética , Síndrome de Rett/complicações , Síndrome de Rett/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Rett/genética , Fatores de Risco , Escoliose/complicações , Escoliose/epidemiologia , Escoliose/genética , Escoliose/fisiopatologia , Convulsões/complicações , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Convulsões/genética , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(5): 1099-1107, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28944563

RESUMO

Treatment for Angelman syndrome (AS) is currently limited to symptomatic interventions. A mouse model of AS has reduced calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II activity due to excessive phosphorylation of specific threonine residues, leading to diminished long-term potentiation. In a rat model of Parkinson disease, levodopa reduced phosphorylation of various proteins, including calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II. Further studies demonstrated that AS mice treated with levodopa performed better on rotarod testing than untreated AS mice. We conducted a multi-center double-blind randomized placebo-controlled 1-year trial of levodopa / carbidopa with either 10 or 15 mg/kg/day of levodopa in children with AS. The outcome of this intervention was assessed using either the Bayley Scales of Infant Development or the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, as well as the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. Of the 78 participants enrolled, 67 participants received study medication (33 on levodopa, 34 on placebo), and 55 participants (29 on levodopa, 26 on placebo) completed the 1-year study. There were no clinically or statistically significant changes in any of the outcome measures over a 1-year period comparing the levodopa and placebo groups. The number of adverse events reported, including the more serious adverse events, was similar in both groups, but none were related to treatment with levodopa. Our data demonstrate that levodopa is well-tolerated by children with AS. However, in the doses used in this study, it failed to improve their neurodevelopment or behavioral outcome.

14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(9): 2323-2334, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28748642

RESUMO

Noonan syndrome (NS) is a common genetic syndrome associated with gain of function variants in genes in the Ras/MAPK pathway. The phenotype of NS has been well characterized in populations of European descent with less attention given to other groups. In this study, individuals from diverse populations with NS were evaluated clinically and by facial analysis technology. Clinical data and images from 125 individuals with NS were obtained from 20 countries with an average age of 8 years and female composition of 46%. Individuals were grouped into categories of African descent (African), Asian, Latin American, and additional/other. Across these different population groups, NS was phenotypically similar with only 2 of 21 clinical elements showing a statistically significant difference. The most common clinical characteristics found in all population groups included widely spaced eyes and low-set ears in 80% or greater of participants, short stature in more than 70%, and pulmonary stenosis in roughly half of study individuals. Using facial analysis technology, we compared 161 Caucasian, African, Asian, and Latin American individuals with NS with 161 gender and age matched controls and found that sensitivity was equal to or greater than 94% for all groups, and specificity was equal to or greater than 90%. In summary, we present consistent clinical findings from global populations with NS and additionally demonstrate how facial analysis technology can support clinicians in making accurate NS diagnoses. This work will assist in earlier detection and in increasing recognition of NS throughout the world.


Assuntos
Face/fisiopatologia , Genética Populacional , Síndrome de Noonan/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Criança , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Síndrome de Noonan/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas ras/genética
15.
Genet Med ; 19(1): 13-19, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27171548

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused primarily by de novo mutations in MECP2 and sometimes in CDKL5 and FOXG1. However, some RTT patients lack mutations in these genes. METHODS: Twenty-two RTT patients without apparent MECP2, CDKL5, and FOXG1 mutations were subjected to both whole-exome sequencing and single-nucleotide polymorphism array-based copy-number variant (CNV) analyses. RESULTS: Three patients had MECP2 mutations initially missed by clinical testing. Of the remaining 19, 17 (89.5%) had 29 other likely pathogenic intragenic mutations and/or CNVs (10 patients had 2 or more). Interestingly, 13 patients had mutations in a gene/region previously reported in other neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), thereby providing a potential diagnostic yield of 68.4%. These mutations were significantly enriched in chromatin regulators (corrected P = 0.0068) and moderately enriched in postsynaptic cell membrane molecules (corrected P = 0.076), implicating glutamate receptor signaling. CONCLUSION: The genetic etiology of RTT without MECP2, CDKL5, and FOXG1 mutations is heterogeneous, overlaps with other NDDs, and complicated by a high mutation burden. Dysregulation of chromatin structure and abnormal excitatory synaptic signaling may form two common pathological bases of RTT.Genet Med 19 1, 13-19.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Síndrome de Rett/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromatina/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Síndrome de Rett/fisiopatologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
16.
Brain ; 140(2): 306-318, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28007990

