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1.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 44, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964118

RESUMO

Germline genetic variation has been suggested to influence the survival of breast cancer patients independently of tumor pathology. We have studied survival associations of genetic variants in two etiologically unique groups of breast cancer patients, the carriers of germline pathogenic variants in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. We found that rs57025206 was significantly associated with the overall survival, predicting higher mortality of BRCA1 carrier patients with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, with a hazard ratio 4.37 (95% confidence interval 3.03-6.30, P = 3.1 × 10-9). Multivariable analysis adjusted for tumor characteristics suggested that rs57025206 was an independent survival marker. In addition, our exploratory analyses suggest that the associations between genetic variants and breast cancer patient survival may depend on tumor biological subgroup and clinical patient characteristics.

2.
Oncologist ; 25(11): 974-980, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 25% of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) experience a flare of disease following ibrutinib discontinuation. A critical question is whether this phenomenon may also occur when ibrutinib is temporarily held. This study aimed to determine the frequency and characteristics of disease flares in this setting and assess risk factors and clinical outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified all patients with CLL seen at Mayo Clinic between October 2012 and March 2019 who received ibrutinib. Temporary interruptions in treatment and associated clinical findings were ascertained. RESULTS: Among the 372 patients identified, 143 (38%) had at least one temporary interruption (median 1 hold, range 1-7 holds) in treatment. The median duration of interruption was 8 days (range 1-59 days) and the most common indication was periprocedural. Among the 143 patients with ≥1 hold, an associated disease flare was seen in 35 (25%) patients: mild (constitutional symptoms only) in 21 patients and severe (constitutional symptoms with exam/radiographic findings or laboratory changes) in 14 patients. Disease flare resolved with resuming ibrutinib in all patients. Predictive factors of disease flare included progressive disease at time of hold and ≥ 24 months of ibrutinib exposure. The occurrence of disease flare with an ibrutinib hold was associated with shorter event-free survival (hazard ratio 2.3; 95% confidence interval 1.3-4.1; p = .007) but not overall survival. CONCLUSION: Temporary interruptions in ibrutinib treatment of patients with CLL are common, and one quarter of patients who held ibrutinib in this study experienced a disease flare. Resolution with resuming ibrutinib underscores the importance of awareness of this phenomenon for optimal management. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Ibrutinib is a very effective treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) but needs to be taken continuously. Side effects, such as increased bleeding risk with procedures, require temporary interruptions in this continuous treatment. Rapid CLL progression following ibrutinib discontinuation has been increasingly recognized. This study demonstrates that similar flares in disease signs or symptoms may occur during ibrutinib holds as well. Importantly, management with restarting ibrutinib led to quick clinical improvement. Awareness of this phenomenon among clinicians is critical to avoid associated patient morbidity and premature cessation of effective treatment with ibrutinib if the flare is misidentified as true progression of disease.

3.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(16): 2761-2774, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744316

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common adult leukemia in Western countries. It has a strong genetic basis, showing a ~ 8-fold increased risk of CLL in first-degree relatives. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 41 risk variants across 41 loci. However, for a majority of the loci, the functional variants and the mechanisms underlying their causal roles remain undefined. Here, we examined the genetic and epigenetic features associated with 12 index variants, along with any correlated (r2 ≥ 0.5) variants, at the CLL risk loci located outside of gene promoters. Based on publicly available ChIP-seq and chromatin accessibility data as well as our own ChIP-seq data from CLL patients, we identified six candidate functional variants at six loci and at least two candidate functional variants at each of the remaining six loci. The functional variants are predominantly located within enhancers or super-enhancers, including bi-directionally transcribed enhancers, which are often restricted to immune cell types. Furthermore, we found that, at 78% of the functional variants, the alternative alleles altered the transcription factor binding motifs or histone modifications, indicating the involvement of these variants in the change of local chromatin state. Finally, the enhancers carrying functional variants physically interacted with genes enriched in the type I interferon signaling pathway, apoptosis, or TP53 network that are known to play key roles in CLL. These results support the regulatory roles for inherited noncoding variants in the pathogenesis of CLL.

