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1.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(10): 107005, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women and children are especially vulnerable to exposures to food contaminants, and a balanced diet during these periods is critical for optimal nutritional status. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to study the association between diet and measured blood and urinary levels of environmental contaminants in mother-child pairs from six European birth cohorts (n=818 mothers and 1,288 children). METHODS: We assessed the consumption of seven food groups and the blood levels of organochlorine pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), and heavy metals and urinary levels of phthalate metabolites, phenolic compounds, and organophosphate pesticide (OP) metabolites. Organic food consumption during childhood was also studied. We applied multivariable linear regressions and targeted maximum likelihood based estimation (TMLE). RESULTS: Maternal high (≥4 times/week) versus low (<2 times/week) fish consumption was associated with 15% higher PCBs [geometric mean (GM) ratio=1.15; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.29], 42% higher perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA) (GM ratio=1.42; 95% CI: 1.20, 1.68), 89% higher mercury (Hg) (GM ratio=1.89; 95% CI: 1.47, 2.41) and a 487% increase in arsenic (As) (GM ratio=4.87; 95% CI: 2.57, 9.23) levels. In children, high (≥3 times/week) versus low (<1.5 times/week) fish consumption was associated with 23% higher perfluorononanoate (PFNA) (GM ratio=1.23; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.40), 36% higher PFUnDA (GM ratio=1.36; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.64), 37% higher perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (GM ratio=1.37; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.54), and >200% higher Hg and As [GM ratio=3.87 (95% CI: 1.91, 4.31) and GM ratio=2.68 (95% CI: 2.23, 3.21)] concentrations. Using TMLE analysis, we estimated that fish consumption within the recommended 2-3 times/week resulted in lower PFAS, Hg, and As compared with higher consumption. Fruit consumption was positively associated with OP metabolites. Organic food consumption was negatively associated with OP metabolites. DISCUSSION: Fish consumption is related to higher PFAS, Hg, and As exposures. In addition, fruit consumption is a source of exposure to OPs. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5324.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615055

RESUMO

In humans, studies based on Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept and targeting short half-lived chemicals, including many endocrine disruptors, generally assessed exposures from spot biospecimens. Effects of early-life exposure to atmospheric pollutants were reported, based on outdoor air pollution levels. For both exposure families, exposure misclassification is expected from these designs: for non-persistent chemicals, because a spot biospecimen is unlikely to capture exposure over windows longer than a few days; for air pollutants, because indoor levels are ignored. We developed a couple-child cohort relying on deep phenotyping and extended personal exposure assessment aiming to better characterize the effects of components of the exposome, including air pollutants and non-persistent endocrine disruptors, on child health and development. Pregnant women were included in SEPAGES couple-child cohort (Grenoble area) from 2014 to 2017. Maternal and children exposure to air pollutants was repeatedly assessed by personal monitors. DNA, RNA, serum, plasma, placenta, cord blood, meconium, child and mother stools, living cells, milk, hair and repeated urine samples were collected. A total of 484 pregnant women were recruited, with excellent compliance to the repeated urine sampling protocol (median, 43 urine samples per woman during pregnancy). The main health outcomes are child respiratory health using early objective measures, growth and neurodevelopment. Compared to former studies, the accuracy of assessment of non-persistent exposures is expected to be strongly improved in this new type of birth cohort tailored for the exposome concept, with deep phenotyping and extended exposure characterization. By targeting weaknesses in exposure assessment of the current approaches of cohorts on effects of early life environmental exposures with strong temporal variations, and relying on a rich biobank to provide insight on the underlying biological pathways whereby exposures affect health, this design is expected to provide deeper understanding of the interplay between the Exposome and child development and health.

