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1.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701524

RESUMO

Treosulfan is given off-label in pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. This study investigated treosulfan's pharmacokinetics (PK), efficacy and safety in a prospective trial. Pediatric patients (n=87) receiving treosulfan-fludarabine conditioning were followed for at least 1 year post-transplant. PK were described with a two compartment model. During follow-up 11/87 patients died and 12/87 had low engraftment (≤ 20% myeloid chimerism). For each increase in treosulfan AUC(0-∞) of 1000 mg.h/L the hazard ratio (95% CI) for mortality increase was 1.46 (1.23, 1.74), and the hazard ratio for low engraftment was 0.61 (0.36, 1.04). A cumulative AUC(0-∞) of 4800 mg.h/L maximised the probability of success (>20 % engraftment and no mortality) at 82%. Probability of success with AUC(0-∞) between 80 and 125% of this target were 78% and 79%. Measuring PK at the first dose and individualizing the third dose may be required in non-malignant disease.

2.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(8): 776-785, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512162

RESUMO

Mutations in the coiled-coil and DNA-binding domains of STAT1 lead to delayed STAT1 dephosphorylation and subsequently gain-of-function. The associated clinical phenotype is broad and can include chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) and/or combined immunodeficiency (CID). We report a case of CMC/CID in a 10-year-old boy due to a novel mutation in the small ubiquitin molecule (SUMO) consensus site at the C-terminal region of STAT1 leading to gain-of-function by impaired sumoylation. Immunodysregulatory features of disease improved after Janus kinase inhibitor (jakinib) treatment. Functional testing after treatment confirmed reversal of the STAT1 hyper-phosphorylation and downstream transcriptional activity. IL-17 and IL-22 production was, however, not restored with jakinib therapy (ruxolitinib), and the patient remained susceptible to opportunistic infection. In conclusion, a mutation in the SUMO consensus site of STAT1 can lead to gain-of-function that is reversible with jakinib treatment. However, full immunocompetence was not restored, suggesting that this treatment strategy might serve well as a bridge to definitive therapy such as hematopoietic stem cell transplant rather than a long-term treatment option.

5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(1): 280-293, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30731121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mismatched stem cell transplantation is associated with a high risk of graft loss, graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), and transplant-related mortality. Alternative graft manipulation strategies have been used over the last 11 years to reduce these risks. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the outcome of using different graft manipulation strategies among children with primary immunodeficiencies. METHODS: Between 2006 and 2017, 147 patients with primary immunodeficiencies received 155 mismatched grafts: 30 T-cell receptor (TCR) αß/CD19-depleted grafts, 43 cord blood (CB) grafts (72% with no serotherapy), 17 CD34+ selection with T-cell add-back grafts, and 65 unmanipulated grafts. RESULTS: The estimated 8-year survival of the entire cohort was 79%, transplant-related mortality was 21.7%, and the graft failure rate was 6.7%. Posttransplantation viral reactivation, grade II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD), and chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) complicated 49.6%, 35%, and 15% of transplantations, respectively. Use of TCRαß/CD19 depletion was associated with a significantly lower incidence of grade II to IV aGvHD (11.5%) and cGvHD (0%), although with a greater incidence of viral reactivation (70%) in comparison with other grafts. T-cell immune reconstitution was robust among CB transplants, although with a high incidence (56.7%) of grade II to IV aGvHD. Stable full donor engraftment was significantly greater at 80% among TCRαß+/CD19+-depleted and CB transplants versus 40% to 60% among the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: Rapidly accessible CB and haploidentical grafts are suitable alternatives for patients with no HLA-matched donor. Cord transplantation without serotherapy and TCRαß+/CD19+-depleted grafts produced comparable survival rates of around 80%, although with a high rate of aGvHD with the former and a high risk of viral reactivation with the latter that need to be addressed.