4.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 83(6): 1581-1589, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is significantly higher compared with age- and sex-matched controls. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of factors associated with SCC risk. METHODS: Clinical CLL and SCC data were obtained from Mayo Clinic CLL Resource and self-reported questionnaires among patients with newly diagnosed CLL. We computed the CLL International Prognostic Index (CLL-IPI) from CLL prognostic factors, and a polygenic risk score from SCC susceptibility variants. We used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Among 1269 patients with CLL, the median follow-up was 7 years, and SCC subsequently developed in 124 patients. Significant associations with SCC risk were history of skin cancer (HR=4.80; 95% CI: 3.37-6.83), CLL-IPI (HR=1.42; 95% CI: 1.13-1.80), and polygenic risk score (HR=2.58; 95% CI: 1.50-4.43). In a multivariable model, these factors were independent predictors (C statistic = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.62-0.76). T-cell immunosuppressive treatments were also associated with SCC risk (HR=2.29; 95% CI: 1.47-3.55; adjusted for age, sex, and prior SCC). LIMITATIONS: The sample size decreases when combining all risk factors in a single model. CONCLUSION: SCC risk includes history of skin cancer, an aggressive disease at time of CLL diagnosis, receiving T-cell immunosuppressive treatments, and high polygenic risk score. Future studies should develop prediction models that include these factors to improved screening guidelines.

5.
Ann Hematol ; 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ibrutinib therapy is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Risk assessment tools and outcomes of AF in these patients are not well described. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients with CLL treated with ibrutinib at Mayo Clinic between October 2012 and November 2018. RESULTS: Two hundred ninety-eight patients were identified with a median time on ibrutinib of 19 months (range 0.23-69.7 months). Fifty-one patients developed treatment-emergent AF; the risk of treatment-emergent AF at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years was 9%, 12%, and 16%, respectively. The following were associated with an increased risk of treatment-emergent AF on multivariable analyses: past history of AF (hazard ratio [HR] 3.5, p = 0.0072) and heart failure (HR 3.4, p = 0.0028). Most patients are able to continue ibrutinib therapy (dose reduced in 43%). Development of treatment-emergent AF was associated with shorter event-free survival (EFS; HR 2.0, p = 0.02) and shorter overall survival (OS; HR 3.2, p = 0.001), after adjusting for age, prior treatment status, TP53 disruption, heart failure, valvular disease, and past history of AF. CONCLUSIONS: Patient comorbidities, rather than CLL-related factors, predict risk of treatment-emergent AF in patients treated with ibrutinib. Although the vast majority of patients with treatment-emergent AF are able to continue ibrutinib (with dose reduction in 43%), treatment-emergent AF appears to be associated with worse outcomes, independent of other adverse prognostic factors.

6.
Blood Adv ; 4(12): 2789-2797, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569378

RESUMO

So far, 23 germline susceptibility loci have been associated with multiple myeloma (MM) risk. It is unclear whether the genetic variation associated with MM susceptibility also predisposes to its precursor, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Leveraging 2434 MM cases, 754 MGUS cases, and 2 independent sets of controls (2567/879), we investigated potential shared genetic susceptibility of MM and MGUS by (1) performing MM and MGUS genome-wide association studies (GWAS); (2) validating the association of a polygenic risk score (PRS) based on 23 established MM loci (MM-PRS) with risk of MM, and for the first time with MGUS; and (3) examining genetic correlation of MM and MGUS. Heritability and genetic estimates yielded 17% (standard error [SE] ±0.04) and 15% (SE ±0.11) for MM and MGUS risk, respectively, and a 55% (SE ±0.30) genetic correlation. The MM-PRS was associated with risk of MM when assessed continuously (odds ratio [OR], 1.17 per SD; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.21) or categorically (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.38-2.09 for highest; OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.55-0.90 for lowest compared with middle quintile). The MM-PRS was similarly associated with MGUS (OR, 1.19 per SD; 95% CI, 1.14-1.26 as a continuous measure, OR, 1.77, 95%CI: 1.29-2.43 for highest and OR, 0.70, 95%CI: 0.50-0.98 for lowest compared with middle quintile). MM and MGUS associations did not differ by age, sex, or MM immunoglobulin isotype. We validated a 23-SNP MM-PRS in an independent series of MM cases and provide evidence for its association with MGUS. Our results suggest shared common genetic susceptibility to MM and MGUS.

7.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 61(10): 2383-2388, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449401

RESUMO

The risk of TLS in patients with relapsed CLL treated outside of clinical trials is not well described. Using the Mayo Clinic CLL Database, 48 patients treated with venetoclax for relapsed CLL in routine practice were identified; chart review determined baseline risk for TLS and laboratory abnormalities during venetoclax ramp-up. Overall, 6 (13%) patients developed laboratory TLS, 3 of whom demonstrated clinical TLS. The majority of patients who developed TLS were stratified as low or medium risk by the package insert. Of the 42 patients who did not meet Howard criteria for TLS, isolated hyperphosphatemia occurred in 19 patients (45%), hyperkalemia in 13 patients (31%), hyperuricemia in 2 patients (5%), and hypocalcemia in 1 patient (2%). In routine practice, the incidence of TLS appears higher than reported in clinical trials (3-6%). Half of patients who did not meet criteria for TLS developed clinically significant electrolyte abnormalities that required medical intervention.