3.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(10): 107013, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The question of whether exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes is still unresolved. Most epidemiological evidence on the association between BPA and diabetes is from cross-sectional studies or longitudinal studies with single urinary measurements. No prospective study has examined exposure to BPA analogs such as bisphenol S (BPS) in relation to incident type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate whether exposure to BPA and BPS, assessed at up to two time points, was associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We performed a case-cohort study on 755 participants without diabetes at baseline and followed-up over 9 y as part of the French prospective cohort Data from an Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (D.E.S.I.R.). BPA-glucuronide (BPA-G) and BPS-glucuronide (BPS-G) were assessed in fasting spot urine samples collected during the health examinations at baseline and 3 y later. Associations with incident diabetes were examined using Prentice-weighted Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: A total of 201 incident cases of type 2 diabetes were diagnosed over the follow-up, including 30 in the subcohort. Compared with participants with the lowest average BPA exposure (below the first quartile), participants in the second, third, and fourth quartile groups of exposure had a near doubling of the risk of type 2 diabetes, with a hazard ratio (HR) = 2.56 (95% CI: 1.16, 5.65), 2.35 (95% CI: 1.07, 5.15), and 1.56 (95% CI: 0.68, 3.55), respectively. The detection of BPS-G in urine at one or both time points was associated with incident diabetes, with an HR = 2.81 (95% CI: 1.74, 4.53). DISCUSSION: This study shows positive associations between exposure to BPA and BPS and the incidence of type 2 diabetes, independent of traditional diabetes risk factors. Our results should be confirmed by recent, population-based observational studies in different populations and settings. Overall, these findings raise concerns about using BPS as a BPA substitute. Further research on BPA analogs is warranted. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5159.

4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(10): 1317-1328, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growing evidence exists about the fetal and environmental origins of hypertension, but mainly limited to single-exposure studies. The exposome has been proposed as a more holistic approach by studying many exposures simultaneously. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate the association between a wide range of prenatal and postnatal exposures and blood pressure (BP) in children. METHODS: Systolic and diastolic BP were measured among 1,277 children from the European HELIX (Human Early-Life Exposome) cohort aged 6 to 11 years. Prenatal (n = 89) and postnatal (n = 128) exposures include air pollution, built environment, meteorology, natural spaces, traffic, noise, chemicals, and lifestyles. Two methods adjusted for confounders were applied: an exposome-wide association study considering the exposures independently, and the deletion-substitution-addition algorithm considering all the exposures simultaneously. RESULTS: Decreases in systolic BP were observed with facility density (ß change for an interquartile-range increase in exposure: -1.7 mm Hg [95% confidence interval (CI): -2.5 to -0.8 mm Hg]), maternal concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl 118 (-1.4 mm Hg [95% CI: -2.6 to -0.2 mm Hg]) and child concentrations of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE: -1.6 mm Hg [95% CI: -2.4 to -0.7 mm Hg]), hexachlorobenzene (-1.5 mm Hg [95% CI: -2.4 to -0.6 mm Hg]), and mono-benzyl phthalate (-0.7 mm Hg [95% CI: -1.3 to -0.1 mm Hg]), whereas increases in systolic BP were observed with outdoor temperature during pregnancy (1.6 mm Hg [95% CI: 0.2 to 2.9 mm Hg]), high fish intake during pregnancy (2.0 mm Hg [95% CI: 0.4 to 3.5 mm Hg]), maternal cotinine concentrations (1.2 mm Hg [95% CI: -0.3 to 2.8 mm Hg]), and child perfluorooctanoate concentrations (0.9 mm Hg [95% CI: 0.1 to 1.6 mm Hg]). Decreases in diastolic BP were observed with outdoor temperature at examination (-1.4 mm Hg [95% CI: -2.3 to -0.5 mm Hg]) and child DDE concentrations (-1.1 mm Hg [95% CI: -1.9 to -0.3 mm Hg]), whereas increases in diastolic BP were observed with maternal bisphenol-A concentrations (0.7 mm Hg [95% CI: 0.1 to 1.4 mm Hg]), high fish intake during pregnancy (1.2 mm Hg [95% CI: -0.2 to 2.7 mm Hg]), and child copper concentrations (0.9 mm Hg [95% CI: 0.3 to 1.6 mm Hg]). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that early-life exposure to several chemicals, as well as built environment and meteorological factors, may affect BP in children.

