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1.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(8): 776-785, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512162

RESUMO

Mutations in the coiled-coil and DNA-binding domains of STAT1 lead to delayed STAT1 dephosphorylation and subsequently gain-of-function. The associated clinical phenotype is broad and can include chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) and/or combined immunodeficiency (CID). We report a case of CMC/CID in a 10-year-old boy due to a novel mutation in the small ubiquitin molecule (SUMO) consensus site at the C-terminal region of STAT1 leading to gain-of-function by impaired sumoylation. Immunodysregulatory features of disease improved after Janus kinase inhibitor (jakinib) treatment. Functional testing after treatment confirmed reversal of the STAT1 hyper-phosphorylation and downstream transcriptional activity. IL-17 and IL-22 production was, however, not restored with jakinib therapy (ruxolitinib), and the patient remained susceptible to opportunistic infection. In conclusion, a mutation in the SUMO consensus site of STAT1 can lead to gain-of-function that is reversible with jakinib treatment. However, full immunocompetence was not restored, suggesting that this treatment strategy might serve well as a bridge to definitive therapy such as hematopoietic stem cell transplant rather than a long-term treatment option.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biallelic variations in the DOCK8 gene cause a combined immunodeficiency with eczema, recurrent bacterial and viral infections, and malignancy. Natural disease outcome is dismal, but allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can cure the disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine outcome of HSCT for DOCK8 deficiency and define possible outcome variables. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of the results of HSCT in a large international cohort of DOCK8 deficient patients. RESULTS: We identified 81 patients from 22 centers transplanted at a median age of 9.7 years (range: 0.7-27.2) between 1995 and 2015. After median follow-up of 26 months (3-135), 68 of 81 patients are alive (84%). Severe acute (III-IV) or chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) occurred in 11% and 10% respectively. Causes of death wereinfections (n=5), GVHD (5), multi-organ failure (2) and pre-existent lymphoma (1). Survival after matched related (n=40) or unrelated (35) HSCT was 89% and 81%, respectively. Reduced toxicity conditioning based on either treosulfan or reduced-dose busulfan resulted in superior survival compared to fully myeloablative busulfan-based regimens (97% vs. 78%; p=0.049). 96% of patients aged <8 years at HSCT survived, compared to 78% of those ≥8 years (p=0.06). Of 73 patients with chimerism data available, 65 (89%) had >90% donor T-cell chimerism at last follow-up. Not all disease manifestations responded equally well to HSCT: eczema, infections and Mollusca resolved better than food allergies or failure to thrive. CONCLUSION: HSCT is curative in most DOCK8 deficient patients, confirming this approach as the treatment of choice. HSCT using a reduced toxicity regimen may offer the best chance for survival.

5.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(6): 727-732, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30105620

RESUMO

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), but data on long-term impact of pre-HSCT chemotherapy, immune reconstitution and quality of life (QoL) of specific SCID genotypes are limited. We evaluated the long-term immune-reconstitution, health outcome and QoL in IL7Rα SCID, Artemis and RAG1 and 2 SCID survivors > 2 years post-HSCT in our center. Clinical data and immune reconstitution parameters were collated, and patients/families answered PedsQL generic core scale v4.0 questionnaires. Thirty-nine patients with a diagnosis of IL7Rα SCID (17 patients), Artemis SCID (8 patients) and RAG1/2 SCID (13 patients) had undergone HSCT with median age at last follow up for IL7Rα SCID, 14 years (range 4-27) and Artemis and RAG1/2 SCID, 10 years (range 2-18). Many patients have ongoing medical issues at latest follow-up [IL7Rα (73%), Artemis (85%), RAG1/2 (55%)]. Artemis SCID patients experienced more sequela than RAG1/2 SCID. Conditioned recipients with Artemis and RAG SCID had more CD4+ naïve lymphocytes compared to unconditioned recipients. All patients except those of IL7Rα SCID reported lower QoL; further subset group analysis showed parents and Artemis and RAG1/2 survivors without ongoing medical issues reported normal QoL. Conditioned recipients have superior long-term thymopoiesis, chimerism and immunoglobulin-independence. QoL was normal in those who did not have medical issues at long-term follow-up.

