Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 303
Filtrar
1.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209889

RESUMO

Interindividual differences in DNA repair systems may play a role in modulating the individual risk of developing colorectal cancer. To better ascertain the role of DNA repair gene polymorphisms on colon and rectal cancer risk individually, we evaluated 15,419 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 185 DNA repair genes using GWAS data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), which included 8,178 colon cancer, 2,936 rectum cancer cases and 14,659 controls. Rs1800734 (in MLH1 gene) was associated with colon cancer risk (p-value = 3.5 × 10-6 ) and rs2189517 (in RAD51B) with rectal cancer risk (p-value = 5.7 × 10-6 ). The results had statistical significance close to the Bonferroni corrected p-value of 5.8 × 10-6 . Ninety-four SNPs were significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk after Binomial Sequential Goodness of Fit (BSGoF) procedure and confirmed the relevance of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and homologous recombination pathways for colon and rectum cancer, respectively. Defects in MMR genes are known to be crucial for familial form of colorectal cancer but our findings suggest that specific genetic variations in MLH1 are important also in the individual predisposition to sporadic colon cancer. Other SNPs associated with the risk of colon cancer (e.g., rs16906252 in MGMT) were found to affect mRNA expression levels in colon transverse and therefore working as possible cis-eQTL suggesting possible mechanisms of carcinogenesis.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037736

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, while studies have consistently reported elevated risk of CRC among heavy drinkers, associations at moderate levels of alcohol consumption are less clear. We conducted a combined analysis of 16 studies of CRC to examine the shape of the alcohol-CRC association, investigate potential effect modifiers of the association, and examine differential effects of alcohol consumption by cancer anatomic site and stage. We collected information on alcohol consumption for 14,276 CRC cases and 15,802 controls from 5 case-control and 11 nested case-control studies of CRC. We compared adjusted logistic regression models with linear and restricted cubic splines to select a model that best fit the association between alcohol consumption and CRC. Study-specific results were pooled using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Compared to non-/occasional drinking (≤1 g/day), light/moderate drinking (up to 2 drinks/day) was associated with a decreased risk of CRC (odds ratio [OR]: 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88-0.98, p = 0.005), heavy drinking (2-3 drinks/day) was not significantly associated with CRC risk (OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.99-1.24, p = 0.08) and very heavy drinking (more than 3 drinks/day) was associated with a significant increased risk (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.11-1.40, p < 0.001). We observed no evidence of interactions with lifestyle risk factors or of differences by cancer site or stage. These results provide further evidence that there is a J-shaped association between alcohol consumption and CRC risk. This overall pattern was not significantly modified by other CRC risk factors and there was no effect heterogeneity by tumor site or stage.