5.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(8): 87001, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomere length is a molecular marker of biological aging. OBJECTIVE: Here we investigated whether early-life exposure to residential air pollution was associated with leukocyte telomere length (LTL) at 8 y of age. METHODS: In a multicenter European birth cohort study, HELIX (Human Early Life Exposome) ([Formula: see text]), we estimated prenatal and 1-y childhood exposure to nitrogen dioxide ([Formula: see text]), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]), and proximity to major roads. Average relative LTL was measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Effect estimates of the association between LTL and prenatal, 1-y childhood air pollution, and proximity to major roads were calculated using multiple linear mixed models with a random cohort effect and adjusted for relevant covariates. RESULTS: LTL was inversely associated with prenatal and 1-y childhood [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] exposures levels. Each standard deviation (SD) increase in prenatal [Formula: see text] was associated with a [Formula: see text] (95% CI: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) change in LTL. Prenatal [Formula: see text] was nonsignificantly associated with LTL ([Formula: see text] per SD increase; 95% CI: [Formula: see text], 0.6). For each SD increment in 1-y childhood [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] exposure, LTL shortened by [Formula: see text] (95% CI: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] (95% CI: [Formula: see text], 0.1), respectively. Each doubling in residential distance to nearest major road during childhood was associated with a 1.6% (95% CI: 0.02, 3.1) lengthening in LTL. CONCLUSION: Lower exposures to air pollution during pregnancy and childhood were associated with longer telomeres in European children at 8 y of age. These results suggest that reductions in traffic-related air pollution may promote molecular longevity, as exemplified by telomere length, from early life onward. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4148.

6.
Epidemiology ; 30(5): 756-767, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Within-subject biospecimens pooling can theoretically reduce bias in dose-response functions from biomarker-based studies when exposure assessment suffers from classical-type error. However, collecting many urine voids each day is cumbersome. We evaluated the empirical validity of a within-subject pooling approach and compared several options to avoid sampling each void. METHODS: In 16 pregnant women who collected a spot of each urine void over several nonconsecutive weeks, we compared concentrations of 10 phenols in daily, weekly, and pregnancy within-subject pools. We pooled either three or all daily samples. In a simulation study using these data, we quantified bias in dose-response functions when using one to 20 urine samples per subject to assess methylparaben (a compound with moderate within-subject variability) and bisphenol A (high variability) exposures. RESULTS: Correlations between exposure estimates from pools of all and of only three voids per day were above 0.80 for all time windows and compounds, except for benzophenone-3 and triclosan in the daily time window (correlations, 0.57-0.68). With one spot sample to assess pregnancy exposure, correlations were all below 0.74. Using only one biospecimen led to attenuation bias in the dose-response functions of 29% (methylparaben) and 69% (bisphenol A); four samples for methylparaben and 18 for bisphenol A decreased bias to 10%. CONCLUSIONS: For nonpersistent chemicals, collecting and pooling three samples per day instead of all daily samples efficiently estimates exposures over a week or more. Collecting around 20 biospecimens can strongly limit attenuation bias for nonpersistent chemicals such as bisphenol A.

7.
Environ Int ; 131: 104927, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between air pollution exposure and emotional and behavioural problems in children is unclear. We aimed to assess prenatal and postnatal exposure to several air pollutants and child's depressive and anxiety symptoms, and aggressive symptoms in children of 7-11 years. METHODS: We analysed data of 13182 children from 8 European population-based birth cohorts. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) with diameters of ≤10 µm (PM10), ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), and between 10 and 2.5 µm (PMcoarse), the absorbance of PM2.5 filters (PM2.5abs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were estimated at residential addresses of each participant. Depressive and anxiety symptoms and aggressive symptoms were assessed at 7-11 years of age using parent reported tests. Children were classified in borderline/clinical range or clinical range using validated cut offs. Region specific models were adjusted for various socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics and then combined using random effect meta-analysis. Multiple imputation and inverse probability weighting methods were applied to correct for potential attrition bias. RESULTS: A total of 1896 (14.4%) children were classified as having depressive and anxiety symptoms in the borderline/clinical range, and 1778 (13.4%) as having aggressive symptoms in the borderline/clinical range. Overall, 1108 (8.4%) and 870 (6.6%) children were classified as having depressive and anxiety symptoms, and aggressive symptoms in the clinical range, respectively. Prenatal exposure to air pollution was not associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms in the borderline/clinical range (e.g. OR 1.02 [95%CI 0.95 to 1.10] per 10 µg/m3 higher NO2) nor with aggressive symptoms in the borderline/clinical range (e.g. OR 1.04 [95%CI 0.96 to 1.12] per 10 µg/m3 higher NO2). Similar results were observed for the symptoms in the clinical range, and for postnatal exposures to air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results suggest that prenatal and postnatal exposure to air pollution is not associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms or aggressive symptoms in children of 7 to 11 years old.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9710, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273257