7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2238-2253, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CD40 ligand (CD40L) deficiency, an X-linked primary immunodeficiency, causes recurrent sinopulmonary, Pneumocystis and Cryptosporidium species infections. Long-term survival with supportive therapy is poor. Currently, the only curative treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). OBJECTIVE: We performed an international collaborative study to improve patients' management, aiming to individualize risk factors and determine optimal HSCT characteristics. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on 130 patients who underwent HSCT for CD40L deficiency between 1993-2015. We analyzed outcome and variables' relevance with respect to survival and cure. RESULTS: Overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were 78.2%, 58.1%, and 72.3% 5 years after HSCT. Results were better in transplantations performed in 2000 or later and in children less than 10 years old at the time of HSCT. Pre-existing organ damage negatively influenced outcome. Sclerosing cholangitis was the most important risk factor. After 2000, superior OS was achieved with matched donors. Use of myeloablative regimens and HSCT at 2 years or less from diagnosis associated with higher OS and DFS. EFS was best with matched sibling donors, myeloablative conditioning (MAC), and bone marrow-derived stem cells. Most rejections occurred after reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning, which associated with poor donor cell engraftment. Mortality occurred mainly early after HSCT, predominantly from infections. Among survivors who ceased immunoglobulin replacement, T-lymphocyte chimerism was 50% or greater donor in 85.2%. CONCLUSION: HSCT is curative in patients with CD40L deficiency, with improved outcome if performed before organ damage development. MAC is associated with better OS, EFS, and DFS. Prospective studies are required to compare the risks of HSCT with those of lifelong supportive therapy.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biallelic variations in the DOCK8 gene cause a combined immunodeficiency with eczema, recurrent bacterial and viral infections, and malignancy. Natural disease outcome is dismal, but allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can cure the disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine outcome of HSCT for DOCK8 deficiency and define possible outcome variables. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of the results of HSCT in a large international cohort of DOCK8 deficient patients. RESULTS: We identified 81 patients from 22 centers transplanted at a median age of 9.7 years (range: 0.7-27.2) between 1995 and 2015. After median follow-up of 26 months (3-135), 68 of 81 patients are alive (84%). Severe acute (III-IV) or chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) occurred in 11% and 10% respectively. Causes of death wereinfections (n=5), GVHD (5), multi-organ failure (2) and pre-existent lymphoma (1). Survival after matched related (n=40) or unrelated (35) HSCT was 89% and 81%, respectively. Reduced toxicity conditioning based on either treosulfan or reduced-dose busulfan resulted in superior survival compared to fully myeloablative busulfan-based regimens (97% vs. 78%; p=0.049). 96% of patients aged <8 years at HSCT survived, compared to 78% of those ≥8 years (p=0.06). Of 73 patients with chimerism data available, 65 (89%) had >90% donor T-cell chimerism at last follow-up. Not all disease manifestations responded equally well to HSCT: eczema, infections and Mollusca resolved better than food allergies or failure to thrive. CONCLUSION: HSCT is curative in most DOCK8 deficient patients, confirming this approach as the treatment of choice. HSCT using a reduced toxicity regimen may offer the best chance for survival.

9.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(6): 727-732, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30105620

