*Nature ; 603(7902): 610-615, 2022 03.*

##### RESUMO

The Fermi surface plays an important role in controlling the electronic, transport and thermodynamic properties of materials. As the Fermi surface consists of closed contours in the momentum space for well-defined energy bands, disconnected sections known as Fermi arcs can be signatures of unusual electronic states, such as a pseudogap1. Another way to obtain Fermi arcs is to break either the time-reversal symmetry2 or the inversion symmetry3 of a three-dimensional Dirac semimetal, which results in formation of pairs of Weyl nodes that have opposite chirality4, and their projections are connected by Fermi arcs at the bulk boundary3,5-12. Here, we present experimental evidence that pairs of hole- and electron-like Fermi arcs emerge below the Neel temperature (TN) in the antiferromagnetic state of cubic NdBi due to a new magnetic splitting effect. The observed magnetic splitting is unusual, as it creates bands of opposing curvature, which change with temperature and follow the antiferromagnetic order parameter. This is different from previous theoretically considered13,14 and experimentally reported cases15,16 of magnetic splitting, such as traditional Zeeman and Rashba, in which the curvature of the bands is preserved. Therefore, our findings demonstrate a type of magnetic band splitting in the presence of a long-range antiferromagnetic order that is not readily explained by existing theoretical ideas.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 128(6): 066602, 2022 Feb 11.*

##### RESUMO

We show that bicircular light (BCL) is a versatile way to control magnetic symmetries and topology in materials. The electric field of BCL, which is a superposition of two circularly polarized light waves with frequencies that are integer multiples of each other, traces out a rose pattern in the polarization plane that can be chosen to break selective symmetries, including spatial inversion. Using a realistic low-energy model, we theoretically demonstrate that the three-dimensional Dirac semimetal Cd_{3}As_{2} is a promising platform for BCL Floquet engineering. Without strain, BCL irradiation induces a transition to a noncentrosymmetric magnetic Weyl semimetal phase with tunable energy separation between the Weyl nodes. In the presence of strain, we predict the emergence of a magnetic topological crystalline insulator with exotic unpinned surface Dirac states that are protected by a combination of twofold rotation and time reversal (2^{'}) and can be controlled by light.

*Nat Commun ; 13(1): 423, 2022 Jan 20.*

##### RESUMO

Topological phases of matter have revolutionised the fundamental understanding of band theory and hold great promise for next-generation technologies such as low-power electronics or quantum computers. Single-gap topologies have been extensively explored, and a large number of materials have been theoretically proposed and experimentally observed. These ideas have recently been extended to multi-gap topologies with band nodes that carry non-Abelian charges, characterised by invariants that arise by the momentum space braiding of such nodes. However, the constraints placed by the Fermi-Dirac distribution to electronic systems have so far prevented the experimental observation of multi-gap topologies in real materials. Here, we show that multi-gap topologies and the accompanying phase transitions driven by braiding processes can be readily observed in the bosonic phonon spectra of known monolayer silicates. The associated braiding process can be controlled by means of an electric field and epitaxial strain, and involves, for the first time, more than three bands. Finally, we propose that the band inversion processes at the Γ point can be tracked by following the evolution of the Raman spectrum, providing a clear signature for the experimental verification of the band inversion accompanied by the braiding process.

*Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1855, 2021 Mar 25.*

##### RESUMO

Time reversal symmetric (TRS) invariant topological insulators (TIs) fullfil a paradigmatic role in the field of topological materials, standing at the origin of its development. Apart from TRS protected strong TIs, it was realized early on that more confounding weak topological insulators (WTI) exist. WTIs depend on translational symmetry and exhibit topological surface states only in certain directions making it significantly more difficult to match the experimental success of strong TIs. We here report on the discovery of a WTI state in RhBi2 that belongs to the optimal space group P[Formula: see text], which is the only space group where symmetry indicated eigenvalues enumerate all possible invariants due to absence of additional constraining crystalline symmetries. Our ARPES, DFT calculations, and effective model reveal topological surface states with saddle points that are located in the vicinity of a Dirac point resulting in a van Hove singularity (VHS) along the (100) direction close to the Fermi energy (EF). Due to the combination of exotic features, this material offers great potential as a material platform for novel quantum effects.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 125(5): 053601, 2020 Jul 31.*

##### RESUMO

The last years have witnessed rapid progress in the topological characterization of out-of-equilibrium systems. We report on robust signatures of a new type of topology-the Euler class-in such a dynamical setting. The enigmatic invariant (ξ) falls outside conventional symmetry-eigenvalue indicated phases and, in simplest incarnation, is described by triples of bands that comprise a gapless pair featuring 2ξ stable band nodes, and a gapped band. These nodes host non-Abelian charges and can be further undone by converting their charge upon intricate braiding mechanisms, revealing that Euler class is a fragile topology. We theoretically demonstrate that quenching with nontrivial Euler Hamiltonian results in stable monopole-antimonopole pairs, which in turn induce a linking of momentum-time trajectories under the first Hopf map, making the invariant experimentally observable. Detailing explicit tomography protocols in a variety of cold-atom setups, our results provide a basis for exploring new topologies and their interplay with crystalline symmetries in optical lattices beyond paradigmatic Chern insulators.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 124(22): 226401, 2020 Jun 05.*