6.
Blood Adv ; 2(7): 777-786, 2018 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618462

RESUMO

Patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) can experience a severe disease course, with progressive destructive polyarthritis refractory to conventional therapy with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs including biologics, as well as life-threatening complications including macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a potentially curative immunomodulatory strategy for patients with such refractory disease. We treated 16 patients in 5 transplant centers between 2007 and 2016: 11 children with systemic JIA and 5 with rheumatoid factor-negative polyarticular JIA; all were either refractory to standard therapy, had developed secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/MAS poorly responsive to treatment, or had failed autologous HSCT. All children received reduced toxicity fludarabine-based conditioning regimens and serotherapy with alemtuzumab. Fourteen of 16 patients are alive with a median follow-up of 29 months (range, 2.8-96 months). All patients had hematological recovery. Three patients had grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease. The incidence of viral infections after HSCT was high, likely due to the use of alemtuzumab in already heavily immunosuppressed patients. All patients had significant improvement of arthritis, resolution of MAS, and improved quality of life early following allo-HSCT; most importantly, 11 children achieved complete drug-free remission at the last follow-up. Allo-HSCT using alemtuzumab and reduced toxicity conditioning is a promising therapeutic option for patients with JIA refractory to conventional therapy and/or complicated by MAS. Long-term follow-up is required to ascertain whether disease control following HSCT continues indefinitely.

9.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 14(2): 103-114, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29300535

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an established curative treatment for many primary immunodeficiencies. Advances in donor selection, graft manipulation, conditioning and treatment of complications, mean that survival for many conditions is now around 90%. Next generation sequencing is identifying new immunodeficiencies, many of which are treatable with HSCT. Challenges remain however with short and long-term sequalae. This article reviews latest developments in HSCT for conventional primary immunodeficiencies and presents data on outcome for emerging diseases, Areas covered: This article reviews recently published literature detailing advances, particularly in conditioning regimens and new methods of T-lymphocyte depletion, as well as new information regarding approach and out come of transplanting patients with conventional primary immunodeficiencies. The article reviews data regarding transplant outcomes for newly described primary immunodeficiencies, particularly those associated with gain-of-function mutations. Expert commentary: New methods of graft manipulation have had significant impact on HSCT outcomes, with the range of PIDs treated using T-lymphocyte depletion significantly expanded. Outcomes for newly described diseases with variable phenotypes and clinical features, transplanted when the diagnosis was unknown are beginning to be described, and will improve as patients are identified earlier, and targeted therapies such as JAK inhibitors are used as a bridge to transplantation.

12.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 24(3): 529-536, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29155317

RESUMO

We previously published results for 70 children who received conditioning with treosulfan and cyclophosphamide (n = 30) or fludarabine (n = 40) before undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for primary immunodeficiency (PID). Toxicity was lower and T cell chimerism was better in the patients receiving fludarabine, but cohort numbers were relatively small and follow-up was short. Here we report outcomes of 160 children who received homogeneous conditioning with treosulfan, fludarabine, and, in most cases, alemtuzumab (n = 124). The median age at transplantation was 1.36 years (range, .09 to 18.25 years). Donors included 73 matched unrelated, 54 1 to 3 antigen-mismatched unrelated, 12 matched sibling, 17 other matched family, and 4 haploidentical donors. Stem cell source was peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) in 70, bone marrow in 49, and cord blood in 41. Median duration of follow-up was 4.3 years (range, .8 to 9.4 years). Overall survival was 83%. No patients had veno-occlusive disease. Seventy-four patients (46%) had acute GVHD, but only 14 (9%) greater than grade II. Four patients underwent successful retransplantation for graft loss or poor immune reconstitution. Another patient experienced graft rejection and died. There was no association between T cell chimerism >95% and stem cell source, but a significant association was seen between myeloid chimerism >95% and use of PBSCs without an increased risk of significant GVHD compared with other sources. All 11 patients with severe combined immunodeficiency diagnosed at birth were alive at up to 8.7 years of follow-up. Long-term studies are needed to determine late gonadotoxic effects, and pharmacokinetic studies are needed to identify whether specific targeting is advantageous. The combination of treosulfan, fludarabine, and alemtuzumab is associated with excellent results in HSCT for PID.