RESUMO

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), but data on long-term impact of pre-HSCT chemotherapy, immune reconstitution and quality of life (QoL) of specific SCID genotypes are limited. We evaluated the long-term immune-reconstitution, health outcome and QoL in IL7Rα SCID, Artemis and RAG1 and 2 SCID survivors > 2 years post-HSCT in our center. Clinical data and immune reconstitution parameters were collated, and patients/families answered PedsQL generic core scale v4.0 questionnaires. Thirty-nine patients with a diagnosis of IL7Rα SCID (17 patients), Artemis SCID (8 patients) and RAG1/2 SCID (13 patients) had undergone HSCT with median age at last follow up for IL7Rα SCID, 14 years (range 4-27) and Artemis and RAG1/2 SCID, 10 years (range 2-18). Many patients have ongoing medical issues at latest follow-up [IL7Rα (73%), Artemis (85%), RAG1/2 (55%)]. Artemis SCID patients experienced more sequela than RAG1/2 SCID. Conditioned recipients with Artemis and RAG SCID had more CD4+ naïve lymphocytes compared to unconditioned recipients. All patients except those of IL7Rα SCID reported lower QoL; further subset group analysis showed parents and Artemis and RAG1/2 survivors without ongoing medical issues reported normal QoL. Conditioned recipients have superior long-term thymopoiesis, chimerism and immunoglobulin-independence. QoL was normal in those who did not have medical issues at long-term follow-up.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29729943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is a negative immune regulator. Heterozygous CTLA4 germline mutations can cause a complex immune dysregulation syndrome in human subjects. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize the penetrance, clinical features, and best treatment options in 133 CTLA4 mutation carriers. METHODS: Genetics, clinical features, laboratory values, and outcomes of treatment options were assessed in a worldwide cohort of CTLA4 mutation carriers. RESULTS: We identified 133 subjects from 54 unrelated families carrying 45 different heterozygous CTLA4 mutations, including 28 previously undescribed mutations. Ninety mutation carriers were considered affected, suggesting a clinical penetrance of at least 67%; median age of onset was 11 years, and the mortality rate within affected mutation carriers was 16% (n = 15). Main clinical manifestations included hypogammaglobulinemia (84%), lymphoproliferation (73%), autoimmune cytopenia (62%), and respiratory (68%), gastrointestinal (59%), or neurological features (29%). Eight affected mutation carriers had lymphoma, and 3 had gastric cancer. An EBV association was found in 6 patients with malignancies. CTLA4 mutations were associated with lymphopenia and decreased T-, B-, and natural killer (NK) cell counts. Successful targeted therapies included application of CTLA-4 fusion proteins, mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitors, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. EBV reactivation occurred in 2 affected mutation carriers after immunosuppression. CONCLUSIONS: Affected mutation carriers with CTLA-4 insufficiency can present in any medical specialty. Family members should be counseled because disease manifestation can occur as late as 50 years of age. EBV- and cytomegalovirus-associated complications must be closely monitored. Treatment interventions should be coordinated in clinical trials.

13.
Cytotherapy ; 20(6): 830-838, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29753677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adenovirus (ADV) reactivation can cause significant morbidity and mortality in children after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Antiviral drugs can control viremia, but viral clearance requires recovery of cell-mediated immunity. METHOD: This study was an open-label phase 1/2 study to investigate the feasibility of generating donor-derived ADV-specific T cells (Cytovir ADV, Cell Medica) and to assess the safety of pre-emptive administration of ADV-specific T cells in high-risk pediatric patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to treat adenoviremia. Primary safety endpoints included graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), and secondary endpoints determined antiviral responses and use of antiviral drugs. RESULTS: Between January 2013 and May 2016, 92 donors were enrolled for the production of ADV T cells at three centers in the United Kingdom (UK), and 83 products were generated from 72 mobilized peripheral blood harvests and 20 steady-state whole blood donations. Eight children received Cytovir ADV T cells after standard therapy and all resolved ADV viremia between 15 and 127 days later. ADV-specific T cells were detectable using enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISpot) in the peripheral blood of all patients analyzed. Serious adverse events included Grade II GvHD, Astrovirus encephalitis and pancreatitis. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates the safety and feasibility of pre-emptively manufacturing peptide pulsed ADV-specific cells for high-risk pediatric patients after transplantation and provides early evidence of clinical efficacy.