9.
Am J Hematol ; 95(8): 906-917, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279347

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing identified about 60 genes recurrently mutated in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We examined the additive prognostic value of the total number of recurrently mutated CLL genes (i.e., tumor mutational load [TML]) or the individually mutated genes beyond the CLL international prognostic index (CLL-IPI) in newly diagnosed CLL and high-count monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (HC MBL). We sequenced 59 genes among 557 individuals (112 HC MBL/445 CLL) in a multi-stage design, to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for time-to-first treatment (TTT), adjusted for CLL-IPI and sex. TML was associated with shorter TTT in the discovery and validation cohorts, with a combined estimate of continuous HR = 1.27 (CI:1.17-1.39, P = 2.6 × 10-8 ; c-statistic = 0.76). When stratified by CLL-IPI, the association of TML with TTT was stronger and validated within low/intermediate risk (combined HR = 1.54, CI:1.37-1.72, P = 7.0 × 10-14 ). Overall, 80% of low/intermediate CLL-IPI cases with two or more mutated genes progressed to require therapy within 5 years, compared to 24% among those without mutations. TML was also associated with shorter TTT in the HC MBL cohort (HR = 1.53, CI:1.12-2.07, P = .007; c-statistic = 0.71). TML is a strong prognostic factor for TTT independent of CLL-IPI, especially among low/intermediate CLL-IPI risk, and a better predictor than any single gene. Mutational screening at early stages may improve risk stratification and better predict TTT.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Linfocitose/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
10.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(5): 451-462, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124188

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We explored the interaction between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), infectious mononucleosis (IM) history, and immune-related genotypes in a pooled case-control analysis. METHODS: A total of 7,926 NHL patients and 10,018 controls from 12 case-control studies were included. Studies were conducted during various time periods between 1988 and 2008, and participants were 17-96 years of age at the time of ascertainment/recruitment. Self-reported IM history and immune response genotypes were provided by the InterLymph Data Coordinating Center at Mayo Clinic. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated using multivariate logistic regression, and interactions were estimated using the empirical Bayes method. PACT was used to account for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: There was evidence of an interaction effect between IM history and two variants on T-cell lymphoma (TCL) risk: rs1143627 in interleukin-1B (IL1B) (pinteraction = 0.04, ORinteraction = 0.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01, 0.87) and rs1800797 in interleukin-6 (IL6) (pinteraction = 0.03, ORinteraction = 0.08, 95% CI 0.01, 0.80). Neither interaction effect withstood adjustment for multiple comparisons. There were no statistically significant interactions between immune response genotypes and IM on other NHL subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic risk variants in IL1B and IL6 may affect the association between IM and TCL, possibly by influencing T-cell activation, growth, and differentiation in the presence of IM, thereby decreasing risk of immune cell proliferation.


Assuntos
Mononucleose Infecciosa/genética , Linfoma não Hodgkin/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Mononucleose Infecciosa/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cancer Med ; 9(10): 3390-3399, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187452

RESUMO

To study the impact of dose modification and temporary interruption of ibrutinib in routine clinical practice, we conducted a retrospective study of consecutive CLL patients treated with ibrutinib outside the context of a clinical trial at Mayo Clinic, (Rochester, MN) from 11/2013 to 12/2017. Of 209 patients, 131 (74%) had unmutated IGHV, 38 (20%) had TP53 disruption, and 47 (22%) were previously untreated. A total of 87/209 (42%) patients started reduced dose ibrutinib (<420 mg daily; n = 43, physician preference; n = 33, concomitant medications; and n = 11, other). During 281 person-years of treatment, 91/209 patients had temporary dose interruption (54%, nonhematologic toxicity; 29%, surgical procedures; 10%, hematologic toxicity; and 7%, other). After a median follow-up of 24 months, the estimated median event-free survival (EFS) was 36 months, and median overall survival (OS) was not reached. On multivariable analyses, temporary ibrutinib interruption (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.37, P = .006) and TP53 disruption at ibrutinib initiation (HR: 1.81, P = .048) were associated with shorter EFS, whereas only TP53 disruption (HR: 2.38, P = .015) was associated with shorter OS. Initial ibrutinib dose and dose modification during therapy did not appear to impact EFS or OS. These findings illustrate the challenges associated with continuous oral therapy with ibrutinib in patients with CLL.

