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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633509

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this review is to give an overview of the current status of targeted optical fluorescence imaging in the field of oncology, cardiovascular, infectious and inflammatory diseases to further promote clinical translation. METHODS: A meta-narrative approach was taken to systematically describe the relevant literature. Consecutively, each field was assigned a developmental stage regarding the clinical implementation of optical fluorescence imaging. RESULTS: Optical fluorescence imaging is leaning towards clinical implementation in gastrointestinal and head and neck cancers, closely followed by pulmonary, neuro, breast and gynaecological oncology. In cardiovascular and infectious disease, optical imaging is in a less advanced/proof of concept stage. CONCLUSION: Targeted optical fluorescence imaging is rapidly evolving and expanding into the clinic, especially in the field of oncology. However, the imaging modality still has to overcome some major challenges before it can be part of the standard of care in the clinic, such as the provision of pivotal trial data. Intensive multidisciplinary (pre-)clinical joined forces are essential to overcome the delivery of such compelling phase III registration trial data and subsequent regulatory approval and reimbursement hurdles to advance clinical implementation of targeted optical fluorescence imaging as part of standard practice.

2.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While [18F]-fluordeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) uptake is associated with arterial inflammation, [18F]-sodium fluoride ([18F]NaF) is a marker for arterial micro-calcification. We aimed to investigate the prospective correlation between both PET markers over time and whether they are prospectively ([18F]FDG) and retrospectively ([18F]NaF) related to progression of systemic arterial disease in a longitudinal study in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Baseline [18F]FDG PET/Low Dose (LD) Computed Tomography (CT) scans of ten patients with early T2DM without cardiovascular history (70% men, median age 63 years) were compared with five-year follow-up [18F]NaF/LDCT scans. Systemic activity was expressed as mean target-to-background ratio (meanTBR) by dividing the maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of ten arteries by SUVmean of the caval vein. CT-assessed macro-calcifications were scored visually and expressed as calcified plaque (CP) score. Arterial stiffness was assessed with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Five-year changes were expressed absolutely with delta (Δ) and relatively with %change. RESULTS: Baseline meanTBR[18F]FDG was strongly correlated with five-year follow-up meanTBR[18F]NaF (r = 0.709, P = .022). meanTBR[18F]NaF correlated positively with ΔCPscore, CPscore at baseline, and follow-up (r = 0.845, P = .002 and r = 0.855, P = .002, respectively), but not with %change in CPscore and PWV. CONCLUSION: This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that systemic arterial inflammation is an important pathogenetic factor in systemic arterial micro-calcification development.

3.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 23(9): 130, 2021 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363148

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Additional imaging modalities, such as FDG-PET/CT, have been included into the workup for patients with suspected infective endocarditis, according to major international guidelines published in 2015. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of FDG-PET/CT indications and standardized approaches in the setting of suspected infective endocarditis. RECENT FINDINGS: There are two main indications for performing FDG-PET/CT in patients with suspected infective endocarditis: (i) detecting intracardiac infections and (ii) detection of (clinically silent) disseminated infectious disease. The diagnostic performance of FDG-PET/CT for intracardiac lesions depends on the presence of native valves, prosthetic valves, or implanted cardiac devices, with a sensitivity that is poor for native valve endocarditis and cardiac device-related lead infections, but much better for prosthetic valve endocarditis and cardiac device-related pocket infections. Specificity is high for all these indications. The detection of disseminated disease may also help establish the diagnosis and/or impact patient management. Based on current evidence, FDG-PET/CT should be considered for detection of disseminated disease in suspected endocarditis. Absence of intracardiac lesions on FDG-PET/CT cannot rule out native valve endocarditis, but positive findings strongly support the diagnosis. For prosthetic valve endocarditis, standard use of FDG-PET/CT is recommended because of its high sensitivity and specificity. For implanted cardiac devices, FDG-PET/CT is also recommended, but should be evaluated with careful attention to clinical context, because its sensitivity is high for pocket infections, but low for lead infections. In patients with prosthetic valves with or without additional aortic prosthesis, combination with CTA should be considered. Optimal timing of FDG-PET/CT is important, both during clinical workup and technically (i.e., post tracer injection). In addition, procedural standardization is key and encompasses patient preparation, scan acquisition, reconstruction, subsequent analysis, and clinical interpretation. The recommendations discussed here will hopefully contribute to improved standardization and enhanced performance of FDG-PET/CT in the clinical management of patients with suspected infective endocarditis.