RESUMO

Atmospheric pollution has major health effects on directly exposed subjects but intergenerational consequences are poorly characterized. We previously reported that diesel engine exhaust (DE) could lead to structural changes in the placenta of in utero exposed rabbits (first generation, F1). The effects of maternal exposure to DE were further studied on second-generation (F2) rabbits. Pregnant F0 females were exposed to filtered, diluted DE (1 mg/m3, median particle diameter: 69 nm) or clean filtered air (controls) for 2 h/day, 5 days/week by nose-only exposure during days 3-27 post-conception (dpc). Adult female offspring (F1) were mated to control males: F1 tissues and F2 foeto-placental units were collected at 28 dpc and placental structure and gene expression (microarray) analysed. Fatty acid profiles were determined in foetal and maternal plasma, maternal liver and placenta. In F1, compared to controls, hepatic neutral lipid contents were increased in exposed animals without change in the blood biochemistry. In F2, the placental lipid contents were higher, with higher monounsaturated fatty acids and reduced pro-inflammatory arachidonic acid (AA), without placental structural changes. Conversely, the proportion of anti-inflammatory n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in F2 plasma was increased while that of AA was decreased. Gene set enrichment analyses (GSEA) of F2 placenta transcriptomic data identified that the proteasome complex and ubiquitin pathways genes were over-represented and ion channel function and inflammation pathways genes were under-represented in exposed animals. These preliminary results demonstrate that diesel engine exhaust exposure and in utero indirect exposure should be considered as a programming factor within the context of the DOHaD (Developmental Origins of Health and Disease) with a probable intergenerational transmission.

9.
Environ Int ; 129: 538-550, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure entails large health effects in many urban areas. Public measures aiming at decreasing air pollution are often designed without targeting an explicit health benefit. Our objective was to investigate the health and economic benefits and the social inequalities in exposure resulting from several scenarios of reduction of PM2.5 exposure, in order to support decisions about urban policies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the French conurbations of Grenoble and Lyon (0.4 and 1.4 million inhabitants, respectively), PM2.5 yearly average exposure was estimated on a 10-m grid by coupling a PM2.5 dispersion model to population density. Changes in death cases, life expectancy, lung cancer and term low birth weight incident cases as well as associated health economic costs were estimated for ten PM2.5 reduction scenarios differing in terms of amplitude of reduction and spatial extent. Changes in social differences in PM2.5 exposure were also assessed. RESULTS: During the 2015-2017 period, PM2.5 average exposure was 13.9 µg/m3 in Grenoble and 15.3 µg/m3 in Lyon conurbations. Exposure to PM2.5 led to an estimated 145 (95% Confidence Interval, CI, 90-199) and 531 (95% CI, 330-729) premature deaths, 16 (95% CI, 8-24) and 65 (95% CI, 30-96) incident lung cancers, and 49 (95% CI, 19-76) and 193 (95% CI, 76-295) term low birth weight cases each year in Grenoble and Lyon conurbations, respectively, compared to a situation without PM2.5 anthropogenic sources, i.e. a PM2.5 concentration of 4.9 µg/m3. The associated costs amounted to 495 (Grenoble) and 1767 (Lyon) M€/year for the intangible costs related to all-cause non-accidental mortality and 27 and 105 M€ for the tangible and intangible costs induced by lung cancer. A PM2.5 exposure reduction down to the WHO air quality guideline (10 µg/m3) would reduce anthropogenic PM2.5-attributable mortality by half while decreases by 2.9 µg/m3 (Grenoble) and 3.3 µg/m3 (Lyon) were required to reduce it by a third. Scenarios focusing only on the most exposed areas had little overall impact. Scenarios seeking to reach a homogeneous exposure in the whole study area were the most efficient in alleviating social inequalities in exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Reduction scenarios targeting only air pollution hotspots had little expected impact on population health. We provided estimates of the PM2.5 change required to reduce PM2.5-attributable mortality by one third or more. Our approach can help targeting air pollution reduction scenarios expected to entail significant benefits, and it could easily be transposed to other urban areas.