##### RESUMO

The study of topological band structures is an active area of research in condensed matter physics and beyond. Here, we combine recent progress in this field with developments in machine learning, another rising topic of interest. Specifically, we introduce an unsupervised machine learning approach that searches for and retrieves paths of adiabatic deformations between Hamiltonians, thereby clustering them according to their topological properties. The algorithm is general, as it does not rely on a specific parametrization of the Hamiltonian and is readily applicable to any symmetry class. We demonstrate the approach using several different models in both one and two spatial dimensions and for different symmetry classes with and without crystalline symmetries. Accordingly, it is also shown how trivial and topological phases can be diagnosed upon comparing with a generally designated set of trivial atomic insulators.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 124(5): 056802, 2020 Feb 07.*

##### RESUMO

We consider conditions for the existence of boundary modes in non-Hermitian systems with edges of arbitrary codimension. Through a universal formulation of formation criteria for boundary modes in terms of local Green's functions, we outline a generic perspective on the appearance of such modes and generate corresponding dispersion relations. In the process, we explain the skin effect in both topological and nontopological systems, exhaustively generalizing bulk-boundary correspondence to different types of non-Hermitian gap conditions, a prominent distinguishing feature of such systems. Indeed, we expose a direct relation between the presence of a point gap invariant and the appearance of skin modes when this gap is trivialized by an edge. This correspondence is established via a doubled Green's function, inspired by doubled Hamiltonian methods used to classify Floquet and, more recently, non-Hermitian topological phases. Our work constitutes a general tool, as well as a unifying perspective for this rapidly evolving field. Indeed, as a concrete application we find that our method can expose novel non-Hermitian topological regimes beyond the reach of previous methods.

*Phys Rev E ; 95(2-1): 022704, 2017 Feb.*

##### RESUMO

The paradigm of spontaneous symmetry breaking encompasses the breaking of the rotational symmetries O(3) of isotropic space to a discrete subgroup, i.e., a three-dimensional point group. The subgroups form a rich hierarchy and allow for many different phases of matter with orientational order. Such spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs in nematic liquid crystals, and a highlight of such anisotropic liquids is the uniaxial and biaxial nematics. Generalizing the familiar uniaxial and biaxial nematics to phases characterized by an arbitrary point-group symmetry, referred to as generalized nematics, leads to a large hierarchy of phases and possible orientational phase transitions. We discuss how a particular class of nematic phase transitions related to axial point groups can be efficiently captured within a recently proposed gauge theoretical formulation of generalized nematics [K. Liu, J. Nissinen, R.-J. Slager, K. Wu, and J. Zaanen, Phys. Rev. X 6, 041025 (2016)2160-330810.1103/PhysRevX.6.041025]. These transitions can be introduced in the model by considering anisotropic couplings that do not break any additional symmetries. By and large this generalizes the well-known uniaxial-biaxial nematic phase transition to any arbitrary axial point group in three dimensions. We find in particular that the generalized axial transitions are distinguished by two types of phase diagrams with intermediate vestigial orientational phases and that the window of the vestigial phase is intimately related to the amount of symmetry of the defining point group due to inherently growing fluctuations of the order parameter. This might explain the stability of the observed uniaxial-biaxial phases as compared to the yet to be observed other possible forms of generalized nematic order with higher point-group symmetries.

*Phys Rev E ; 94(2-1): 022701, 2016 Aug.*

##### RESUMO

The concept of symmetry breaking has been a propelling force in understanding phases of matter. While rotational-symmetry breaking is one of the most prevalent examples, the rich landscape of orientational orders breaking the rotational symmetries of isotropic space, i.e., O(3), to a three-dimensional point group remain largely unexplored, apart from simple examples such as ferromagnetic or uniaxial nematic ordering. Here we provide an explicit construction, utilizing a recently introduced gauge-theoretical framework, to address the three-dimensional point-group-symmetric orientational orders on a general footing. This unified approach allows us to enlist order parameter tensors for all three-dimensional point groups. By construction, these tensor order parameters are the minimal set of simplest tensors allowed by the symmetries that uniquely characterize the orientational order. We explicitly give these for the point groups {C_{n},D_{n},T,O,I}âSO(3) and {C_{nv},S_{2n},C_{nh},D_{nh},D_{nd},T_{h},T_{d},O_{h},I_{h}}âO(3) for n,2n∈{1,2,3,4,6,∞}. This central result may be perceived as a road map for identifying exotic orientational orders that may become more and more in reach in view of rapid experimental progress in, e.g., nanocolloidal systems and novel magnets.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 108(10): 106403, 2012 Mar 09.*

##### RESUMO

We show that the π flux and the dislocation represent topological observables that probe two-dimensional topological order through binding of the zero-energy modes. We analytically demonstrate that π flux hosts a Kramers pair of zero modes in the topological Γ (Berry phase Skyrmion at the zero momentum) and M (Berry phase Skyrmion at a finite momentum) phases of the M-B model introduced for the HgTe quantum spin Hall insulator. Furthermore, we analytically show that the dislocation acts as a π flux, but only so in the M phase. Our numerical analysis confirms this through a Kramers pair of zero modes bound to a dislocation appearing in the M phase only, and further demonstrates the robustness of the modes to disorder and the Rashba coupling. Finally, we conjecture that by studying the zero modes bound to dislocations all translationally distinguishable two-dimensional topological band insulators can be classified.