Assuntos
Endocardite Bacteriana , Endocardite , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese , Endocardite/diagnóstico por imagem , Endocardite Bacteriana/diagnóstico por imagem , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico por imagem , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Padrões de Referência
4.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 48(12): 3886-3902, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942141

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Monitoring disease activity in patients with large vessel vasculitis (LVV) can be challenging. [18F]FDG-PET/CT is increasingly used to evaluate treatment response in LVV. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to summarize the current evidence on the value of [18F]FDG-PET/CT for treatment monitoring in LVV. METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE and the Cochrane library database were searched from inception through October 21, 2020. Studies containing patients with LVV (i.e. giant cell arteritis, Takayasu arteritis and isolated aortitis) that received treatment and underwent [18F]FDG-PET/CT were included. Screening, full-text review and data extraction were performed by 2 investigators. The risk of bias was examined with the QUADAS-2 tool. Meta-analysis of proportions and diagnostic test accuracy was performed by a random-effects model and bivariate model, respectively. RESULTS: Twenty-one studies were included in the systematic review, of which 8 studies were eligible for meta-analysis. Arterial [18F]FDG uptake decreased upon clinical remission in longitudinal studies. High heterogeneity (I2 statistic 94%) precluded meta-analysis of the proportion of patients in which the scan normalized during clinical remission. Meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies indicated that [18F]FDG-PET/CT may detect relapsing/refractory disease with a sensitivity of 77% (95%CI 57-90%) and specificity of 71% (95%CI 47-87%). Substantial heterogeneity was observed among the cross-sectional studies. Both variation in clinical aspects and imaging procedures contributed to the heterogeneity. CONCLUSION: Treatment of LVV leads to reduction of arterial [18F]FDG uptake during clinical remission. [18F]FDG-PET/CT has moderate diagnostic accuracy for detecting active LVV. [18F]FDG-PET/CT may aid treatment monitoring in LVV, but its findings should be interpreted in the context of the clinical suspicion of disease activity. This study underlines the relevance of published procedural recommendations for the use of [18F]FDG-PET/CT in LVV.

5.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 48(1): 241-253, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are increasingly used for the treatment of advanced heart failure. LVADs improve quality of life and decrease mortality, but the driveline carries substantial risk for major infections. These device-related LVAD and driveline infections are difficult to diagnose with conventional imaging. We reviewed and analysed the current literature on the additive value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) imaging for the diagnosis of LVAD-related infections." MATERIALS/METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review using several databases from their inception until the 31st of December, 2019. Studies investigating the diagnostic performance of FDG-PET/CT in patients with suspected LVAD infection were retrieved. After a bias risk assessment using QUADAS-2, a study-aggregate meta-analysis was performed on a per examination-based analysis. RESULTS: A total of 10 studies were included in the systematic review, eight of which were also eligible for study-aggregate meta-analysis. For the meta-analysis, a total of 256 FDG-PET/CT scans, examining pump/pocket and/or driveline infection, were acquired in 230 patients. Pooled sensitivity of FDG-PET/CT was 0.95 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89-0.97) and pooled specificity was 0.91 (95% CI 0.54-0.99) for the diagnosis of device-related infection. For pump/pocket infection, sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET/CT were 0.97 (95%CI 0.69-1.00) and 0.93 (95%CI 0.64-0.99), respectively. For driveline infection, sensitivity and specificity were 0.96 (95%CI 0.88-0.99) and 0.99 (95%CI 0.13-1.00) respectively. Significant heterogeneity existed across studies for specificity, mostly caused by differences in scan procedures. Predefined criteria for suspicion of LVAD and/or driveline infection were lacking in all included studies. CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET/CT is a valuable tool for assessment of device-related infection in LVAD patients, with high sensitivity and high, albeit variable, specificity. Standardization of FDG-PET/CT procedures and criteria for suspected device-related LVAD infections are needed for consistent reporting of FDG-PET/CT scans.