10.
Environ Res ; 174: 95-104, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055170

RESUMO

The human exposome affects child development and health later in life, but its personal external levels, variability, and correlations are largely unknown. We characterized the personal external exposome of pregnant women and children in eight European cities. Panel studies included 167 pregnant women and 183 children (aged 6-11 years). A personal exposure monitoring kit composed of smartphone, accelerometer, ultraviolet (UV) dosimeter, and two air pollution monitors were used to monitor physical activity (PA), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, traffic-related noise, UV-B radiation, and natural outdoor environments (NOE). 77% of women performed the adult recommendation of ≥150 min/week of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), while only 3% of children achieved the childhood recommendation of ≥60 min/day MVPA. 11% of women and 17% of children were exposed to daily PM2.5 levels higher than recommended (≥25µg/m3). Mean exposure to noise ranged from Lden 51.1 dB in Kaunas to Lden 65.2 dB in Barcelona. 4% of women and 23% of children exceeded the recommended maximum of 2 Standard-Erythemal-Dose of UV-B at least once a week. 33% of women and 43% of children never reached the minimum NOE contact recommendation of ≥30 min/week. The variations in air and noise pollution exposure were dominated by between-city variability, while most of the variation observed for NOE contact and PA was between-participants. The correlations between all personal exposures ranged from very low to low (Rho < 0.30). The levels of personal external exposures in both pregnant women and children are above the health recommendations, and there is little correlation between the different exposures. The assessment of the personal external exposome is feasible but sampling requires from one day to more than one year depending on exposure due to high variability between and within cities and participants.

11.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 222(5): 864-872, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human exposure to environmental chemical contaminants at critical periods of development can lead to lifelong health consequences. Traditionally, socioeconomically disadvantaged groups are thought to experience higher contaminant exposures; however, this relationship may not hold for all contaminants. METHODS: Using data from six European birth cohorts (1301 mother-child pairs), we determined biomarkers of exposure to 41 contaminants in biological samples from children (6-12 years) and their mothers during pregnancy, including organochlorine compounds (OCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), metals, phthalate metabolites, phenols, and organophosphate (OP) pesticide metabolites. We analyzed these biomarkers with several socioeconomic position (SEP) indicators (maternal education, employment status and family affluence scale). RESULTS: Higher SEP was associated with higher concentrations of several chemicals during pregnancy, including certain PFASs, mercury, arsenic, several phenols, and OP pesticides. Similarly, childhood concentrations of OCs, PFASs, mercury, arsenic, and bisphenol A were higher in higher SEP groups. Conversely, cadmium exposure during pregnancy and exposure to lead and phthalate metabolites in childhood were higher in lower SEP. Principal components representing multiple pollutant exposures showed similar association with SEP. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that environmental chemical contaminant exposure during fetal and childhood life is not exclusively associated to lower SEP and that for several contaminants higher SEP groups incur higher exposure levels.

12.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(4): 47007, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The exposome is defined as the totality of environmental exposures from conception onwards. It calls for providing a holistic view of environmental exposures and their effects on human health by evaluating multiple environmental exposures simultaneously during critical periods of life. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association of the urban exposome with birth weight. METHODS: We estimated exposure to the urban exposome, including the built environment, air pollution, road traffic noise, meteorology, natural space, and road traffic (corresponding to 24 environmental indicators and 60 exposures) for nearly 32,000 pregnant women from six European birth cohorts. To evaluate associations with either continuous birth weight or term low birth weight (TLBW) risk, we primarily relied on the Deletion-Substitution-Addition (DSA) algorithm, which is an extension of the stepwise variable selection method. Second, we used an exposure-by-exposure exposome-wide association studies (ExWAS) method accounting for multiple hypotheses testing to report associations not adjusted for coexposures. RESULTS: The most consistent statistically significant associations were observed between increasing green space exposure estimated as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and increased birth weight and decreased TLBW risk. Furthermore, we observed statistically significant associations among presence of public bus line, land use Shannon's Evenness Index, and traffic density and birth weight in our DSA analysis. CONCLUSION: This investigation is the first large urban exposome study of birth weight that tests many environmental urban exposures. It confirmed previously reported associations for NDVI and generated new hypotheses for a number of built-environment exposures. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3971.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917598