14.
Blood Adv ; 2(7): 777-786, 2018 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618462

RESUMO

Patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) can experience a severe disease course, with progressive destructive polyarthritis refractory to conventional therapy with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs including biologics, as well as life-threatening complications including macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a potentially curative immunomodulatory strategy for patients with such refractory disease. We treated 16 patients in 5 transplant centers between 2007 and 2016: 11 children with systemic JIA and 5 with rheumatoid factor-negative polyarticular JIA; all were either refractory to standard therapy, had developed secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/MAS poorly responsive to treatment, or had failed autologous HSCT. All children received reduced toxicity fludarabine-based conditioning regimens and serotherapy with alemtuzumab. Fourteen of 16 patients are alive with a median follow-up of 29 months (range, 2.8-96 months). All patients had hematological recovery. Three patients had grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease. The incidence of viral infections after HSCT was high, likely due to the use of alemtuzumab in already heavily immunosuppressed patients. All patients had significant improvement of arthritis, resolution of MAS, and improved quality of life early following allo-HSCT; most importantly, 11 children achieved complete drug-free remission at the last follow-up. Allo-HSCT using alemtuzumab and reduced toxicity conditioning is a promising therapeutic option for patients with JIA refractory to conventional therapy and/or complicated by MAS. Long-term follow-up is required to ascertain whether disease control following HSCT continues indefinitely.

15.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 53(9): 1165-1169, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29545594

RESUMO

Paediatric therapy-related acute myeloid leukaemia (t-AML) is rare and the outcome is poor. While allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is generally the accepted modality of treatment, data regarding salvage chemotherapy, remission induction, conditioning regimens, transplant-related mortality and outcome is scarce. Between 2000 and2016, 36 children with t-AML were treated in seven UK paediatric HSCT centres. The most common salvage protocol for remission induction was FLAG with or without idarubicin and 28 patients were in complete morphological remission prior to BMT. Only 12 patients survived (33%). Transplant-related mortality (TRM) was the leading cause of death.

18.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 14(2): 103-114, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29300535

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an established curative treatment for many primary immunodeficiencies. Advances in donor selection, graft manipulation, conditioning and treatment of complications, mean that survival for many conditions is now around 90%. Next generation sequencing is identifying new immunodeficiencies, many of which are treatable with HSCT. Challenges remain however with short and long-term sequalae. This article reviews latest developments in HSCT for conventional primary immunodeficiencies and presents data on outcome for emerging diseases, Areas covered: This article reviews recently published literature detailing advances, particularly in conditioning regimens and new methods of T-lymphocyte depletion, as well as new information regarding approach and out come of transplanting patients with conventional primary immunodeficiencies. The article reviews data regarding transplant outcomes for newly described primary immunodeficiencies, particularly those associated with gain-of-function mutations. Expert commentary: New methods of graft manipulation have had significant impact on HSCT outcomes, with the range of PIDs treated using T-lymphocyte depletion significantly expanded. Outcomes for newly described diseases with variable phenotypes and clinical features, transplanted when the diagnosis was unknown are beginning to be described, and will improve as patients are identified earlier, and targeted therapies such as JAK inhibitors are used as a bridge to transplantation.

20.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(2): 704-717.e5, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28601685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) cause susceptibility to a range of infections, autoimmunity, immune dysregulation, and combined immunodeficiency. Disease manifestations can be mild or severe and life-threatening. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been used in some patients with more severe symptoms to treat and cure the disorder. However, the outcome of HSCT for this disorder is not well established. OBJECTIVE: We sought to aggregate the worldwide experience of HSCT in patients with GOF-STAT1 mutations and to assess outcomes, including donor engraftment, overall survival, graft-versus-host disease, and transplant-related complications. METHODS: Data were collected from an international cohort of 15 patients with GOF-STAT1 mutations who had undergone HSCT using a variety of conditioning regimens and donor sources. Retrospective data collection allowed the outcome of transplantation to be assessed. In vitro functional testing was performed to confirm that each of the identified STAT1 variants was in fact a GOF mutation. RESULTS: Primary donor engraftment in this cohort of 15 patients with GOF-STAT1 mutations was 74%, and overall survival was only 40%. Secondary graft failure was common (50%), and posttransplantation event-free survival was poor (10% by 100 days). A subset of patients had hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis before transplant, contributing to their poor outcomes. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that HSCT for patients with GOF-STAT1 mutations is curative but has significant risk of secondary graft failure and death.

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