Assuntos
Coração Auxiliar , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico por imagem , Qualidade de Vida , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
6.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 48(6): 1876-1889, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372248

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) can be difficult to diagnose. Whole-body [18F]FDG-PET/CT allows for a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant articular and extra-articular structures affected by PMR. We aimed to summarize current evidence on the diagnostic value of [18F]FDG-PET/CT for a diagnosis of PMR. METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library database were searched from inception through May 31, 2020. Studies containing patients with PMR who underwent [18F]FDG-PET/CT were included. Screening and full-text review were performed by 3 investigators and data extraction by 2 investigators. Risk of bias was examined with the QUADAS-2 tool. Diagnostic test meta-analysis was performed with a bivariate model. RESULTS: Twenty studies were included in the systematic review, of which 9 studies (n = 636 patients) were eligible for meta-analysis. [18F]FDG positivity at the following sites was associated with a diagnosis of PMR: interspinous bursae (positive likelihood ratio (LR+) 4.00; 95% CI 1.84-8.71), hips (LR+ 2.91; 95% CI 2.09-4.05), ischial tuberosities (LR+ 2.86; 95% CI 1.91-4.28), shoulders (LR+ 2.57; 95% CI 1.24-5.32) and sternoclavicular joints (LR+ 2.31; 95% CI 1.33-4.02). Negative likelihood ratios (LR-) for these sites, as well as the greater trochanters, were all less than 0.50. Composite [18F]FDG-PET/CT scores, as reported in 3 studies, provided a pooled LR+ of 3.91 (95% CI 2.42-6.32) and LR- of 0.19 (95% CI 0.10-0.36). Moderate to high heterogeneity was observed across the studies, mainly due to differences in patient selection, scanning procedures and/or interpretation criteria. CONCLUSION: Significant [18F]FDG uptake at a combination of anatomic sites is informative for a diagnosis of PMR. [18F]FDG-PET/CT might be an important diagnostic tool in patients with suspected PMR. This study also highlights the need for adherence to published procedural recommendations and standardized interpretation criteria for the use of [18F]FDG-PET/CT in PMR.


Assuntos
Arterite de Células Gigantes , Polimialgia Reumática , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Polimialgia Reumática/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
7.
Eur Radiol ; 30(11): 5794-5804, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506262