13.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(1): 322-328.e10, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28392333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare DNA breakage repair disorders predispose to infection and lymphoreticular malignancies. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is curative, but coadministered chemotherapy or radiotherapy is damaging because of systemic radiosensitivity. We collected HCT outcome data for Nijmegen breakage syndrome, DNA ligase IV deficiency, Cernunnos-XRCC4-like factor (Cernunnos-XLF) deficiency, and ataxia-telangiectasia (AT). METHODS: Data from 38 centers worldwide, including indication, donor, conditioning regimen, graft-versus-host disease, and outcome, were analyzed. Conditioning was classified as myeloablative conditioning (MAC) if it contained radiotherapy or alkylators and reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) if no alkylators and/or 150 mg/m2 fludarabine or less and 40 mg/kg cyclophosphamide or less were used. RESULTS: Fifty-five new, 14 updated, and 18 previously published patients were analyzed. Median age at HCT was 48 months (range, 1.5-552 months). Twenty-nine patients underwent transplantation for infection, 21 had malignancy, 13 had bone marrow failure, 13 received pre-emptive transplantation, 5 had multiple indications, and 6 had no information. Twenty-two received MAC, 59 received RIC, and 4 were infused; information was unavailable for 2 patients. Seventy-three of 77 patients with DNA ligase IV deficiency, Cernunnos-XLF deficiency, or Nijmegen breakage syndrome received conditioning. Survival was 53 (69%) of 77 and was worse for those receiving MAC than for those receiving RIC (P = .006). Most deaths occurred early after transplantation, suggesting poor tolerance of conditioning. Survival in patients with AT was 25%. Forty-one (49%) of 83 patients experienced acute GvHD, which was less frequent in those receiving RIC compared with those receiving MAC (26/56 [46%] vs 12/21 [57%], P = .45). Median follow-up was 35 months (range, 2-168 months). No secondary malignancies were reported during 15 years of follow-up. Growth and developmental delay remained after HCT; immune-mediated complications resolved. CONCLUSION: RIC HCT resolves DNA repair disorder-associated immunodeficiency. Long-term follow-up is required for secondary malignancy surveillance. Routine HCT for AT is not recommended.

14.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol ; 17(6): 414-420, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28968273

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since the advent of T-lymphocyte depletion in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for primary immunodeficiency, survival following this procedure has remained poor compared to results when using matched sibling or matched unrelated donors, over the last 40 years. However, three new techniques are radically altering the approach to HSCT for those with no matched donor, particularly those with primary immunodeficiencies which are not severe combined immunodeficiency. RECENT FINDINGS: Three main techniques of T-lymphocyte depletion are altering donor choice for patients with primary immunodeficiencies and have improved transplant survival for primary immunodeficiencies to over 90%, equivalent to that for matched sibling and matched unrelated donor transplants. CD3 T cell receptor (TCR)αß CD19 depletion, CD45RA depletion and use of posttransplant cyclophosphamide give similar overall survival of 90%, although viral reactivation remains a concern. Further modification of CD3 TCRαß CD19 depletion by adding back inducible caspase-9 suicide gene-modified CD3 TCRαß T-lymphocytes may further improve outcomes for patients with systemic viral infection. SUMMARY: Over the last 5 years, the outcomes of HSCT using new T-lymphocyte depletion methods have improved to the extent that they are equivalent to outcomes of matched sibling donors and may be preferred in the absence of a fully matched sibling donor, over an unrelated donor to reduce the risk of graft versus host disease.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Histocompatibilidade , Humanos , Depleção Linfocítica , Irmãos , Doadores de Tecidos
15.
Front Pediatr ; 5: 143, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28674683

RESUMO

Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency, a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disease causes combined immunodeficiency and developmental delay, hypotonia, and spasticity. Patients present with recurrent infections associated with T-lymphocytopenia, characteristically presenting later than patients with classical severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). PNP, with adenosine deaminase (ADA), is part of the purine salvage pathway. The only curative therapy is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Myeloablative conditioning is recommended to prevent rejection caused by residual immune function. However, HLA-identical sibling stem cell infusions in ADA-SCID result in some donor stem cell engraftment and long-term thymopoiesis. We report a patient with PNP deficiency, who received HLA-identical sibling marrow without chemotherapy because of disseminated cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. The patient presented at 14 months of age following recurrent infections, from early infancy, with persistent irritability, developmental delay, and hypotonia. She had neutropenia, pan-lymphocytopenia, and hypogammaglobulinemia with low plasma urate and erythrocyte PNP activity. Diagnosis was confirmed with a homozygous mutation in PNP. The patient was viremic with CMV detected in blood and CSF by PCR. Dual antiviral therapy improved the clinical condition and reduced the viral load. In view of the disseminated CMV infection, the decision was made to infuse stem cells without any pre-conditioning chemotherapy. She received a matched sibling donor unconditioned stem cell infusion at 16 months of age. The post-transplant course was uneventful. Blood PCR became negative for CMV. Global hypotonia persisted, although with significant improvement in irritability. At 4 years of age and 29 months post-transplant, the patient demonstrated normal T-lymphocyte and natural killer cell numbers. Recent thymic emigrants represented 12% of the total T-lymphocyte population. Lymphocyte proliferative responses to phytohemagglutinin were normal. Memory and class-switched B-lymphocytes were present. Immunoglobulin replacement had been discontinued, and there were normal IgG responses to tetanus vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type B and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine antigens. There was 93% donor T-lymphocytes, 20% donor B-lymphocytes, and 5% donor myeloid cells, indicative of some donor stem cell engraftment. There was no significant infection history despite regular nursery attendance. Height and weight were following the 50th centile. Split mixed donor chimerism has corrected the immunological defect.