RESUMO

Epilepsy is common in Rett syndrome, an X-linked dominant disorder caused by mutations in the MECP2 gene, and in Rett-related disorders, such as MECP2 duplication. However, neither the longitudinal course of epilepsy nor the patterns of seizure onset and remission have been described in Rett syndrome and related conditions. The present study summarizes the findings of the Rett syndrome Natural History study. Participants with clinical Rett syndrome and those with MECP2 mutations without the clinical syndrome were recruited through the Rett Natural History study from 2006 to 2015. Clinical details were collected, and cumulative lifetime prevalence of epilepsy was determined using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Risk factors for epilepsy were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Of 1205 participants enrolled in the study, 922 had classic Rett syndrome, and 778 of these were followed longitudinally for 3939 person-years. The diagnosis of atypical Rett syndrome with a severe clinical phenotype was associated with higher prevalence of epilepsy than those with classic Rett syndrome. While point prevalence of active seizures ranged from 30% to 44%, the estimated cumulative lifetime prevalence of epilepsy using Kaplan-Meier approached 90%. Specific MECP2 mutations were not significantly associated with either seizure prevalence or seizure severity. In contrast, many clinical features were associated with seizure prevalence; frequency of hospitalizations, inability to walk, bradykinesia, scoliosis, gastrostomy feeding, age of seizure onset, and late age of diagnosis were independently associated with higher odds of an individual having epilepsy. Aggressive behaviour was associated with lower odds. Three distinct patterns of seizure prevalence emerged in classic Rett syndrome, including those who did not have seizures throughout the study, those who had frequent relapse and remission, and those who had relentless seizures. Although 248 of those with classic Rett syndrome and a history of seizures were in terminal remission at last contact, only 74 (12% of those with a history of epilepsy) were seizure free and off anti-seizure medication. When studied longitudinally, point prevalence of active seizures is relatively low in Rett syndrome, although lifetime risk of epilepsy is higher than previously reported. While daily seizures are uncommon in Rett syndrome, prolonged remission is less common than in other causes of childhood onset epilepsy. Complete remission off anti-seizure medications is possible, but future efforts should be directed at determining what factors predict when withdrawal of medications in those who are seizure free is propitious.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Rett/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/genética , Mutação/genética , Prevalência , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome de Rett/complicações , Síndrome de Rett/genética , Síndrome de Rett/psicologia
17.
PLoS One ; 11(11): e0165550, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27828991

RESUMO

Rett Syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by loss of acquired skills during development, autonomic dysfunction, and an increased risk for premature lethality. Clinical experience identified a subset of individuals with RTT that present with urological dysfunction including individuals with frequent urinary tract infections, kidney stones, and urine retention requiring frequent catheterization for bladder voiding. To determine if urologic dysfunction is a feature of RTT, we queried the Rett Syndrome Natural History Study, a repository of clinical data from over 1000 individuals with RTT and found multiple instances of urological dysfunction. We then evaluated urological function in a mouse model of RTT and found an abnormal pattern of micturition. Both male and female mice possessing Mecp2 mutations show a decrease in urine output per micturition event. Furthermore, we identified signs of kidney failure secondary to urethral obstruction. Although genetic strain background significantly affects both survival and penetrance of the urethral obstruction phenotype, survival and penetrance of urethral obstruction do not directly correlate. We have identified an additional phenotype caused by loss of MeCP2, urological dysfunction. Furthermore, we urge caution in the interpretation of survival data as an endpoint in preclinical studies, especially where causes of mortality are poorly characterized.


Assuntos
Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/genética , Mutação , Insuficiência Renal/genética , Síndrome de Rett/genética , Obstrução Uretral/genética , Retenção Urinária/genética , Animais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/deficiência , Camundongos , Penetrância , Insuficiência Renal/complicações , Insuficiência Renal/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Rett/complicações , Síndrome de Rett/mortalidade , Síndrome de Rett/fisiopatologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Análise de Sobrevida , Obstrução Uretral/complicações , Obstrução Uretral/mortalidade , Obstrução Uretral/fisiopatologia , Retenção Urinária/complicações , Retenção Urinária/mortalidade , Retenção Urinária/fisiopatologia
18.
Expert Opin Orphan Drugs ; 4(10): 1043-1055, 2016 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28163986