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Assessment of thoracic aortic dimensions with non-ECG-triggered contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) is accompanied with motion artefacts and requires gadolinium. To avoid both motion artefacts and gadolinium administration, we evaluated the similarity and reproducibility of dimensions measured on ECG-triggered, balanced steady-state free precession (SSFP) MRA as alternative to CE-MRA. METHODS: All patients, with varying medical conditions, referred for thoracic aortic examination between September 2016 and March 2018, who underwent non-ECG-triggered CE-MRA and SSFP-MRA (1.5 T) were retrospectively included (n = 30). Aortic dimensions were measured after double-oblique multiplanar reconstruction by two observers at nine landmarks predefined by literature guidelines. Image quality was scored at the sinus of Valsalva, mid-ascending aorta and mid-descending aorta by semi-automatically assessing the vessel sharpness. RESULTS: Aortic dimensions showed high agreement between non-ECG-triggered CE-MRA and SSFP-MRA (r = 0.99, p < 0.05) without overestimation or underestimation of aortic dimensions in SSFP-MRA (mean difference, 0.1 mm; limits of agreement, - 1.9 mm and 1.9 mm). Intra- and inter-observer variabilities were significantly smaller with SSFP-MRA for the sinus of Valsalva and sinotubular junction. Image quality of the sinus of Valsalva was significantly better with SSFP-MRA, as fewer images were of impaired quality (3/30) than in CE-MRA (21/30). Reproducibility of dimensions was significantly better in images scored as good quality compared to impaired quality in both sequences. CONCLUSIONS: Thoracic aortic dimensions measured on SSFP-MRA and non-ECG-triggered CE-MRA were similar. As expected, SSFP-MRA showed better reproducibility close to the aortic root because of lesser motion artefacts, making it a feasible non-contrast imaging alternative. KEY POINTS: • SSFP-MRA provides similar dimensions as non-ECG-triggered CE-MRA. • Intra- and inter-observer reproducibilities improve for the sinus of Valsalva and sinotubular junction with SSFP-MRA. • ECG-triggered SSFP-MRA shows better image quality for landmarks close to the aortic root in the absence of cardiac motion.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Artefatos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 22(1): 34, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical application of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) T2 and T2* mapping is currently limited as ranges for healthy and cardiac diseases are poorly defined. In this meta-analysis we aimed to determine the weighted mean of T2 and T2* mapping values in patients with myocardial infarction (MI), heart transplantation, non-ischemic cardiomyopathies (NICM) and hypertension, and the standardized mean difference (SMD) of each population with healthy controls. Additionally, the variation of mapping outcomes between studies was investigated. METHODS: The PRISMA guidelines were followed after literature searches on PubMed and Embase. Studies reporting CMR T2 or T2* values measured in patients were included. The SMD was calculated using a random effects model and a meta-regression analysis was performed for populations with sufficient published data. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-four studies, including 13,804 patient and 4392 control measurements, were included. T2 values were higher in patients with MI, heart transplantation, sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, amyloidosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and myocarditis (SMD of 2.17, 1.05, 0.87, 1.39, 1.62, 1.95, 1.90 and 1.33, respectively, P <  0.01) compared with controls. T2 values in iron overload patients (SMD = - 0.54, P = 0.30) and Anderson-Fabry disease patients (SMD = 0.52, P = 0.17) did both not differ from controls. T2* values were lower in patients with MI and iron overload (SMD of - 1.99 and - 2.39, respectively, P <  0.01) compared with controls. T2* values in HCM patients (SMD = - 0.61, P = 0.22), DCM patients (SMD = - 0.54, P = 0.06) and hypertension patients (SMD = - 1.46, P = 0.10) did not differ from controls. Multiple CMR acquisition and patient demographic factors were assessed as significant covariates, thereby influencing the mapping outcomes and causing variation between studies. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical utility of T2 and T2* mapping to distinguish affected myocardium in patients with cardiomyopathies or heart transplantation from healthy myocardium seemed to be confirmed based on this meta-analysis. Nevertheless, variation of mapping values between studies complicates comparison with external values and therefore require local healthy reference values to clinically interpret quantitative values. Furthermore, disease differentiation seems limited, since changes in T2 and T2* values of most cardiomyopathies are similar.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Transplante de Coração , Hipertensão/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(4): 883-890, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin K occurs in the diet as phylloquinone and menaquinones. Observational studies have shown that both phylloquinone and menaquinone intake might reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, the effect of vitamin K on vascular calcification is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess if menaquinone supplementation, compared to placebo, decreases vascular calcification in people with type 2 diabetes and known CVD. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned men and women with type 2 diabetes and CVD to 360 µg/d menaquinone-7 (MK-7) or placebo for 6 mo. Femoral arterial calcification at baseline and 6 mo was measured with 18sodium fluoride positron emission tomography (18F-NaF PET) scans as target-to-background ratios (TBRs), a promising technique to detect active calcification. Calcification mass on conventional computed tomography (CT) scan was measured as secondary outcome. Dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein (dp-ucMGP) concentrations were measured to assess compliance. Linear regression analyses were performed with either TBR or CT calcification at follow-up as the dependent variable, and treatment and baseline TBR or CT calcification as independent variables. RESULTS: We randomly assigned 35 patients to the MK-7 group (33 completed follow-up) and 33 to the placebo group (27 completed follow-up). After the 6-mo intervention, TBR tended to increase in the MK-7 group compared with placebo (0.25; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.51; P = 0.06), although this was not significant. Log-transformed CT calcification mass did not increase in the intervention group compared with placebo (0.50; 95% CI: -0.23, 1.36; P = 0.18). MK-7 supplementation significantly reduced dp-ucMGP compared with placebo (-205.6 pmol/L; 95% CI: -255.8, -155.3 pmol/L). No adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION: MK-7 supplementation tended to increase active calcification measured with 18F-NaF PET activity compared with placebo, but no effect was found on conventional CT. Additional research investigating the interpretation of 18F-NaF PET activity is necessary. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02839044.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Calcificação Vascular/prevenção & controle , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Calcificação Vascular/complicações , Vitamina K 2/administração & dosagem , Vitamina K 2/farmacologia
11.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 26(6): 1844-1852, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30288680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with chest pain and no obstructive coronary artery disease have shown a high incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). We evaluated the role of absolute myocardial perfusion quantification in predicting all-cause mortality and MACE during long-term follow-up in this group of patients. METHODS: We studied 79 patients who underwent Nitrogen-13 ammonia PET for quantification of global myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) due to suspected impaired myocardial perfusion. Patients with coronary artery disease (i.e., > 30% stenosis in one or more coronary arteries) were excluded. We assessed all-cause mortality and MACE. MACE was defined as the composite incidence of death, myocardial infarction (MI), or hospitalization due to heart failure. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 8 (IQR: 3-14) years. Univariate Cox regression showed that only MFR (P = 0.01) was a predictor of all-cause mortality. Univariate Cox regression analysis showed that both MFR and Stress MBF were predictors of the composite endpoint of MACE (P < 0.001 and P = 0.01, respectively). CONCLUSION: Quantitative assessment of myocardial perfusion may predict all-cause mortality and MACE in patients with chest pain and normal coronary arteries in the long-term follow-up.