16.
Blood ; 129(15): 2198-2201, 2017 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28209722

RESUMO

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) cures the T-lymphocyte, B-lymphocyte, and natural killer (NK)-cell differentiation defect in interleukin-2 γ-chain receptor (IL2RG)/JAK3 severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). We evaluated long-term clinical features, longitudinal immunoreconstitution, donor chimerism, and quality of life (QoL) of IL2RG/JAK3 SCID patients >2 years post-HSCT at our center. Clinical data were collated and patients/families answered PedsQL Generic Core Scale v4.0 questionnaires. We performed longitudinal analyses of CD3+, CD4+ naive T-lymphocyte, CD19+, and NK-cell numbers from pretransplant until 15 years posttransplant. Thirty-one of 43 patients (72%) survived. Median age at last follow-up was 10 years (range, 2-25 years). Twenty-one (68%) had persistent medical issues, mainly ongoing immunoglobulin replacement (14; 45%), cutaneous viral warts (7; 24%), short stature (4; 14%), limb lymphoedema (3; 10%), and bronchiectasis (2; 7%). Lung function was available and normal for 6 patients. Longitudinal analysis demonstrated sustained CD3+, CD19+, and NK-cell output 15 years post-HSCT. CD4+ naive lymphocyte numbers were better in conditioned vs unconditioned recipients (P, .06). B-lymphocyte and myeloid chimerism were highly correlated (ρ, 0.98; P < .001). Low-toxicity myeloablative conditioning recipients have better B-lymphocyte/myeloid chimerism and are free from immunoglobulin replacement therapy. IL2RG/JAK3 SCID survivors free from immunoglobulin replacement have normal QoL.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina/genética , Qualidade de Vida , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Aloenxertos , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Janus Quinase 3 , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/mortalidade , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Quimeras de Transplante/genética , Quimeras de Transplante/imunologia
17.
Bone ; 97: 126-129, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28095295

RESUMO

Osteopetrosis (OPT) is a rare skeletal disorder with phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity: a variety of clinical features besides the bony defect may be present, and at least ten different genes are known to be involved in the disease pathogenesis. In the framework of this heterogeneity, we report the clinical description of a neonate, first child of consanguineous parents, who had osteoclast-rich osteopetrosis and bone marrow failure in early life, but no other usual classical features of infantile malignant OPT, such as visual or hearing impairments. Because of the severe presentation at birth, the patient received Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) at 2months of age with successful outcome. Post-HSCT genetic investigation by means of exome sequencing identified a novel homozygous mutation in the Fermitin Family Member 3 (FERMT3) gene, which was predicted to disrupt the functionality of its protein product kindlin 3. Our report provides information relevant to physicians for recognizing patients with one of the rarest forms of infantile malignant OPT, and clearly demonstrates that HSCT cures kindlin 3 deficiency with severe phenotype.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Osteopetrose/genética , Osteopetrose/terapia , Criança , Feminino , Homozigoto , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Osteopetrose/diagnóstico por imagem , Fenótipo
19.
J Clin Immunol ; 37(1): 42-50, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27807805

