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1.
Mol Autism ; 10: 21, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073396

RESUMO

Background: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a common monogenic cause of intellectual disability with autism features. While it is caused by loss of the FMR1 product (FMRP), mosaicism for active and inactive FMR1 alleles, including alleles termed premutation (PM: 55-199 CGGs), is not uncommon. Importantly, both PM and active full mutation (FM: ≥ 200 CGGs) alleles often express elevated levels of mRNA that are thought to be toxic. This study determined if complete FMR1 mRNA silencing from FM alleles and/or levels of FMR1 mRNA (if present) in blood are associated with intellectual functioning and autism features in FXS. Methods: The study cohort included 98 participants (70.4% male) with FXS (FM-only and PM/FM mosaic) aged 1-43 years. A control group of 14 females were used to establish control FMR1 mRNA reference range. Intellectual functioning and autism features were assessed using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning or an age-appropriate Wechsler Scale and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2nd Edition (ADOS-2), respectively. FMR1 mRNA was analysed in venous blood collected at the time of assessments, using the real-time PCR relative standard curve method. Results: Females with FXS had significantly higher levels of FMR1 mRNA (p < 0.001) than males. FMR1 mRNA levels were positively associated with age (p < 0.001), but not with intellectual functioning and autistic features in females. FM-only males (aged < 19 years) expressing FM FMR1 mRNA had significantly higher ADOS calibrated severity scores compared to FM-only males with completely silenced FMR1 (p = 0.011). However, there were no significant differences between these subgroups on intellectual functioning. In contrast, decreased levels of FMR1 mRNA were associated with decreased intellectual functioning in FXS males (p = 0.029), but not autism features, when combined with the PM/FM mosaic group. Conclusion: Incomplete silencing of toxic FM RNA may be associated with autistic features, but not intellectual functioning in FXS males. While decreased levels of mRNA may be more predictive of intellectual functioning than autism features. If confirmed in future studies, these findings may have implications for patient stratification, outcome measure development, and design of clinical and pre-clinical trials in FXS.

2.
Am J Transplant ; 2018 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312536

RESUMO

Graft-derived cell-free DNA (donor-derived cell-free DNA) is an emerging marker of kidney allograft injury. Studies examining the clinical validity of this biomarker have previously used the graft fraction, or proportion of total cell-free DNA that is graft-derived. The present study evaluated the diagnostic validity of absolute measurements of graft-derived cell-free DNA, as well as calculated graft fraction, for the diagnosis of graft dysfunction. Plasma graft-derived cell-free DNA, total cell-free DNA, and graft fraction were correlated with biopsy diagnosis as well as individual Banff scores. Sixty-one samples were included in the analysis. For the diagnosis of antibody mediated rejection, the receiver-operator characteristic area under the curves of graft-derived cell-free DNA and graft fraction were 0.91 (95% CI 0.82-0.98) and 0.89 (95% CI 0.79-0.98), respectively. Both measures did not diagnose borderline or type 1A cellular mediated rejection. Graft fraction was associated with a broader range of Banff lesions, including lesions associated with cellular mediated rejection, while graft-derived cell-free DNA appeared more specific for antibody mediated rejection. Limitations of this study include a small sample size and lack of a validation cohort. The capacity for absolute quantification, and lower barriers to implementation of this methodology recommend it for further study.

3.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0192151, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29474364

RESUMO

Relationships between Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) mRNA levels in blood and intragenic FMR1 CGG triplet expansions support the pathogenic role of RNA gain of function toxicity in premutation (PM: 55-199 CGGs) related disorders. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) studies reporting these findings normalised FMR1 mRNA level to a single internal control gene called ß-glucuronidase (GUS). This study evaluated FMR1 mRNA-CGG correlations in 33 PM and 33 age- and IQ-matched control females using three normalisation strategies in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs): (i) GUS as a single internal control; (ii) the mean of GUS, Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4A2 (EIF4A2) and succinate dehydrogenase complex flavoprotein subunit A (SDHA); and (iii) the mean of EIF4A2 and SDHA (with no contribution from GUS). GUS mRNA levels normalised to the mean of EIF4A2 and SDHA mRNA levels and EIF4A2/SDHA ratio were also evaluated. FMR1mRNA level normalised to the mean of EIF4A2 and SDHA mRNA levels, with no contribution from GUS, showed the most significant correlation with CGG size and the greatest difference between PM and control groups (p = 10-11). Only 15% of FMR1 mRNA PM results exceeded the maximum control value when normalised to GUS, compared with over 42% when normalised to the mean of EIF4A2 and SDHA mRNA levels. Neither GUS mRNA level normalised to the mean RNA levels of EIF4A2 and SDHA, nor to the EIF4A2/SDHA ratio were correlated with CGG size. However, greater variability in GUS mRNA levels were observed for both PM and control females across the full range of CGG repeat as compared to the EIF4A2/SDHA ratio. In conclusion, normalisation with multiple control genes, excluding GUS, can improve assessment of the biological significance of FMR1 mRNA-CGG size relationships.


Assuntos
Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Glucuronidase/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Fatores de Confusão (Epidemiologia) , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
4.
Clin Chem ; 62(2): 343-52, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26715660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: FMR1 full mutations (FMs) (CGG expansion >200) in males mosaic for a normal (<45 CGG) or gray-zone (GZ) (45-54 CGG) allele can be missed with the standard 2-step fragile X syndrome (FXS) testing protocols, largely because the first-line PCR tests showing a normal or GZ allele are not reflexed to the second-line test that can detect FM. METHODS: We used methylation-specific quantitative melt analysis (MS-QMA) to determine the prevalence of cryptic FM alleles in 2 independent cohorts of male patients (994 from Chile and 2392 from Australia) referred for FXS testing from 2006 to 2013. All MS-QMA-positive cases were retested with commercial triplet primed PCR, methylation-sensitive Southern blot, and a methylation-specific EpiTYPER-based test. RESULTS: All 38 FMs detected with the standard 2-step protocol were detected with MS-QMA. However, MS-QMA identified methylation mosaicism in an additional 15% and 11% of patients in the Chilean and Australian cohorts, respectively, suggesting the presence of a cryptic FM. Of these additional patients, 57% were confirmed to carry cryptic expanded alleles in blood, buccal mucosa, or saliva samples. Further confirmation was provided by identifying premutation (CGG 55-199) alleles in mothers of probands with methylation-sensitive Southern blot. Neurocognitive assessments showed that low-level mosaicism for cryptic FM alleles was associated with cognitive impairment or autism. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial number of mosaic FM males who have cognitive impairment or autism are not diagnosed with the currently recommended 2-step testing protocol and can be identified with MS-QMA as a first-line test.


Assuntos
Alelos , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/genética , Técnicas Genéticas , Adolescente , Adulto , Southern Blotting , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mosaicismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Expert Rev Mol Med ; 17: e13, 2015 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26132880

RESUMO

Methylation of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) exon 1/intron 1 boundary positioned fragile X related epigenetic element 2 (FREE2), reveals skewed X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) in fragile X syndrome full mutation (FM: CGG > 200) females. XCI skewing has been also linked to abnormal X-linked gene expression with the broader clinical impact for sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs). In this study, 10 FREE2 CpG sites were targeted using methylation specific quantitative melt analysis (MS-QMA), including 3 sites that could not be analysed with previously used EpiTYPER system. The method was applied for detection of skewed XCI in FM females and in different types of SCA. We tested venous blood and saliva DNA collected from 107 controls (CGG < 40), and 148 FM and 90 SCA individuals. MS-QMA identified: (i) most SCAs if combined with a Y chromosome test; (ii) locus-specific XCI skewing towards the hypomethylated state in FM females; and (iii) skewed XCI towards the hypermethylated state in SCA with 3 or more X chromosomes, and in 5% of the 47,XXY individuals. MS-QMA output also showed significant correlation with the EpiTYPER reference method in FM males and females (P < 0.0001) and SCAs (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we demonstrate use of MS-QMA to quantify skewed XCI in two applications with diagnostic utility.


Assuntos
Aneuploidia , DNA/genética , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/diagnóstico , Inativação do Cromossomo X , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos X , Ilhas de CpG , DNA/sangue , Metilação de DNA , Éxons , Feminino , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/sangue , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/sangue , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/genética , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/patologia , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Íntrons , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desnaturação de Ácido Nucleico , Saliva/química
6.
J Assoc Genet Technol ; 41(1): 5-11, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26030083

RESUMO

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques are used for the targeted investigation of microduplication, microdeletion and structural rearrangements. More recently FISH techniques using probes specific to the region of interest have been applied to confirm genomic copy number variation (CNV). However, there are limitations in the assessment of FISH signal patterns. Tandem duplication of small CNVs appear as an increased signal size when standard FISH methods are applied. As such, interpretation of signal patterns is subjective and further complicated in the presence of mosaicism. Here we describe a pre-treatment that enhances the demonstration of tandem duplication. We assessed the sensitivity to CNVs of a minimum of 120 kb in size and determined that the lower limit of detection of mosaicism is 10 percent. In contrast to some methods of chromatin extension and elongation, this technique is done using fixed cell preparations from routine cytogenetic harvesting, and can be applied to freshly harvested or stored fixed cell suspensions. This modification to standard FISH preparations has the scope to be used as a screening tool for family and prenatal investigations.

8.
Neurology ; 84(16): 1631-8, 2015 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25809302

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the epigenetic basis of psychiatric symptoms and dysexecutive impairments in FMR1 premutation (PM: 55 to 199 CGG repeats) women. METHODS: A total of 35 FMR1 PM women aged between 22 and 55 years and 35 age- and IQ-matched women controls (CGG <45) participated in this study. All participants completed a range of executive function tests and self-reported symptoms of psychiatric disorders. The molecular measures included DNA methylation of the FMR1 CpG island in blood, presented as FMR1 activation ratio (AR), and 9 CpG sites located at the FMR1 exon1/intron 1 boundary, CGG size, and FMR1 mRNA levels. RESULTS: We show that FMR1 intron 1 methylation levels could be used to dichotomize PM women into greater and lower risk categories (p = 0.006 to 0.037; odds ratio = 14-24.8), with only FMR1 intron 1 methylation, and to a lesser extent AR, being significantly correlated with the likelihood of probable dysexecutive or psychiatric symptoms (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the significant relationships between methylation and social anxiety were found to be mediated by executive function performance, but only in PM women. FMR1 exon 1 methylation, CGG size, and FMR1 mRNA could not predict probable dysexecutive/psychiatric disorders in PM women. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study supporting presence of specific epigenetic etiology associated with increased risk of developing comorbid dysexecutive and social anxiety symptoms in PM women. These findings could have implications for early intervention and risk estimate recommendations aimed at improving the outcomes for PM women and their families.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Fenótipo , Transtornos Fóbicos/genética , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos/genética , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Coortes , Epigênese Genética/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Risco , Adulto Jovem
10.
Clin Chem ; 60(8): 1105-14, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24899692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We describe a novel approach that harnesses the ubiquity of copy number deletion polymorphisms in human genomes to definitively detect and quantify chimeric DNA in clinical samples. Unlike other molecular approaches to chimerism analysis, the copy number deletion (CND) method targets genomic loci (>50 base pairs in length) that are wholly absent from wild-type (i.e., self) background DNA sequences in a sex-independent manner. METHODS: Bespoke quantitative PCR (qPCR) CND assays were developed and validated using a series of DNA standards and chimeric plasma DNA samples collected from 2 allogeneic kidney transplant recipients and 12 pregnant women. Assay performance and informativeness were assessed using appropriate statistical methods. RESULTS: The CND qPCR assays showed high sensitivity, precision, and reliability for linear quantification of DNA chimerism down to 16 genomic equivalents (i.e., 106 pg). Fetal fraction (%) in 12 singleton male pregnancies was calculated using the CND qPCR approach, which showed closer agreement with single-nucleotide polymorphism-based massively parallel sequencing than the SRY (sex determining region Y) (Y chromosome) qPCR assay. The latter consistently underestimated the fetal fraction relative to the other methods. We also were able to measure biological changes in plasma nonself DNA concentrations in 2 renal transplant recipients. CONCLUSIONS: The CND qPCR technique is suitable for measurement of chimerism for monitoring of rejection in allogeneic organ transplantation and quantification of the cell-free fetal DNA fraction in maternal plasma samples used for noninvasive prenatal genetic testing.


Assuntos
Quimera/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Clin Chem ; 60(7): 963-73, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24778142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standard fragile X syndrome (FXS) diagnostic tests that target methylation of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) CpG island 5' of the CGG expansion can be used to predict severity of the disease in males from birth, but not in females. METHODS: We describe methylation specific-quantitative melt analysis (MS-QMA) that targets 10 CpG sites, with 9 within FMR1 intron 1, to screen for FXS from birth in both sexes. The novel method combines the qualitative strengths of high-resolution melt and the high-throughput, quantitative real-time PCR standard curve to provide accurate quantification of DNA methylation in a single assay. Its performance was assessed in 312 control (CGG <40), 143 premutation (PM) (CGG 56-170), 197 full mutation (FM) (CGG 200-2000), and 33 CGG size and methylation mosaic samples. RESULTS: In male and female newborn blood spots, MS-QMA differentiated FM from control alleles, with sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values between 92% and 100%. In venous blood of FM females between 6 and 35 years of age, MS-QMA correlated most strongly with verbal IQ impairment (P = 0.002). In the larger cohort of males and females, MS-QMA correlated with reference methods Southern blot and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (P < 0.05), but was not significantly correlated with age. Unmethylated alleles in high-functioning FM and PM males determined by both reference methods were also unmethylated by MS-QMA. CONCLUSIONS: MS-QMA has an immediate application in FXS diagnostics, with a potential use of its quantitative methylation output for prognosis in both sexes.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Estudos de Coortes , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco , Diagnóstico Precoce , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/sangue , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Íntrons , Masculino , Metilação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
PLoS One ; 9(1): e86993, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24489824

RESUMO

Pregnant women carry a mixture of cell-free DNA fragments from self and fetus (non-self) in their circulation. In recent years multiple independent studies have demonstrated the ability to detect fetal trisomies such as trisomy 21, the cause of Down syndrome, by Next-Generation Sequencing of maternal plasma. The current clinical tests based on this approach show very high sensitivity and specificity, although as yet they have not become the standard diagnostic test. Here we describe improvements to the analysis of the sequencing data by reducing GC bias and better handling of the genomic repeats. We show substantial improvements in the sensitivity of the standard trisomy 21 statistical tests, which we measure by artificially reducing read coverage. We also explore the bias stemming from the natural cleavage of plasma DNA by examining DNA motifs and position specific base distributions. We propose a model to correct this fragmentation bias and observe that incorporating this bias does not lead to any further improvements in the detection of fetal trisomy. The improved bias corrections that we demonstrate in this work can be readily adopted into existing fetal trisomy detection protocols and should also lead to improvements in sub-chromosomal copy number variation detection.


Assuntos
DNA/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/estatística & dados numéricos , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Trissomia/diagnóstico , Adulto , Viés , DNA/sangue , Feminino , Feto , Testes Genéticos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Cariotipagem , Gravidez , Trissomia/genética
13.
Am J Med Genet A ; 164A(1): 77-86, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24352913

RESUMO

A recurrent proximal microdeletion at 15q25.2 with an approximate 1.5 megabase smallest region of overlap has recently been reported in seven patients and is proposed to be associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), mild to moderate cognitive deficit, and/or features consistent with Diamond-Blackfan anemia. We report on four further patients and define the core phenotypic features of individuals with this microdeletion to include mild to moderate developmental delay or intellectual disability, postnatal short stature, anemia, and cryptorchidism in males. CDH and structural organ malformations appear to be less frequent associations, as is venous thrombosis. There is no consistent facial dysmorphism. Features novel to our patient group include dextrocardia, obstructive sleep apnea, and cleft lip.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15 , Fenótipo , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Síndrome
14.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 162B(4): 388-403, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23533028

RESUMO

This study aimed to elucidate the observed variable phenotypic expressivity associated with NRXN1 (Neurexin 1) haploinsufficiency by analyses of the largest cohort of patients with NRXN1 exonic deletions described to date and by comprehensively reviewing all comparable copy number variants in all disease cohorts that have been published in the peer reviewed literature (30 separate papers in all). Assessment of the clinical details in 25 previously undescribed individuals with NRXN1 exonic deletions demonstrated recurrent phenotypic features consisting of moderate to severe intellectual disability (91%), severe language delay (81%), autism spectrum disorder (65%), seizures (43%), and hypotonia (38%). These showed considerable overlap with previously reported NRXN1-deletion associated phenotypes in terms of both spectrum and frequency. However, we did not find evidence for an association between deletions involving the ß-isoform of neurexin-1 and increased head size, as was recently published in four cases with a deletion involving the C-terminus of NRXN1. We identified additional rare copy number variants in 20% of cases. This study supports a pathogenic role for heterozygous exonic deletions of NRXN1 in neurodevelopmental disorders. The additional rare copy number variants identified may act as possible phenotypic modifiers as suggested in a recent digenic model of neurodevelopmental disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Éxons , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Convulsões/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Estudos de Coortes , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Cariotipagem
15.
Hum Mol Genet ; 22(8): 1516-24, 2013 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23307923

RESUMO

Methylation of the fragile X-related epigenetic element 2 (FREE2) located on the exon 1/intron 1 boundary of the FMR1 gene is related to FMRP expression and cognitive impairment in full mutation (FM; CGG>200) individuals. We examined the relationship between age, the size of the FMR1 CGG expansion and the methylation output ratio (MOR) at 12 CpG sites proximal to the exon 1/intron 1 boundary using FREE2 MALDI-TOF MS. The patient cohort included 119 males and 368 females, i.e. 121 healthy controls (CGG<40), 176 premutation (CGG 55-170) and 190 FM (CGG 213-2000). For all CpG units examined, FM males showed a significantly elevated MOR compared with that in hypermethylated FM females. In FM males the MOR for most CpG units significantly positively correlated with both age and CGG size (P< 0.05). In FM females the skewing towards the unmethylated state was significant for half of the units between birth and puberty (P < 0.05). The methylation status of intron 1 CpG10-12 that was most significantly related to cognitive impairment in our earlier study, did not change significantly with age in FM females. These results challenge the concept of fragile X syndrome (FXS)-related methylation being static over time, and suggest that due to the preference for the unmethylated state in FM females, X-inactivation at this locus is not random. The findings also highlight that the prognostic value of FXS methylation testing is not uniform between all CpG sites, and thus may need to be evaluated on a site-by-site basis.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética/genética , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Inativação do Cromossomo X/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Éxons , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Metilação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
16.
Prenat Diagn ; 33(1): 32-41, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23168908

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Karyotyping is a well-established method of investigating the genetic content of product of conceptions (POCs). Because of the high rate of culture failure and maternal cell contamination, failed results or 46,XX findings are often obtained. Different molecular approaches that are not culture dependent have been proposed to circumvent these limits. On the basis of the robust experience previously obtained with bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs)-on-Beads™ (BoBs™), we evaluated the same technology that we had used for the analysis of prenatal samples on POCs. METHOD: KaryoLite™ BoBs™ includes 91 beads, each of which is conjugated with a composite of multiple neighboring BACs according to the hg19 assembly. It quantifies proximal and terminal regions of each chromosome arm. The study included 376 samples. RESULTS: The failure rate was 2%, and reproducibility >99%; false-positive and false-negative rates were <1% for non-mosaic aneuploidies and imbalances effecting all three BACs in a contig. Detection rate for partial terminal imbalances was 65.5%. The mosaic detection threshold was 50%, and the success rate in macerated samples was 87.8%. The aneuploidy detection rate in samples with cell growth failure was 27.8%, and maternal cell contamination was suspected in 23.1% of 46,XX cultured cells. CONCLUSION: KaryoLite™ BoBs™ as a 'first-tier' test in combination with other approaches showed beneficial, cost-effective and clearly enhanced POC testing.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/genética , Aberrações Cromossômicas/embriologia , Algoritmos , Aneuploidia , Cromossomos Artificiais Bacterianos , Análise Citogenética , Feminino , Feto/química , Humanos , Cariotipagem , Microesferas , Placenta/química , Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Genet Med ; 15(4): 290-8, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23060046

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We show that a novel fragile X-related epigenetic element 2 FMR1 methylation test can be used along with a test for sex-determining region Y (SRY) to provide the option of combined fragile X syndrome and sex chromosome aneuploidy newborn screening. METHODS: Fragile X-related epigenetic element 2, SRY, and FMR1 CGG repeat analyses were performed on blood and saliva DNA, and in adult and newborn blood spots. The cohort consisted of 159 controls (CGG <40), 187 premutation (CGG 56-170), and 242 full-mutation (CGG ~200-2,000) males and females, 106 sex chromosome aneuploidy individuals, and 151 cytogenetically normal controls. RESULTS: At the 0.435 threshold, fragile X-related epigenetic element 2 analysis in males was robust on both blood DNA and newborn blood spots, with specificity and sensitivity of ~100% for full-mutation genotype. In females, the specificity was 99%, whereas half of full-mutation females were above the 0.435 threshold in both blood DNA and newborn blood spots. Furthermore, at this threshold, the test could not differentiate individuals with Klinefelter syndrome from female controls without using the SRY marker. When combined with SRY analysis, the test was consistent with most results for sex chromosome aneuploidies from karyotyping. CONCLUSION: Setting specific thresholds for fragile X-related epigenetic element 2 analysis and including the SRY marker provides the option to either include or exclude detection of sex chromosome aneuploidies as part of fragile X syndrome newborn screening.


Assuntos
Aneuploidia , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/genética , Íntrons , Aberrações dos Cromossomos Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Linhagem Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Dosagem de Genes , Genes sry , Testes Genéticos/economia , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Triagem Neonatal/economia , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos/genética , Adulto Jovem
18.
Clin Chem ; 58(3): 590-8, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22235103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive status in females with mutations in the FMR1 (fragile X mental retardation 1) gene is highly variable. A biomarker would be of value for predicting which individuals were liable to develop cognitive impairment and could benefit from early intervention. A detailed analysis of CpG sites bridging exon 1 and intron 1 of FMR1, known as fragile X-related epigenetic element 2 (FREE2), suggests that a simple blood test could identify these individuals. METHODS: Study participants included 74 control females (<40 CGG repeats), 62 premutation (PM) females (55-200 CGG repeats), and 18 full-mutation (FM) females assessed with Wechsler intelligence quotient (IQ) tests. We used MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to determine the methylation status of FREE2 CpG sites that best identified low-functioning (IQ <70) FM females (>200 CGG repeats), compared the results with those for Southern blot FMR1 activation ratios, and related these assessments to the level of production of the FMR1 protein product in blood. RESULTS: A methylation analysis of intron 1 CpG sites 10-12 showed the highest diagnostic sensitivity (100%) and specificity (98%) of all the molecular measures tested for detecting females with a standardized verbal IQ of <70 among the study participants. In the group consisting of only FM females, methylation of these sites was significantly correlated with full-scale IQ, verbal IQ, and performance IQ. Several verbal subtest scores showed strong correlation with the methylation of these sites (P = 1.2 × 10(-5)) after adjustment for multiple measures. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that hypermethylation of the FMR1 intron 1 sites in blood is predictive of cognitive impairment in FM females, with implications for improved fragile X syndrome diagnostics in young children and screening of the newborn population.


Assuntos
Alelos , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/genética , Metilação de DNA , DNA/sangue , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Íntrons , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Transtornos Cognitivos/sangue , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Testes de Inteligência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
19.
Hum Mutat ; 32(12): 1500-6, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21850686

RESUMO

Microarray analysis has provided significant advances in the diagnosis of conditions resulting from submicroscopic chromosome abnormalities. It has been recommended that array testing should be a "first tier" test in the evaluation of individuals with intellectual disability, developmental delay, congenital anomalies, and autism. The availability of arrays with increasingly high probe coverage and resolution has increased the detection of decreasingly small copy number changes (CNCs) down to the intragenic or even exon level. Importantly, arrays that genotype SNPs also detect extended regions of homozygosity. We describe 14 examples of single gene disorders caused by intragenic changes from a consecutive set of 6,500 tests using high-resolution SNP microarrays. These cases illustrate the increased scope of cytogenetic testing beyond dominant chromosome rearrangements that typically contain many genes. Nine of the cases confirmed the clinical diagnosis, that is, followed a "phenotype to genotype" approach. Five were diagnosed by the laboratory analysis in the absence of a specific clinical diagnosis, that is, followed a "genotype to phenotype" approach. Two were clinically significant, incidental findings. The importance of astute clinical assessment and laboratory-clinician consultation is emphasized to optimize the value of microarrays in the diagnosis of disorders caused by single gene copy number and sequence mutations.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Congênitas/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Feminino , Dosagem de Genes/genética , Genes Dominantes , Genes Recessivos , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino , Gravidez
20.
J Mol Diagn ; 13(5): 528-36, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21723415

RESUMO

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by loss of the fragile X mental retardation gene protein product (FMRP) through promoter hypermethylation, which is usually associated with CGG expansion to full mutation size (>200 CGG repeats). Methylation-sensitive Southern blotting is the current gold standard for the molecular diagnosis of FXS. For females, Southern blotting provides the activation ratio (AR), which is the proportion of unmethylated alleles on the active X chromosome. Herein, we examine the relationship of FMRP expression with methylation patterns of two fragile X-related epigenetic elements (FREE) analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and the AR. We showed that the differential methylation of the FREE2 sequence within fragile X mental retardation gene intron 1 was related to depletion of FMRP expression. We also show that, using the combined cohort of 12 females with premutation (55 to 200 CGG repeats) and 22 females with full mutation alleles, FREE2 methylation analysis was superior to the AR as a predictor of the proportion of FMRP-positive cells in blood. Because matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry is amenable to high-throughput processing and requires minimal DNA, these findings have implications for routine FXS testing and population screening.


Assuntos
Alelos , Metilação de DNA/genética , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/sangue , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Heterozigoto , Íntrons/genética , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Southern Blotting , Criança , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
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