RESUMO

Background: Environmental factors determine children's health. Quantifying the health impacts related to environmental hazards for children is essential to prioritize interventions to improve health in Europe. Objective: This study aimed to assess the burden of childhood disease due to environmental risks across the European Union. Methods: We conducted an environmental burden of childhood disease assessment in the 28 countries of the EU (EU28) for seven environmental risk factors (particulate matter less than 10 micrometer of diameter (PM10) and less than 2.5 micrometer of diameter (PM2.5), ozone, secondhand smoke, dampness, lead, and formaldehyde). The primary outcome was disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), assessed from exposure data provided by the World Health Organization, Global Burden of Disease project, scientific literature, and epidemiological risk estimates. Results: The seven studied environmental risk factors for children in the EU28 were responsible for around 211,000 DALYs annually. Particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) was the main environmental risk factor, producing 59% of total DALYs (125,000 DALYs), followed by secondhand smoke with 20% of all DALYs (42,500 DALYs), ozone 11% (24,000 DALYs), dampness 6% (13,000 DALYs), lead 3% (6200 DALYs), and formaldehyde 0.2% (423 DALYs). Conclusions: Environmental exposures included in this study were estimated to produce 211,000 DALYs each year in children in the EU28, representing 2.6% of all DALYs in children. Among the included environmental risk factors, air pollution (particulate matter and ozone) was estimated to produce the highest burden of disease in children in Europe, half of which was due to the effects of PM10 on infant mortality. Effective policies to reduce environmental pollutants across Europe are needed.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença , Europa (Continente) , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Umidade , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Chumbo/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
14.
Lancet Planet Health ; 3(2): e81-e92, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several single-exposure studies have documented possible effects of environmental factors on lung function, but none has relied on an exposome approach. We aimed to evaluate the association between a broad range of prenatal and postnatal lifestyle and environmental exposures and lung function in children. METHODS: In this analysis, we used data from 1033 mother-child pairs from the European Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX) cohort (consisting of six existing longitudinal birth cohorts in France, Greece, Lithuania, Norway, Spain, and the UK of children born between 2003 and 2009) for whom a valid spirometry test was recorded for the child. 85 prenatal and 125 postnatal exposures relating to outdoor, indoor, chemical, and lifestyle factors were assessed, and lung function was measured by spirometry in children at age 6-12 years. Two agnostic linear regression methods, a deletion-substitution-addition (DSA) algorithm considering all exposures simultaneously, and an exposome-wide association study (ExWAS) considering exposures independently, were applied to test the association with forced expiratory volume in 1 s percent predicted values (FEV1%). We tested for two-way interaction between exposures and corrected for confounding by co-exposures. FINDINGS: In the 1033 children (median age 8·1 years, IQR 6·5-9·0), mean FEV1% was 98·8% (SD 13·2). In the ExWAS, prenatal perfluorononanoate (p=0·034) and perfluorooctanoate (p=0·030) exposures were associated with lower FEV1%, and inverse distance to nearest road during pregnancy (p=0·030) was associated with higher FEV1%. Nine postnatal exposures were associated with lower FEV1%: copper (p=0·041), ethyl-paraben (p=0·029), five phthalate metabolites (mono-2-ethyl 5-carboxypentyl phthalate [p=0·016], mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate [p=0·023], mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate [p=0·0085], mono-4-methyl-7-oxooctyl phthalate [p=0·040], and the sum of di-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites [p=0·014]), house crowding (p=0·015), and facility density around schools (p=0·027). However, no exposure passed the significance threshold when corrected for multiple testing in ExWAS, and none was selected with the DSA algorithm, including when testing for exposure interactions. INTERPRETATION: Our systematic exposome approach identified several environmental exposures, mainly chemicals, that might be associated with lung function. Reducing exposure to these ubiquitous chemicals could help to prevent the development of chronic respiratory disease. FUNDING: European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (HELIX project).