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to achieve a retrospective molecular diagnosis by applying state-of-the-art genomic sequencing methods to past patients with T-B+NK+ severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). We included identification of copy number variations (CNVs) by whole exome sequencing (WES) using the CNV calling method ExomeDepth to detect gene alterations for which routine Sanger sequencing analysis is not suitable, such as large heterozygous deletions. METHODS: Of a total of 12 undiagnosed patients with T-B+NK+ SCID, we analyzed eight probands by WES, using GATK to detect single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and small insertions and deletions (INDELs) and ExomeDepth to detect CNVs. RESULTS: We found heterozygous single- or multi-exon deletions in IL7R, a known disease gene for autosomal recessive T-B+NK+ SCID, in four families (seven patients). In three families (five patients), these deletions coexisted with a heterozygous splice site or nonsense mutation elsewhere in the same gene, consistent with compound heterozygosity. In our cohort, about a quarter of T-B+NK+ SCID patients (26%) had such compound heterozygous IL7R deletions. CONCLUSIONS: We show that heterozygous IL7R exon deletions are common in T-B+NK+ SCID and are detectable by WES. They should be considered if Sanger sequencing fails to detect homozygous or compound heterozygous IL7R SNVs or INDELs.


Assuntos
Éxons , Heterozigoto , Receptores de Interleucina-7/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Ativação Linfocitária , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Interleucina-7/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/metabolismo , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Fluxo de Trabalho
20.
Lancet Haematol ; 3(11): e526-e536, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27746112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intravenous busulfan combined with therapeutic drug monitoring to guide dosing improves outcomes after allogeneic haemopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The best method to estimate busulfan exposure and optimum exposure in children or young adults remains unclear. We therefore assessed three approaches to estimate intravenous busulfan exposure (expressed as cumulative area under the curve [AUC]) and associated busulfan AUC with clinical outcomes in children or young adults undergoing allogeneic HCT. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, patients from 15 centres in the Netherlands, USA, Canada, Switzerland, UK, Italy, Germany, and Australia who received a busulfan-based conditioning regimen between March 18, 2001, and Feb 12, 2015, were included. Cumulative AUC was calculated by numerical integration using non-linear mixed effect modelling (AUCNONMEM), non-compartmental analysis (AUC from 0 to infinity [AUC0-∞] and to the next dose [AUC0-τ]), and by individual centres using various approaches (AUCcentre). The main outcome of interest was event-free survival. Other outcomes of interest were graft failure or relapse, or both; transplantation-related mortality; acute toxicity (veno-occlusive disease or acute graft versus-host disease [GvHD]); chronic GvHD; overall survival; and chronic-GvHD-free event-free survival. We used propensity-score-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models, Weibull models, and Fine-Gray competing risk regressions for statistical analyses. FINDINGS: 790 patients were enrolled, 674 of whom were included: 274 (41%) with malignant and 400 (59%) with non-malignant disease. Median age was 4·5 years (IQR 1·4-10·7). The median busulfan AUCNONMEM was 74·4 mg × h/L (95% CI 31·1-104·6), which correlated with the standardised method AUC0-∞ (r2=0·74), but the latter correlated poorly with AUCcentre (r2=0·35). Estimated 2-year event-free survival was 69·7% (95% CI 66·2-73·0). Event-free survival at 2 years was 77·0% (95% CI 72·1-82·9) in the 257 patients with an optimum intravenous busulfan AUC of 78-101 mg × h/L compared with 66·1% (60·9-71·4) in the 235 patients at the low historical target of 58-86 mg × h/L and 49·5% (29·2-66·0) in the 44 patients with a high (>101 mg × h/L) busulfan AUC (p=0·011). Compared with the low AUC group, graft failure or relapse occurred less frequently in the optimum AUC group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·57, 95% CI 0·39-0·84; p=0·0041). Acute toxicity (HR 1·69, 1·12-2·57; p=0·013) and transplantation-related mortality (2·99, 1·82-4·92; p<0·0001) were significantly higher in the high AUC group (>101 mg × h/L) than in the low AUC group (<78 mg × h/L), independent of indication; no difference was noted between AUC groups for chronic GvHD (<78 mg × h/L vs ≥78 mg × h/L, HR 1·30, 95% CI 0·73-2·33; p=0·37). INTERPRETATION: Improved clinical outcomes are likely to be achieved by targeting the busulfan AUC to 78-101 mg × h/L using a new validated pharmacokinetic model for all indications. FUNDING: Research Allocation Program and the UCSF Helen Friller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center and the Mt Zion Health Fund of the University of California, San Francisco.


Assuntos
Área Sob a Curva , Bussulfano/administração & dosagem , Bussulfano/farmacocinética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Transplante Homólogo/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Bussulfano/uso terapêutico , Bussulfano/toxicidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto/epidemiologia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
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