13.
Leukemia ; 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139889

RESUMO

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma, and front line therapies have not improved overall outcomes since the advent of immunochemotherapy. By pairing DNA and gene expression data with clinical response data, we identified a high-risk subset of non-GCB DLBCL patients characterized by genomic alterations and expression signatures capable of sustaining an inflammatory environment. These mutational alterations (PIM1, SPEN, and MYD88 [L265P]) and expression signatures (NF-κB, IRF4, and JAK-STAT engagement) were associated with proliferative signaling, and were found to be enriched in patients treated with RCHOP that experienced unfavorable outcomes. However, patients with these high-risk mutations had more favorable outcomes when the immunomodulatory agent lenalidomide was added to RCHOP (R2CHOP). We are the first to report the genomic validation of a high-risk phenotype with a preferential response towards R2CHOP therapy in non-GCB DLBCL patients. These conclusions could be translated to a clinical setting to identify the ~38% of non-GCB patients that could be considered high-risk, and would benefit from alternative therapies to standard RCHOP based on personalized genomic data.

14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(2): 264-271, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004448

RESUMO

Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is a rare disorder characterized by hypoplastic bone marrow and progressive pancytopenia. The etiology of acquired SAA is not understood but is likely related to abnormal immune responses and environmental exposures. We conducted a genome-wide association study of individuals with SAA genetically matched to healthy controls in discovery (359 cases, 1,396 controls) and validation sets (175 cases, 1,059 controls). Combined analyses identified linked SNPs in distinct blocks within the major histocompatibility complex on 6p21. The top SNP encodes p.Met76Val in the P4 binding pocket of the HLA class II gene HLA-DPB1 (rs1042151A>G, odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50-2.03, p = 1.94 × 10-13) and was associated with HLA-DP cell surface expression in healthy individuals (p = 2.04 × 10-6). Phylogenetic analyses indicate that Val76 is not monophyletic and likely occurs in conjunction with different HLA-DP binding groove conformations. Imputation of HLA-DPB1 alleles revealed increased risk of SAA associated with Val76-encoding alleles DPB1∗03:01, (OR 1.66, p = 1.52 × 10-7), DPB1∗10:01 (OR 2.12, p = 0.0003), and DPB1∗01:01 (OR 1.60, p = 0.0008). A second SNP near HLA-B, rs28367832G>A, reached genome-wide significance (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.22-1.78, p = 7.27 × 10-9) in combined analyses; the association remained significant after excluding cases with clonal copy-neutral loss-of-heterozygosity affecting class I HLA genes (8.6% of cases and 0% of controls). SNPs in the HLA class II gene HLA-DPB1 and possibly class I (HLA-B) are associated with SAA. The replacement of Met76 to Val76 in certain HLA-DPB1 alleles might influence risk of SAA through mechanisms involving DP peptide binding specificity, expression, and/or other factors affecting DP function.


Assuntos
Anemia Aplástica/etiologia , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Cadeias beta de HLA-DP/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anemia Aplástica/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
15.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(5): 1074-1078, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipid traits have been inconsistently linked to risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We examined the association of genetically predicted lipid traits with risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) using Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. METHODS: Genome-wide association study data from the InterLymph Consortium were available for 2,661 DLBCLs, 2,179 CLLs, 2,142 FLs, 824 MZLs, and 6,221 controls. SNPs associated (P < 5 × 10-8) with high-density lipoprotein (HDL, n = 164), low-density lipoprotein (LDL, n = 137), total cholesterol (TC, n = 161), and triglycerides (TG, n = 123) were used as instrumental variables (IV), explaining 14.6%, 27.7%, 16.8%, and 12.8% of phenotypic variation, respectively. Associations between each lipid trait and NHL subtype were calculated using the MR inverse variance-weighted method, estimating odds ratios (OR) per standard deviation and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: HDL was positively associated with DLBCL (OR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.00-1.30) and MZL (OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.18), while TG was inversely associated with MZL risk (OR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.83-0.99), all at nominal significance (P < 0.05). A positive trend was observed for HDL with FL risk (OR = 1.08; 95% CI, 0.99-1.19; P = 0.087). No associations were noteworthy after adjusting for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find evidence of a clear or strong association of these lipid traits with the most common NHL subtypes. While these IVs have been previously linked to other cancers, our findings do not support any causal associations with these NHL subtypes. IMPACT: Our results suggest that prior reported inverse associations of lipid traits are not likely to be causal and could represent reverse causality or confounding.