15.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 222(3): 446-454, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595366

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy are one of the leading causes of maternal and offspring mortality and morbidity. Exposure to environmental chemicals is suspected to increase blood pressure (BP) but few studies have investigated the impact of non-persistent chemicals, in particular among pregnant women. METHODS: Women included in the study were 152 volunteer participants in the Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX) project. They provided 3 urine samples daily over one week in two pregnancy trimesters (at around 18 and 32 weeks of gestation) to assess their exposure to phthalates (10 metabolites), phenols (7 compounds) and organophosphate pesticides (4 metabolites). BP was measured at the end of the two collection weeks. Associations between biomarkers of exposure and BP were investigated using generalized estimating equations (GEE) and linear regression, and adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: A significant decrease in systolic and/or diastolic BP was observed with exposure to some phthalate metabolites, BPA, and parabens (e.g. ß GEE models for systolic BP = -0.91 mmHg (95%CI: -1.65; -0.17) per doubling of BPA concentrations). These associations were more frequently observed in the second trimester of pregnancy and remained statistically significant after correction for multiple testing for BPA only. No associations were observed with organophosphate pesticides. CONCLUSION: This study investigates the effect of exposure to non-persistent chemicals assessed using multiple biospecimens per subject on BP during pregnancy and suggests that higher exposure to some phthalates and phenols but not pesticides is associated with lower BP during pregnancy.

16.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(1): 17002, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The placenta performs crucial physiological functions to ensure normal fetal development. Few epidemiological studies investigated placental weight sensitivity to phthalates and phenols. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to explore whether maternal exposure to select phthalates and phenols is associated with changes in placental weight at birth and in placental­to­birth weight ratio (PFR). METHODS: Placental weight and birth weight were available for 473 mother­son pairs in the EDEN (Etude des Déterminants pré et postnatals du développement et de la santé de l'Enfant) cohort for whom 9 phenols (4 parabens, 2 dichlorophenols, triclosan, benzophenone-3, bisphenol A) and 11 phthalate metabolites were measured in spot urine samples collected between weeks 23 and 29 of gestation. We used adjusted Elastic Net penalized regression models (ENET) to select biomarkers associated with placental weight, birth weight and PFR. Unpenalized effect estimates were then obtained by fitting linear regression models simultaneously adjusted for the ENET-selected biomarkers and a priori chosen confounders. RESULTS: The multipollutant ENET model for placental weight retained four biomarkers: triclosan and monocarboxy-isononyl phthalate (MCNP), which were negatively associated with placental weight, and benzophenone-3 and the sum of parabens, which were positively associated with this outcome. The ENET model for PFR retained two phthalate metabolites [MCNP and monocarboxy-isooctyl phthalate (MCOP)], which were negatively associated with this outcome. DISCUSSION: The positive association between the sum of parabens and placental weight was consistent with results of a previous study among 49 male births. Our results provide preliminary evidence of possible associations between other compounds such as triclosan, benzophenone-3, MCNP, and MCOP and both placental weight and PFR. These associations were not reported in previous studies and should be seen as hypothesis generating. Studies relying on repeated assessments of exposure in prospective mother­child cohorts are needed to substantiate the plausibility of the hypotheses generated by our results. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3523.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Fenóis/urina , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Placenta/patologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Environ Int ; 123: 189-200, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530161