RESUMO

Introduction: Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder that primarily affects females, typically resulting in a period of developmental regression in early childhood followed by stabilization and severe chronic cognitive, behavioral, and physical disability. No known treatment exists beyond symptomatic management, and while insights into the genetic cause, pathophysiology, neurobiology, and natural history of RTT have been gained, many challenges remain. Areas covered: Based on a comprehensive survey of the primary literature on RTT, this article describes and comments upon the general and unique features of the disorder, genetic and neurobiological bases of drug development, and the history of clinical trials in RTT, with an emphasis on drug trial design, outcome measures, and implementation. Expert opinion: Neurobiologically based drug trials are the ultimate goal in RTT, and due to the complexity and global nature of the disorder, drugs targeting both general mechanisms (e.g., growth factors) and specific systems (e.g., glutamate modulators) could be effective. Trial design should optimize data on safety and efficacy, but selection of outcome measures with adequate measurement properties, as well as innovative strategies, such as those enhancing synaptic plasticity and use of biomarkers, are essential for progress in RTT and other neurodevelopmental disorders.

19.
Pediatr Neurol ; 53(5): 402-11, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26278631

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Survival in Rett syndrome remains unclear. Although early estimates were grim, more recent data suggest that survival into adulthood is typical. We aimed to define survival in Rett syndrome more clearly and identify risk factors for early death. METHODS: Participants with clinical Rett Syndrome or methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 mutations without clinical RTT were recruited through the Rett Syndrome Natural History study from 2006 to 2015. Clinical details were collected, and survival was determined using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Risk factors were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Among 1189 valid participants, 51 died (range 3.9-66.6 years) during the 9-year follow-up period. Those who died included 36 (3.9%) classic Rett syndrome females, 5 (5.9%) atypical severe Rett syndrome females, 1 (2.4%) non-Rett syndrome female, the single atypical severe male, 6 (30%) non-Rett syndrome males, and 2 (7.1%) methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 duplication syndrome males. All atypical mild Rett syndrome females, methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 duplication syndrome females, and the single classic Rett syndrome male remain alive. Most deaths were due to cardiorespiratory issues. Only one died from severe malnutrition, scoliosis, and extreme frailty. Survival for classic and atypical Rett syndrome was greater than 70% at 45 years. Overall severity and several modifiable risk factors, including ambulation, weight, and seizures, were associated with mortality in classic Rett syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Survival into the fifth decade is typical in Rett syndrome, and death due to extreme frailty has become rare. Although the leading cause of death remains cardiorespiratory compromise, many risk factors for early death are modifiable. Intense therapeutic interventions could further improve the prognosis for individuals with Rett syndrome.


Assuntos
Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/genética , Síndrome de Rett/genética , Síndrome de Rett/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Síndrome de Rett/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Pediatr Neurol ; 52(6): 585-91.e2, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25801175

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diagnosis of Rett syndrome (RTT) is often delayed. We sought to determine the type of physician who typically makes the RTT diagnosis and to identify risk factors for delayed diagnosis. METHODS: A total of 1085 participants from the multicenter longitudinal RTT natural history study with classic and atypical RTT were recruited between 2006 and 2014. Age of diagnosis, diagnostician, diagnostic criteria, and clinical and developmental data were collected. RESULTS: Among 919 classic and 166 atypical RTT participants, the median diagnosis age was 2.7 years (interquartile range 2.0-4.1) in classic and 3.8 years (interquartile range 2.3-6.9) in atypical RTT. Pediatricians made the diagnosis of classic RTT rarely (5.2%); however, the proportion diagnosed by pediatricians has increased since 2006. Since the first diagnostic criteria, the age of diagnosis decreased among subspecialists but not pediatricians. Odds of a pediatrician making the diagnosis of classic RTT were higher if a child stopped responding to parental interaction, and lower if they possessed gastroesophageal reflux, specific stereotypies, lost babbling, or the ability to follow commands. Delayed acquisition of basic gross motor skills or finger feeding was associated with younger diagnosis; delayed acquisition of higher level fine motor skills, later onset of supportive features, and normal head circumference were associated with late diagnosis. Thirty-three percent with microcephaly before 2.5 years were diagnosed after the median age of 2.7 years. CONCLUSIONS: Age of RTT diagnosis has improved among subspecialists, and pediatricians have made the diagnosis of classic RTT more frequently since 2006. Strategies for educating diagnosticians should incorporate specific risk factors for delayed diagnosis.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Rett/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idade de Início , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Tardio , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
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