17.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(1): 70-79, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600786

RESUMO

We previously identified five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at four susceptibility loci for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in individuals of European ancestry through a large genome-wide association study (GWAS). To further elucidate genetic susceptibility to DLBCL, we sought to validate two loci at 3q13.33 and 3p24.1 that were suggestive in the original GWAS with additional genotyping. In the meta-analysis (5662 cases and 9237 controls) of the four original GWAS discovery scans and three replication studies, the 3q13.33 locus (rs9831894; minor allele frequency [MAF] = 0.40) was associated with DLBCL risk [odds ratio (OR) = 0.83, P = 3.62 × 10-13]. rs9831894 is in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with additional variants that are part of a super-enhancer that physically interacts with promoters of CD86 and ILDR1. In the meta-analysis (5510 cases and 12 817 controls) of the four GWAS discovery scans and four replication studies, the 3p24.1 locus (rs6773363; MAF = 0.45) was also associated with DLBCL risk (OR = 1.20, P = 2.31 × 10-12). This SNP is 29 426-bp upstream of the nearest gene EOMES and in LD with additional SNPs that are part of a highly lineage-specific and tumor-acquired super-enhancer that shows long-range interaction with AZI2 promoter. These loci provide additional evidence for the role of immune function in the etiology of DLBCL, the most common lymphoma subtype.

18.
Haematologica ; 105(3): 765-773, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197071

RESUMO

The natural history, prognostication and optimal treatment of Richter transformation developed from chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are not well defined. We report the clinical characteristics and outcomes of a large series of biopsy-confirmed Richter transformation (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma or high grade B-cell lymphoma, n=204) cases diagnosed from 1993 to 2018. After a median follow up of 67.0 months, the median overall survival (OS) was 12.0 months. Patients who received no prior treatment for CLL had significantly better OS (median 46.3 vs. 7.8 months; P<0.001). Patients with elevated lactate dehydrogenase (median 6.2 vs. 39.9 months; P<0.0001) or TP53 disruption (median 8.3 vs. 12.8 months; P=0.046) had worse OS than those without. Immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene mutation, cell of origin, Myc/Bcl-2 double expression and MYC/BCL2/BCL6 double-/triple-hit status were not associated with OS. In multivariable Cox regression, elevated lactate dehydrogenase [Hazard ratio (HR) 2.3, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.3-4.1; P=0.01], prior CLL treatment (HR 2.0, 95%CI: 1.2-3.5; P=0.01), and older age (HR 1.03, 95%CI: 1.01-1.05; P=0.01) were associated with worse OS. Twenty-four (12%) patients underwent stem cell transplant (20 autologous and 4 allogeneic), and had a median post-transplant survival of 55.4 months. In conclusion, the overall outcome of Richter transformation is poor. Richter transformation developed in patients with untreated CLL has significantly better survival. Stem cell transplant may benefit select patients.

19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(5): 1221-1228, 2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human pegivirus (HPgV) is a single-strand RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae. Although no definitive association between HPgV infection and disease has been identified, previous studies have suggested an association of HPgV viremia with risk of lymphomas. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis, including 1 cohort study and 14 case-control studies, assessing the association of HPgV viremia with adult lymphomas. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model, overall and by geographic region and lymphoma subtype. RESULTS: The overall OR for lymphoma was 2.85 (95% CI, 1.98-4.11), with statistically significantly elevated ORs observed in 8 of 15 studies. There was a small amount of heterogeneity among studies (I2 = 28.9%; Q = 18.27, P = .16), and the funnel plot provided no evidence for publication bias. The strongest association with lymphoma risk was observed for studies from Southern Europe (OR, 5.68 [95% CI, 1.98-16.3]), whereas weaker ORs (with 95% CIs) were observed for studies from North America (2.24 [1.76-2.85]), Northern Europe (2.90 [.45-18.7), and the Middle East (2.51 [.87-7.27]), but all of similar magnitude. Participants with HPgV viremia had statistically significantly increased risks (OR [95% CI]) for developing diffuse large B-cell (3.29 [1.63-6.62]), follicular (3.01 [1.95-4.63]), marginal zone (1.90 [1.13-3.18]), and T-cell (2.11 [1.17-3.89]) lymphomas, while the risk for Hodgkin lymphoma (3.53 [.48-25.9]) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (1.45 [.45-4.66]) were increased but did not achieve statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis supports a positive association of HPgV viremia with lymphoma risk, overall and for the major lymphoma subtypes.

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