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BMC Med Genet ; 15: 30, 2014 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24602372


BACKGROUND: D-bifunctional protein deficiency, caused by recessive mutations in HSD17B4, is a severe, infantile-onset disorder of peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation. Few affected patients survive past two years of age. Compound heterozygous mutations in HSD17B4 have also been reported in two sisters diagnosed with Perrault syndrome (MIM # 233400), who presented in adolescence with ovarian dysgenesis, hearing loss, and ataxia. CASE PRESENTATION: An adult male presented with cerebellar ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, hearing loss, and azoospermia. The clinical presentation, in combination with biochemical findings in serum, urine, and muscle biopsy, suggested a mitochondrial disorder. Commercial genetic testing of 18 ataxia and mitochondrial disease genes was negative. Targeted exome sequencing followed by analysis of single nucleotide variants and small insertions/deletions failed to reveal a genetic basis of disease. Application of a computational algorithm to infer copy number variants (CNVs) from exome data revealed a heterozygous 12 kb deletion of exons 10-13 of HSD17B4 that was compounded with a rare missense variant (p.A196V) at a highly conserved residue. Retrospective review of patient records revealed mildly elevated ratios of pristanic:phytanic acid and arachidonic:docosahexaenoic acid, consistent with dysfunctional peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation. CONCLUSION: Our case expands the phenotypic spectrum of HSD17B4-deficiency, representing the first male case reported with infertility. Furthermore, it points to crosstalk between mitochondria and peroxisomes in HSD17B4-deficiency and Perrault syndrome.

Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Ataxia/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/diagnóstico , Doenças Mitocondriais/diagnóstico , Proteína Multifuncional do Peroxissomo-2/deficiência , Anormalidades Múltiplas/enzimologia , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adulto , Ataxia/enzimologia , Ataxia/genética , Azoospermia/diagnóstico , Azoospermia/enzimologia , Azoospermia/genética , Sequência de Bases , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Dosagem de Genes , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/enzimologia , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Heterozigoto , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Mitocondriais/enzimologia , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Proteína Multifuncional do Peroxissomo-2/genética , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Deleção de Sequência
Neurology ; 80(19): 1762-70, 2013 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23596069


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of targeted exome sequencing for the molecular diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders, which exhibit marked phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. METHODS: We considered a diverse set of 102 patients with suspected mitochondrial disorders based on clinical, biochemical, and/or molecular findings, and whose disease ranged from mild to severe, with varying age at onset. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) and the exons of 1,598 nuclear-encoded genes implicated in mitochondrial biology, mitochondrial disease, or monogenic disorders with phenotypic overlap. We prioritized variants likely to underlie disease and established molecular diagnoses in accordance with current clinical genetic guidelines. RESULTS: Targeted exome sequencing yielded molecular diagnoses in established disease loci in 22% of cases, including 17 of 18 (94%) with prior molecular diagnoses and 5 of 84 (6%) without. The 5 new diagnoses implicated 2 genes associated with canonical mitochondrial disorders (NDUFV1, POLG2), and 3 genes known to underlie other neurologic disorders (DPYD, KARS, WFS1), underscoring the phenotypic and biochemical overlap with other inborn errors. We prioritized variants in an additional 26 patients, including recessive, X-linked, and mtDNA variants that were enriched 2-fold over background and await further support of pathogenicity. In one case, we modeled patient mutations in yeast to provide evidence that recessive mutations in ATP5A1 can underlie combined respiratory chain deficiency. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that targeted exome sequencing is an effective alternative to the sequential testing of mtDNA and individual nuclear genes as part of the investigation of mitochondrial disease. Our study underscores the ongoing challenge of variant interpretation in the clinical setting.

DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Exoma/genética , Marcação de Genes/métodos , Doenças Mitocondriais/diagnóstico , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Linhagem , Adulto Jovem
BMC Med Genet ; 13: 3, 2012 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22226368


BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial diseases comprise a diverse set of clinical disorders that affect multiple organ systems with varying severity and age of onset. Due to their clinical and genetic heterogeneity, these diseases are difficult to diagnose. We have developed a targeted exome sequencing approach to improve our ability to properly diagnose mitochondrial diseases and apply it here to an individual patient. Our method targets mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the exons of 1,600 nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial biology or Mendelian disorders with multi-system phenotypes, thereby allowing for simultaneous evaluation of multiple disease loci. CASE PRESENTATION: Targeted exome sequencing was performed on a patient initially suspected to have a mitochondrial disorder. The patient presented with diabetes mellitus, diffuse brain atrophy, autonomic neuropathy, optic nerve atrophy, and a severe amnestic syndrome. Further work-up revealed multiple heteroplasmic mtDNA deletions as well as profound thiamine deficiency without a clear nutritional cause. Targeted exome sequencing revealed a homozygous c.1672C > T (p.R558C) missense mutation in exon 8 of WFS1 that has previously been reported in a patient with Wolfram syndrome. CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates how clinical application of next-generation sequencing technology can enhance the diagnosis of patients suspected to have rare genetic disorders. Furthermore, the finding of unexplained thiamine deficiency in a patient with Wolfram syndrome suggests a potential link between WFS1 biology and thiamine metabolism that has implications for the clinical management of Wolfram syndrome patients.

Análise Mutacional de DNA , Exoma , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Doenças Mitocondriais/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Wolfram/diagnóstico , Atrofia , Encéfalo/patologia , DNA Mitocondrial/química , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Éxons , Homozigoto , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Síndrome de Wolfram/genética
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 107(4): 1571-5, 2010 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20080599


Mutations in either the mitochondrial or nuclear genomes can give rise to respiratory chain disease (RCD), a large class of devastating metabolic disorders. Their clinical management is challenging, in part because we lack facile and accurate biomarkers to aid in diagnosis and in the monitoring of disease progression. Here we introduce a sequential strategy that combines biochemical analysis of spent media from cell culture with analysis of patient plasma to identify disease biomarkers. First, we applied global metabolic profiling to spotlight 32 metabolites whose uptake or secretion kinetics were altered by chemical inhibition of the respiratory chain in cultured muscle . These metabolites span a wide range of pathways and include lactate and alanine, which are used clinically as biomarkers of RCD. We next measured the cell culture-defined metabolites in human plasma to discover that creatine is reproducibly elevated in two independent cohorts of RCD patients, exceeding lactate and alanine in magnitude of elevation and statistical significance. In cell culture extracellular creatine was inversely related to the intracellular phosphocreatine:creatine ratio suggesting that the elevation of plasma creatine in RCD patients signals a low energetic state of tissues using the phosphocreatine shuttle. Our study identifies plasma creatine as a potential biomarker of human mitochondrial dysfunction that could be clinically useful. More generally, we illustrate how spent media from cellular models of disease may provide a window into the biochemical derangements in human plasma, an approach that could, in principle, be extended to a range of complex diseases.

Doenças Mitocondriais/sangue , Células Musculares/química , Adulto , Animais , Biomarcadores , Linhagem Celular , Creatina/sangue , Creatina/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura , Transporte de Elétrons , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Musculares/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem