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1.
Chest ; 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the incidental pulmonary nodule and breast cancer screening settings, high-quality patient-centered communication can improve adherence to evaluation and mitigate patient distress. While guidelines emphasize shared decision-making prior to lung cancer screening, little is known about patient-clinician communication following lung cancer screening. RESEARCH QUESTION: How do patients and clinicians perceive communication and results notification following lung cancer screening, and are there approaches that may mitigate or exacerbate distress? STUDY DESIGN: and Methods: We conducted interviews and focus groups with 49 patients who underwent lung cancer screening in the prior year and 36 clinicians who communicate screening results (primary care providers, pulmonologists, nurses), recruited from lung cancer screening programs at 4 hospitals. We analyzed transcripts using conventional content analysis. RESULTS: Clinicians and patients diverged in their impressions of the quality of communication following lung cancer screening. Clinicians recognized the potential for patient distress and tailored their approach to disclosure based on how clinically concerning they perceived results to be. Disclosure of normal or low-risk findings usually occurred by letter; clinicians believed this process was efficient and well-received by patients. Yet many patients were dissatisfied: several could not recall receiving results at all, while others reported that receiving results by letter left them confused and concerned, with little opportunity to ask questions. By contrast patients with larger nodules typically received results during an immediate phone call or clinic visit, and both patients and clinicians agreed these conversations represented high-quality communication that met patient needs. Regardless of their cancer risk, patients who learned their results in a conversation appreciated the opportunity to discuss the meaning of the nodule, the evaluation plan, and to have their concerns addressed, preempting distress. INTERPRETATION: There appears to be a tension between clinicians' interest in efficiency of results notification by letter in low-risk cases, and patients' need to understand and be reassured about screening results, their implications, and the plan for subsequent screening or nodule evaluation-even when clinicians did not perceive results as concerning. Brief conversations to discuss lung cancer screening results may improve patient understanding and satisfaction while reducing distress.

2.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433897

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Due to improvements in screening, there is an increasing number of patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer who are making treatment decisions. OBJECTIVES: Among patients with suspected stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we evaluated longitudinal patient-centered outcomes (PCOs) and the association of changes in PCOs with treatment modality, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) compared to surgical resection. METHODS: We conducted a multi-site, prospective, observational cohort study at seven medical institutions. We evaluated minimum clinically important differences (MCID) of PCOs at four time points (during treatment, 4-6 weeks post-treatment, 6-months post-treatment, and 12-months post-treatment) compared to pre-treatment values using validated instruments. We used adjusted linear mixed models to examine whether the association between treatment and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer global and physical quality of life (QOL) scales differed over time. RESULTS: We included 127 individuals with stage I NSCLC (53 surgery, 74 SBRT). At 12-months, approximately 30% of patients remaining in each group demonstrated a clinical deterioration on global QOL from baseline. There was a significant difference in slopes between treatment groups on global QOL (-12.86, 95% CI = -13.34, -12.37) and physical QOL (-28.71, 95% CI = -29.13, -28.29) between baseline and during treatment, with the steeper decline observed among those who underwent surgery. Differences in slopes between treatment groups were not significant at all other time points. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 30% of patients with stage I NSCLC have a clinically significant decrease in QOL one year after SBRT or surgical resection. Surgical resection was associated with steeper declines in QOL immediately after treatment compared to SBRT, however, these declines were not lasting and resolved within a year for most patients. Our results may facilitate treatment option discussions for patients receiving treatment for early stage NSCLC.

3.
Chest ; 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer screening (LCS) is now recommended for people at high risk of dying from lung cancer. The purpose of this study is to use the LCS decision discussion as a case study to understand possible underlying components of a teachable moment to enhance motivation for smoking cessation. METHODS: We investigated how patients and clinicians communicate about smoking by performing in-depth, semi-structured interviews of the experiences of 51 individuals who formerly or currently smoked offered LCS, and 24 clinicians. We discuss the baseline interviews only since including the follow-up interviews would be beyond the scope of this manuscript. Interviews focused on communication about smoking, the perceived importance of discussing smoking and screening together, and patients' perceived challenges to smoking cessation. RESULTS: Patients and clinicians differed in their views on the role of the LCS decision discussion as a teachable moment. While clinicians felt that this discussion was a good opportunity to positively influence smoking behaviors, neither patients nor clinicians perceived the discussion as a teachable moment impacting smoking behaviors. We found there are other motivating factors for smoking cessation. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that LCS decision discussions are not a teachable moment for behavior change in smoking cessation now, but perhaps clinicians could address other aspects of communication to enhance motivation for cessation. Our hypothesized teachable moment model helps explain there may not be sufficient emotional response elicited during the discussion to motivate a major behavior change like smoking cessation.

4.
Chest ; 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Admission to high-acuity ICUs has been associated with improved outcomes compared with outcomes in low-acuity ICUs, although the mechanism for these findings is unclear. RESEARCH QUESTION: The goal of this study was to determine if high-acuity ICUs more effectively implement evidence-based processes of care that have been associated with improved clinical outcomes. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was performed in adult ICU patients admitted to 322 ICUs in 199 hospitals in the Philips ICU telemedicine database between 2010 and 2015. The primary exposure was ICU acuity, defined as the mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IVa score of all admitted patients in a calendar year, stratified into quartiles. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine relations of ICU acuity with adherence to evidence-based VTE and stress ulcer prophylaxis, and with the avoidance of potentially harmful events. These events included hypoglycemia, sustained hyperglycemia, and liberal transfusion practices (defined as RBC transfusions prescribed for nonbleeding patients with preceding hemoglobin levels ≥ 7 g/dL). RESULTS: Among 1,058,510 ICU admissions, adherence to VTE and stress ulcer prophylaxis was high across acuity levels. In adjusted analyses, those admitted to low-acuity ICUs compared with the highest acuity ICUs were more likely to experience hypoglycemic events (adjusted OR [aOR], 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04-1.20), sustained hyperglycemia (aOR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04-1.10), and liberal transfusion practices (aOR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.33-1.82). INTERPRETATION: High-acuity ICUs were associated with better adherence to several evidence-based practices, which may be a marker of high-quality care. Future research should investigate how high-acuity ICUs approach ICU organization to identify targets for improving the quality of critical care across all ICU acuity levels.

5.
Chest ; 2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer screening (LCS) using low-dose CT imaging is recommended for people at high risk of dying of lung cancer. Communication strategies for clinicians have been recommended, but their influence on patient-centered outcomes is unclear. RESEARCH QUESTION: How do patients experience communication and decision-making with clinicians when offered LCS? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed semistructured interviews with 51 patients from three institutions with established LCS programs. We focused on communication domains such as information exchange, patient as person, and shared decision-making. Using conventional content analysis, we report on patients' assessment of information, reasons for (dis)satisfaction, distress, and role in the decision-making process. RESULTS: Participants recalled few specific harms or benefits of screening, but uniformly reported satisfaction with the amount of information provided. All participants reported that clinicians did not explicitly ask about their values and preferences and about one-half reported some distress in anticipation of screening results. Almost all participants were satisfied with their role in the decision-making process. Despite participants' reporting that they did not experience all aspect of shared decision-making as defined, they reported high levels of trust in clinicians, which may relate to their largely positive reactions to the LCS decision interaction through the patient as person domain of communication. INTERPRETATION: Although decision-making for lung cancer screening as currently practiced may not meet all criteria of high-quality communication, patients in our sample are satisfied with the process, and report high trust in clinicians. Patients may place greater importance on interpersonal aspects of communication rather than information exchange.

6.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(7): 840-847, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968182

RESUMO

Rationale: Gender gaps exist in academic leadership positions in critical care. Peer-reviewed publications are crucial to career advancement, and yet little is known regarding gender differences in authorship of critical care research.Objectives: To evaluate gender differences in authorship of critical care literature.Methods: We used a validated database of author gender to analyze authorship of critical care articles indexed in PubMed between 2008 and 2018 in 40 frequently cited journals. High-impact journals were defined as those in the top 5% of all journals. We used mixed-effects logistic regression to evaluate the association of senior author gender with first and middle author gender, as well as association of first author gender with journal impact factor.Measurements and Main Results: Among 18,483 studies, 30.8% had female first authors, and 19.5% had female senior authors. Female authorship rose slightly over the last decade (average annual increases of 0.44% [P < 0.01] and 0.51% [P < 0.01] for female first and senior authors, respectively). When the senior author was female, the odds of female coauthorship rose substantially (first author adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.71-2.17; middle author aOR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.29-1.69). Female first authors had higher odds than men of publishing in lower-impact journals (aOR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.16-1.45).Conclusions: Women comprise less than one-third of first authors and one-fourth of senior authors of critical care research, with minimal increase over the past decade. When the senior author was female, the odds of female coauthorship rose substantially. However, female first authors tend to publish in lower-impact journals. These findings may help explain the underrepresentation of women in critical care academic leadership positions and identify targets for improvement.

8.
Ann Emerg Med ; 75(2): 171-180, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248675

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) forms are intended to help prevent the provision of unwanted medical interventions among patients with advanced illness or frailty who are approaching the end of life. We seek to evaluate how POLST form completion, treatment limitations, or both influence intensity of treatment among patients who present to the emergency department (ED). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of adults who presented to the ED at an academic medical center in Oregon between April 2015 and October 2016. POLST form completion and treatment limitations were the main exposures. Primary outcome was hospital admission; secondary outcomes included ICU admission and a composite measure of aggressive treatment. RESULTS: A total of 26,128 patients were included; 1,769 (6.8%) had completed POLST forms. Among patients with POLST, 52.1% had full treatment orders, and 6.4% had their forms accessed before admission. POLST form completion was not associated with hospital admission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84 to 1.12), ICU admission (aOR=0.82; 95% CI 0.55 to 1.22), or aggressive treatment (aOR=1.06; 95% CI 0.75 to 1.51). Compared with POLST forms with full treatment orders, those with treatment limitations were not associated with hospital admission (aOR=1.12; 95% CI 0.92 to 1.37) or aggressive treatment (aOR=0.87; 95% CI 0.5 to 1.52), but were associated with lower odds of ICU admission (aOR=0.31; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.61). CONCLUSION: Among patients presenting to the ED with POLST, the majority of POLST forms had orders for full treatment and were not accessed by emergency providers. These findings may partially explain why we found no association of POLST with treatment intensity. However, treatment limitations on POLST forms were associated with reduced odds of ICU admission. Implementation and accessibility of POLST forms are crucial when considering their effect on the provision of treatment consistent with patients' preferences.

9.
J Gen Intern Med ; 35(2): 546-553, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shared decision-making (SDM) is widely recommended and required by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid for patients considering lung cancer screening (LCS). OBJECTIVE: We examined clinicians' communication practices and perceived barriers of SDM for LCS at three medical centers with established screening programs. DESIGN: Multicenter qualitative study of clinicians participating in LCS. APPROACH: We performed semi-structured interviews, which were transcribed and analyzed using directed content analysis, guided by a theoretical model of patient-clinician communication. PARTICIPANTS: We interviewed 24 clinicians including LCS coordinators (2), pulmonologists (3), and primary care providers (17), 4 of whom worked for the LCS program, a thoracic surgeon, and a radiologist. RESULTS: All clinicians agreed with the goal of SDM, to ensure the screening decision was congruent with the patient's values. The depth and type of information presented by each clinician role varied considerably. LCS coordinators presented detailed information including numeric estimates of benefit and harm. Most PCPs explained the process more generally, focusing on logistics and the high rate of nodule detection. No clinician explicitly elicited values or communication preferences. Many PCPs tailored the conversation based on their implicit understanding of patients' values and preferences, gained from past experiences. PCPs reported that time, lack of detailed personal knowledge of LCS, and patient preferences were barriers to SDM. Many clinicians perceived that a significant proportion of patients were not interested in specific percentages and preferred to receive a clinician recommendation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that clinicians support the goal of SDM for LCS decisions but PCPs may not perform some of its elements. The lack of completion of some elements, such as PCPs' lack of in-depth information exchange, may reflect perceived patient preferences for communication. As LCS is implemented, further research is needed to support a personalized, patient-centered approach to produce better outcomes.

10.
Health Informatics J ; : 1460458219882259, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697173

RESUMO

We compared smoking status from Veterans Health Administration (VHA) structured data with text in electronic health record (EHR) to assess validity. We manually abstracted the smoking status of 5,610 VHA patients. Only those with a smoking status found in both EHR text data and VHA structured data were included (n=5,289). We calculated agreement and kappa statistics to compare structured data vs. manually abstracted EHR text smoking status. We found a kappa statistic of 0.70 and total agreement of 81.1% between EHR text data and structured data for Current, Former, and Never smoking categories. Comparing EHR text data and structured data between Never and Ever smokers revealed a kappa statistic of 0.62 and total agreement of 89.1%. For comparison between Current and Never/Former smokers, the kappa statistic was 0.80 and total agreement was 90.2%. We found substantial and significant agreement between smoking status in EHR text data and structured data that may aid in future research.

11.
JAMA Oncol ; 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536133

RESUMO

Importance: Palliative care is a patient-centered approach associated with improvements in quality of life; however, results regarding its association with a survival benefit have been mixed, which may be a factor in its underuse. Objective: To assess whether early palliative care is associated with a survival benefit among patients with advanced lung cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted among patients with lung cancer who were diagnosed with cancer between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2013, with follow-up until January 23, 2017. Participants comprised 23 154 patients with advanced lung cancer (stage IIIB and stage IV) who received care in the Veterans Affairs health care system. Data were analyzed from February 15, 2019, to April 28, 2019. Exposure: Palliative care defined as a specialist-delivered palliative care encounter received after lung cancer diagnosis. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was survival. The association between palliative care and place of death was also examined. Propensity score and time-varying covariate methods were used to calculate Cox proportional hazards and to perform regression modeling. Results: Of the 23 154 patients enrolled in the study, 57% received palliative care. The mean (SD) age of participants was 68 (9.5) years, and 98% of participants were men. An examination of the timing of palliative care receipt relative to cancer diagnosis found that palliative care received 0 to 30 days after diagnosis was associated with decreases in survival (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.13; 95% CI, 1.97-2.30), palliative care received 31 to 365 days after diagnosis was associated with increases in survival (aHR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.45-0.49), and palliative care received more than 365 days after diagnosis was associated with no difference in survival (aHR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.94-1.07) compared with nonreceipt of palliative care. Receipt of palliative care was also associated with a reduced risk of death in an acute care setting (adjusted odds ratio, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.52-0.64) compared with nonreceipt of palliative care. Conclusions and Relevance: The results suggest that palliative care was associated with a survival benefit among patients with advanced lung cancer. Palliative care should be considered a complementary approach to disease-modifying therapy in patients with advanced lung cancer.

14.
Chest ; 156(1): 19-20, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279373
15.
Lung Cancer ; 131: 47-57, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027697

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: With advances in treatments among patients with lung cancer, it is increasingly important to understand patients' values and preferences to facilitate shared decision making. METHODS: Prospective, multicenter study of patients with treated stage I lung cancer. At the time of study participation, participants were 4-6 months posttreatment. Value clarification and discrete choice methods were used to elicit participants' values and treatment preferences regarding stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and surgical resection using only treatment attributes. RESULTS: Among 114 participants, mean age was 70 years (Standard Deviation = 7.9), 65% were male, 68 (60%) received SBRT and 46 (40%) received surgery. More participants valued independence and quality of life (QOL) as "most important" compared to survival or cancer recurrence. Most participants (83%) were willing to accept lung cancer treatment with a 2% chance of periprocedural death for only one additional year of life. Participants also valued independence more than additional years of life as most (86%) were unwilling to accept either permanent placement in a nursing home or being limited to a bed/chair for four additional years of life. Surprisingly, treatment discordance was common as 49% of participants preferred the alternative lung cancer treatment than what they received. CONCLUSIONS: Among participants with early stage lung cancer, maintaining independence and QOL were more highly valued than survival or cancer recurrence. Participants were willing to accept high periprocedural mortality, but not severe deficits affecting QOL when considering treatment. Treatment discordance was common among participants who received SBRT or surgery. Understanding patients' values and preferences regarding treatment decisions is essential to foster shared decision making and ensure treatment plans are consistent with patients' goals. Clinicians need more resources to engage in high quality communication during lung cancer treatment discussions.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/epidemiologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Preferência do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonectomia , Radiocirurgia , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Participação do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida
16.
Tob Use Insights ; 12: 1179173X19839059, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31019369

RESUMO

Introduction: Incidental pulmonary nodules (IPNs) are commonly found on routine chest imaging. Little is known about smoking behaviors among patients with IPNs or characteristics of patient-clinician communication that may contribute to these behaviors. We assessed the association of patient characteristics and communication quality with smoking behaviors and stage of change for tobacco cessation among patients with IPNs. Materials and methods: Prospective, repeated-measures, cohort study of current smokers and past-year quitters with IPNs treated within the Veterans Affairs Portland Health Care System. Eligible patients had newly reported, incidental nodules <3 cm planned for non-urgent computed tomography (CT) follow-up. Our primary outcomes were changes in amount smoked and stage of change for tobacco cessation throughout the follow-up period. We used multivariable-adjusted generalized estimating equations for analyses. Results: We identified 37 current smokers and 9 recent quitters. By the final visit, 8 of 36 (22%) baseline smokers had quit and 2 of 7 (29%) recent quitters had resumed smoking. Of 40 respondents, 23 (58%) reported receiving any tobacco treatment (recommendation to quit, medication, and/or behavioral treatment) at least once during follow-up. We found no significant associations of high-quality communication, patient distress, self-perceived risk of lung cancer, and self-reported clinician-recommended smoking cessation interventions with decrease in amount smoked or positive stage of change. Conclusions: Many smokers and recent quitters with IPNs quit during follow-up, though nearly half reported no quit support. We found no association between communication quality or quit support and decreased smoking. The intensity of tobacco treatment offered may have been insufficient to affect behavior.

17.
Prev Med ; 121: 24-32, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753860

RESUMO

Providing smoking cessation treatment with annual low dose CT (LDCT) screening offers an opportunity to reduce smoking-related morbidity and mortality. However, the optimal approach for delivering cessation interventions in the LDCT screening context is unknown. We searched for randomized controlled trials and observational studies with a control group testing a smoking cessation intervention among adults undergoing LDCT screening through May 1, 2018 using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Two reviewers independently reviewed each study to assess eligibility and extracted information using pre-specified protocols for included studies. Given significant differences in the interventions in each study, meta-analyses for the included studies could not be performed. Of 2513 identified studies, 9 met inclusion criteria. Five of the included studies were randomized controlled trials while 4 were observational studies with a control group. Studies were of varying quality, but overall were of poor to fair quality with significant potential for bias and limited generalizability. Based on the available studies, there was insufficient data to suggest a particular approach to smoking cessation counseling in the LDCT screening setting. While no studies compared combined pharmacotherapy and counseling to counseling alone or compared the various pharmacologic agents, we identified several studies underway investigating new approaches during LDCT screening. The optimal strategy for smoking cessation in patients undergoing LDCT screening remains unclear. Future studies should focus on evaluating effectiveness and implementation of combined counseling and pharmacotherapy to optimize smoking cessation during LDCT screening.