RESUMO

Characterization of the "exposome", the set of all environmental factors that one is exposed to from conception onwards, has been advocated to better understand the role of environmental factors on chronic diseases. Here, we aimed to describe the early-life exposome. Specifically, we focused on the correlations between multiple environmental exposures, their patterns and their variability across European regions and across time (pregnancy and childhood periods). We relied on the Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX) project, in which 87 environmental exposures during pregnancy and 122 during the childhood period (grouped in 19 exposure groups) were assessed in 1301 pregnant mothers and their children at 6-11 years in 6 European birth cohorts. Some correlations between exposures in the same exposure group reached high values above 0.8. The median correlation within exposure groups was >0.3 for many exposure groups, reaching 0.69 for water disinfection by products in pregnancy and 0.67 for the meteorological group in childhood. Median correlations between different exposure groups rarely reached 0.3. Some correlations were driven by cohort-level associations (e.g. air pollution and chemicals). Ten principal components explained 45% and 39% of the total variance in the pregnancy and childhood exposome, respectively, while 65 and 90 components were required to explain 95% of the exposome variability. Correlations between maternal (pregnancy) and childhood exposures were high (>0.6) for most exposures modeled at the residential address (e.g. air pollution), but were much lower and even close to zero for some chemical exposures. In conclusion, the early life exposome was high dimensional, meaning that it cannot easily be measured by or reduced to fewer components. Correlations between exposures from different exposure groups were much lower than within exposure groups, which have important implications for co-exposure confounding in multiple exposure studies. Also, we observed the early life exposome to be variable over time and to vary by cohort, so measurements at one time point or one place will not capture its complexities.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Poluição do Ar , Criança , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Gravidez , Purificação da Água
18.
Epidemiology ; 30(1): 120-129, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30198936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several epidemiologic designs allow studying fecundability, the monthly probability of pregnancy occurrence in noncontracepting couples in the general population. These designs may, to varying extents, suffer from attenuation bias and other biases. We aimed to compare the main designs: incident and prevalent cohorts, pregnancy-based, and current duration approaches. METHODS: A realistic simulation model produced individual reproductive lives of a fictitious population. We drew random population samples according to each study design, from which the cumulative probability of pregnancy was estimated. We compared the abilities of the designs to highlight the impact of an environmental factor influencing fecundability, relying on the Cox model with censoring after 12 or 6 months. RESULTS: Regarding the estimation of the cumulative probability of pregnancy, the pregnancy-based approach was the most prone to bias. When we considered a hypothetical factor associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of pregnancy of 0.7, the estimated HR was in the 0.78-0.85 range, according to designs. This attenuation bias was largest for the prevalent cohort and smallest for the current duration approach, which had the largest variance. The bias could be limited in all designs by censoring durations at 6 months. CONCLUSION: Attenuation bias in HRs cannot be ignored in fecundability studies. Focusing on the effect of exposures during the first 6 months of unprotected intercourse through censoring removes part of this bias. For risk factors that can accurately be assessed retrospectively, retrospective fecundity designs, although biased, are not much more strongly so than logistically more intensive designs entailing follow-up.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Adulto , Viés , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Environ Int ; 121(Pt 2): 1079-1086, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389379

RESUMO

Outdoor air pollution is a leading environmental cause of death and cancer incidence in humans. We aimed to estimate the fraction of lung cancer incidence attributable to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure in France, and secondarily to illustrate the influence of the input data and the spatial resolution of information on air pollution levels on this estimate. The population attributable fraction (PAF) was estimated using a nationwide spatially refined chemistry-transport model with a 2-km spatial resolution, neighbourhood-scale population density data, and a relative risk from a published meta-analysis. We used the WHO guideline value for PM2.5 exposure (10 µg/m3) as reference. Sensitivity analyses consisted in attributing the nation-wide median exposure to all areas and using alternative input data such as reference of PM2.5 exposure level and relative risk. Population-weighted median PM2.5 level in 2005 was 13.8 µg/m3; 87% of the population was exposed above the guideline value. The burden of lung cancer attributable to PM2.5 exposure corresponded to 1466 cases, or 3.6% of all cases diagnosed in 2015. Sensitivity analyses showed that the use of a national median of PM2.5 exposure would have led to an underestimation of the PAF by 11% (population-weighted median) and by 72% (median of raw concentration), suggesting that our estimates would have been higher with even more finely spatially-resolved models. When the PM2.5 reference level was replaced by the 5th percentile of country-scale exposure (4.9 µg/m3), PAF increased to 7.6%. Other sensitivity analyses resulted in even higher PAFs. Improvements in air pollution are crucial for quantitative health impacts assessment studies. Actions to reduce PM2.5 levels could substantially reduce the burden of lung cancer in France.

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