Assuntos
Dor no Peito/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Miocárdio/patologia , Adulto , Amônia , Dor no Peito/terapia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio , Radioisótopos de Nitrogênio , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 26(4): 1064-1075, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29943142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 18F-NaF positron emission tomography (PET) targets microcalcifications. We compared in vitro microPET assessed 18F-NaF uptake between culprit and non-culprit human carotid plaques. Furthermore, we compared 18F-NaF uptake with calcification visualized on microcomputed tomography (microCT). METHODS: Carotid plaques from stroke patients undergoing surgery were incubated in 18F-NaF and scanned using a microPET and a microCT scan. The average PET assessed 18F-NaF uptake was expressed as percentage of the incubation dose per gram (%Inc/g). 18F-NaF PET volume of interest (VOI) was compared with CT calcification VOI. RESULTS: 23 carotid plaques (17 culprit, 6 non-culprit) were included. The average 18F-NaF uptake in culprit carotid plaques was comparable with the uptake in non-culprit carotid plaques (median 2.32 %Inc/g [IQR 1.98 to 2.81] vs. median 2.35 %Inc/g [IQR 1.77 to 3.00], P = 0.916). Only a median of 10% (IQR 4 to 25) of CT calcification VOI showed increased 18F-NaF uptake, while merely a median of 35% (IQR 6 to 42) of 18F-NaF PET VOI showed calcification on CT. CONCLUSIONS: 18F-NaF PET represents a different stage in the calcification process than CT. We observed a similar PET assessed 18F-NaF uptake and pattern in culprit and non-culprit plaques of high-risk patients, indicating that this method may be of more value in early atherosclerotic stenosis development.


Assuntos
Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Feminino , Radioisótopos de Flúor , Humanos , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Medição de Risco , Fluoreto de Sódio , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Microtomografia por Raio-X
13.
Clin Transl Imaging ; 6(1): 61-67, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29568734