18.
Am J Hosp Palliat Care ; 36(7): 564-570, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700127

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Oregon Physicians Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) Program allows patients with advanced illness to document end-of-life (EOL) care preferences. We examined the characteristics and associated EOL care among Veterans with and without a registered POLST. METHODS: Retrospective, cohort study of advanced-stage (IIIB and IV) patients with lung cancer who were diagnosed between 2008 and 2013 as recorded in the VA Central Cancer Registry. We examined a subgroup of 346 Oregon residents. We obtained clinical and sociodemographic variables from the VA Corporate Data Warehouse and EOL preferences from the Oregon POLST Registry. We compared hospice enrollment and place of death between those with and without a registered POLST. RESULTS: Twenty-two (n = 77) percent of our cohort had registered POLST forms. Compared to those without a registered POLST, Veterans with a POLST had a higher income ($51 456 vs $48 882) and longer time between diagnosis and death (223 days vs 119 days). Those with a registered POLST were more likely to be enrolled in hospice (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.37, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-5.54) and less likely to die in a VA facility (aOR = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.12-0.59). CONCLUSION: There was low submission to the POLST Registry among Veterans who received care in Veterans' Health Administration. Veterans who had a registered POLST were more likely to be enrolled in hospice and less likely to die in a VA care setting. The POLST may improve metrics of high-quality EOL care; however, opportunities for improvement in submission and implementation within the VA exist.


Assuntos
Planejamento Antecipado de Cuidados/organização & administração , Neoplasias Pulmonares/psicologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Assistência Terminal/psicologia , Veteranos/psicologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oregon , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(2): 176-183, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336324

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with advanced lung cancer have a poor prognosis, but both chemotherapy and early palliative care (EPC) have been shown to improve survival and quality of life (QOL). The relationship between palliative care and receipt of chemotherapy receipt is understudied. We sought to determine if EPC is associated with chemotherapy receipt and intensity among patients with advanced stage lung cancer. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of patients in the national Veterans Health Administration (VA) with stage IIIB or IV lung cancer diagnosed between January 2007- December 2013. EPC was defined as a specialist-delivered palliative care received within 90 days of cancer diagnosis. Outcomes included any chemotherapy receipt and high-intensity chemotherapy receipt defined as: i) more than 4 cycles of a platinum-based doublet, ii) ≥3 lines of chemotherapy, iii) Bevacizumab/Cetuximab triplet therapy, iv) Erlotinib use prior to 2011, and v) chemotherapy in the last days of life. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between EPC and chemotherapy receipt after adjustment for patient and tumor characteristics. RESULTS: Among the entire cohort (N=23,566), 37% received EPC and 45% received any chemotherapy. Among those with EPC, 34% received chemotherapy compared to 51% among those without EPC (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR=0.55, 95% CI: 0.51-0.58). Patients who received EPC had reduced receipt of high-intensity chemotherapy including >4 cycles of platinum-based doublet (AOR=0.68, 95% CI: 0.60-0.77), ≥ 3 lines of chemotherapy (AOR=0.61, 95% CI: 0.53-0.71), triplet therapy (AOR=0.68, 95% CI: 0.56-0.82) and use of erlotinib prior to 2011 (AOR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.55-0.79). Patients with EPC were more likely to receive chemotherapy in the last 14 (AOR=1.65, 95% CI: 1.44-1.87) and 30 days (AOR=1.67, 95% CI: 1.51-1.85) of life compared to those without EPC. CONCLUSIONS: EPC was associated with reduced receipt of both any chemotherapy and high-intensity chemotherapy. However, receipt of chemotherapy at the very end-of-life was increased among patients with EPC compared to those without EPC. Among patients with advanced lung cancer, EPC may optimize patient selection for chemotherapy receipt leading to reduced use of high-intensity therapy by focusing on quality of life in accordance with patients' performance, preferences and goals of care.

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