RESUMO

Purpose: Cyst infections are a common complication in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Diagnosing these infections often remains challenging. Conventional imaging techniques such as ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and standard magnetic resonance imaging have several drawbacks and disadvantages. The purpose of this pictorial essay was to illustrate and discuss the potential value of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/CT in diagnosing cyst infection in ADPKD. Methods: Exemplary (ADPKD) patients who underwent FDG-PET/CT as part of their routine clinical work-up in our institution are presented to show the potential value and drawbacks of this imaging technique in diagnosing cyst infection. In addition, the current literature and guidelines on this topic were reviewed. Results: FDG-PET/CT appears to be a sensitive method for the detection of cyst infection, but it is not infallible. Furthermore, FDG uptake in cysts and cyst-like lesions is not specific and clinical and radiological correlations are essential to improve specificity and minimize the risk of falsely discarding other diseases, in particular malignancy. Conclusion: FDG-PET/CT seems to be a useful imaging modality to diagnose cyst infections in ADPKD. However, its exact diagnostic value has not been established yet due to the lack of a reliable reference standard in previous studies on this topic.

14.
Transplant Rev (Orlando) ; 32(2): 102-109, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29395726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinicians use several diagnostic modalities to recognize post-transplant complications, such as acute tubular necrosis, acute rejection, urologic and vascular complications. Currently, there is no consensus about the best procedural approach to evaluate post-transplant renal dysfunction. Renal needle-biopsy is often required, however, this is invasive and may lead to sample errors and complications, and most clinicians prefer using one of the noninvasive diagnostic modalities. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (OvidSP), Web of Science, and Google Scholar to identify relevant articles. This review provides a literature overview of the technical aspects, new developments and clinical value of renal scintigraphy (RS), after kidney transplantation. Additionally, the advantages and limitations of RS in comparison to other diagnostic modalities are addressed. The study protocol is registered with PROSPERO, protocol number CRD42017078391. RESULTS: A total of 32 studies were included. Studies were categorized in the following groups: tracer pharmacokinetics; acute rejection and acute tubular necrosis; vascular complications; urological complications; postoperative fluid collections; early transplant outcomes; one-year transplant outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Several studies have described the use of RS for the diagnosis of acute rejection, however, differentiating between rejection and acute tubular necrosis remains difficult. For the diagnosis of vascular complications, RS has been described as an alternative for invasive procedures. For urologic complications, studies support the use of RS in combination with routine ultrasonography (US) surveillance. For the diagnosis of postoperative fluid collections, RS provides information to differentiate lymphoceles and urinomas. Altogether, RS should be considered in case of non-acute complications, and if US provides insufficient results.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cintilografia , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2016: 1734190, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27088083

RESUMO

Technological advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT), including higher spatial and temporal resolution, have made the prospect of performing absolute myocardial perfusion quantification possible, previously only achievable with positron emission tomography (PET). This could facilitate integration of myocardial perfusion biomarkers into the current workup for coronary artery disease (CAD), as MRI and CT systems are more widely available than PET scanners. Cardiac PET scanning remains expensive and is restricted by the requirement of a nearby cyclotron. Clinical evidence is needed to demonstrate that MRI and CT have similar accuracy for myocardial perfusion quantification as PET. However, lack of standardization of acquisition protocols and tracer kinetic model selection complicates comparison between different studies and modalities. The aim of this overview is to provide insight into the different tracer kinetic models for quantitative myocardial perfusion analysis and to address typical implementation issues in MRI and CT. We compare different models based on their theoretical derivations and present the respective consequences for MRI and CT acquisition parameters, highlighting the interplay between tracer kinetic modeling and acquisition settings.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Meios de Contraste , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2015: 914692, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25695092

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: (18)F-FDG-PET visualises inflammation. Both atherosclerosis and giant cell arteritis cause vascular inflammation, but distinguishing the two may be difficult. The goal of this study was to assess interobserver agreement and diagnostic accuracy of (18)F-FDG-PET for the detection of large artery involvement in giant cell arteritis (GCA). METHODS: 31 (18)F-FDG-PET/CT scans were selected from 2 databases. Four observers assessed vascular wall (18)F-FDG uptake, initially without and subsequently with predefined observer criteria (i.e., vascular wall (18)F-FDG uptake compared to liver or femoral artery (18)F-FDG uptake). External validation was performed by two additional observers. Sensitivity and specificity of (18)F-FDG-PET were determined by comparing scan results to a consensus diagnosis. RESULTS: The highest interobserver agreement (kappa: 0.96 in initial study and 0.79 in external validation) was observed when vascular wall (18)F-FDG uptake higher than liver uptake was used as a diagnostic criterion, although agreement was also good without predefined criteria (kappa: 0.68 and 0.85). Sensitivity and specificity were comparable for these methods. The criterion of vascular wall (18)F-FDG uptake equal to liver (18)F-FDG uptake had low specificity. CONCLUSION: Standardization of image assessment for vascular wall (18)F-FDG uptake promotes observer agreement, enables comparative studies, and does not appear to result in loss of diagnostic accuracy compared to nonstandardized assessment.


Assuntos
Artérias/patologia , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Vasculite/diagnóstico , Idoso , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/patologia , Feminino , Arterite de Células Gigantes/diagnóstico , Arterite de Células Gigantes/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Vasculite/patologia
17.
Neth Heart J ; 22(4): 139-47, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24464641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary bronchial artery fistulas (CBFs) are rare anomalies, which may be isolated or associated with other disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two adult patients with CBFs are described and a PubMed search was performed using the keywords "coronary bronchial artery fistulas" in the period from 2008 to 2013. RESULTS: Twenty-seven reviewed subjects resulting in a total of 31 fistulas were collected. Asymptomatic presentation was reported in 5 subjects (19 %), chest pain (n = 17) was frequently present followed by haemoptysis (n = 7) and dyspnoea (n = 5). Concomitant disorders were bronchiectasis (44 %), diabetes (33 %) and hypertension (28 %). Multimodality and single-modality diagnostic strategies were applied in 56 % and 44 %, respectively. The origin of the CBFs was the left circumflex artery in 61 %, the right coronary artery in 36 % and the left anterior descending artery in 3 %. Management was conservative (22 %), surgical ligation (11 %), percutaneous transcatheter embolisation (30 %), awaiting lung transplantation (7 %) or not reported (30 %). CONCLUSIONS: CBFs may remain clinically silent, or present with chest pain or haemoptysis. CBFs are commonly associated with bronchiectasis and usually require a multimodality approach to be diagnosed. Several treatment strategies are available. This report presents two adult cases with CBFs and a review of the literature.

19.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 46(5): 542-8, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24091093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a major cause of death in developed countries. The AAA diameter is still the only validated prognostic measure for rupture, and therapeutic interventions are initiated accordingly. This still leads to unnecessary interventions in some cases or unidentified impending ruptures. Vascular calcification has been validated abundantly as a risk factor in the cardiovascular field and may strengthen the rupture risk assessment of the AAA. With this study we aim to assess the correlation between AAA calcification and rupture risk in a retrospective unmatched case-control population. METHODS: A database of 334 AAA patients was evaluated. Three groups were formed: elective (eAAA; n = 233), ruptured (rAAA; n = 73) and symptomatic non-ruptured (sAAA; n = 28) AAA patients. The Abdominal Aortic Calcification-8 score (AAC-8) was used to measure the severity of vascular calcification. RESULTS: The AAA diameter (61 ± 12 mm vs. 74 ± 21 mm; p < .001) and AAC-8 score (3.4 ± 2 points vs. 4.9 ± 2.3 points; p < .001) of the eAAA and the combined rAAA and sAAA groups, respectively, were significantly different after univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that larger AAA diameter (odds ratio [OR]: 1.048/mm increase; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.042-1.082; p < .001) and a higher AAC-8 score (OR: 1.34/point increase; 95% CI: 1.19-1.53; p < .001) were significantly associated with development into a sAAA or rAAA. Peripheral artery disease was significantly correlated to eventual elective treatment (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: .15-1; p = .049). CONCLUSION: This study suggests a trend of an increased degree of calcification in symptomatic or even ruptured AAA patients compared with elective AAA patients.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/complicações , Ruptura Aórtica/etiologia , Calcificação Vascular/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Ruptura Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Ruptura Aórtica/cirurgia , Aortografia/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Emergências , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares
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