3.
Epidemiology ; 30(3): 449-457, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on breastfeeding and breast cancer risk are sparse and inconsistent for Hispanic women. METHODS: Pooling data for nearly 6,000 parous Hispanic women from four population-based studies conducted between 1995 and 2007 in the United States and Mexico, we examined the association of breastfeeding with risk of breast cancer overall and subtypes defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status, and the joint effects of breastfeeding, parity, and age at first birth. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using logistic regression. RESULTS: Among parous Hispanic women, older age at first birth was associated with increased breast cancer risk, whereas parity was associated with reduced risk. These associations were found for hormone receptor positive (HR+) breast cancer only and limited to premenopausal women. Age at first birth and parity were not associated with risk of ER- and PR- breast cancer. Increasing duration of breastfeeding was associated with decreasing breast cancer risk (≥25 vs. 0 months: OR = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.60, 0.89; Ptrend = 0.03), with no heterogeneity by menopausal status or subtype. At each parity level, breastfeeding further reduced HR+ breast cancer risk. Additionally, breastfeeding attenuated the increase in risk of HR+ breast cancer associated with older age at first birth. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that breastfeeding is associated with reduced risk of both HR+ and ER- and PR- breast cancer among Hispanic women, as reported for other populations, and may attenuate the increased risk in women with a first pregnancy at older ages.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Paridade , Receptores Estrogênicos/análise , Receptores de Progesterona/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 953, 2018 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When genomics researchers design a high-throughput study to test for differential expression, some biological systems and research questions provide opportunities to use paired samples from subjects, and researchers can plan for a certain proportion of subjects to have paired samples. We consider the effect of this paired samples proportion on the statistical power of the study, using characteristics of both count (RNA-Seq) and continuous (microarray) expression data from a colorectal cancer study. RESULTS: We demonstrate that a higher proportion of subjects with paired samples yields higher statistical power, for various total numbers of samples, and for various strengths of subject-level confounding factors. In the design scenarios considered, the statistical power in a fully-paired design is substantially (and in many cases several times) greater than in an unpaired design. CONCLUSIONS: For the many biological systems and research questions where paired samples are feasible and relevant, substantial statistical power gains can be achieved at the study design stage when genomics researchers plan on using paired samples from the largest possible proportion of subjects. Any cost savings in a study design with unpaired samples are likely accompanied by underpowered and possibly biased results.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Transcriptoma , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Tamanho da Amostra
5.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0206519, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High levels of serum leptin and low levels of serum adiponectin are strongly correlated with obesity, a well-established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Growing evidence suggests that dysregulation of leptin and adiponectin levels may play an etiological role in colorectal carcinogenesis. We evaluated 20 candidate variants in 4 genes previously shown to alter serum leptin and adiponectin levels for associations with obesity (BMI>30 kg/m2) and CRC risk. METHODS: We analyzed 6,246 CRC cases and 7,714 population-based controls from 11 studies within the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Associations of each variant with obesity or CRC were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models stratified by sex and adjusted for age, a study variable, and the first three principal components of genetic ancestry. Gene-specific False Discovery Rate (FDR)-adjusted p-values <0.05 denoted statistical significance. RESULTS: Two variants in the leptin gene showed statistically significant associations with CRC among women: LEP rs2167270 (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.06-1.21) and LEP rs4731426 (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02-1.17). These associations remained significant after adjustment for obesity, suggesting that leptin SNPs may influence CRC risk independent of obesity. We observed statistically significant interactions of the leptin variants with hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for CRC risk; these variant associations were strengthened when analyses were restricted to post-menopausal women with low estrogen exposure, as estimated by 'never use' of HRT and/or non-obese BMI. No variants were associated with CRC among men. CONCLUSIONS: Leptin gene variants may exhibit sex-specific associations with CRC risk. Endogenous and exogenous estrogen exposure may modify the association between these variants, leptin levels, and CRC risk.

6.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476131

RESUMO

Background: Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) is also moderately associated with CRC risk. However, observational studies are susceptible to unmeasured confounding or reverse causality. Using genetic risk variants as instrumental variables, we investigated the causal relationship between genetically elevated CRP concentration and CRC risk, using a Mendelian randomization approach. Methods: Individual-level data from 30 480 CRC cases and 22 844 controls from 33 participating studies in three international consortia were used: the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), the Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study (CORECT) and the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR). As instrumental variables, we included 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with CRP concentration. The SNP-CRC associations were estimated using a logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, principal components and genotyping phases. An inverse-variance weighted method was applied to estimate the causal effect of CRP on CRC risk. Results: Among the 19 CRP-associated SNPs, rs1260326 and rs6734238 were significantly associated with CRC risk (P = 7.5 × 10-4, and P = 0.003, respectively). A genetically predicted one-unit increase in the log-transformed CRP concentrations (mg/l) was not associated with increased risk of CRC [odds ratio (OR) = 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97, 1.12; P = 0.256). No evidence of association was observed in subgroup analyses stratified by other risk factors. Conclusions: In spite of adequate statistical power to detect moderate association, we found genetically elevated CRP concentration was not associated with increased risk of CRC among individuals of European ancestry. Our findings suggested that circulating CRP is unlikely to be a causal factor in CRC development.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Red and processed meat intake is associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence, but it is not clear if intake is associated with patient survival after diagnosis METHODS: We pooled data from 7627 patients with stage I-IV CRC from 10 studies in the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the associations of intake of red and processed meat before diagnosis with overall and CRC-specific survival. RESULTS: Among 7627 patients with CRC, 2338 died, including 1576 from CRC, over a median follow-up time of 5.1 years. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, higher intake of red or processed meat was not associated with overall survival of patients with stage I-III CRC: Q4 vs Q1 red meat hazard ratio [HR], 1.08 (95% CI, 0.93-1.26) and Q4 vs Q1 processed meat HR, 1.10 (95% CI, 0.93-1.32) or with CRC-specific survival: Q4 vs Q1 red meat HR, 1.09 (95% CI, 0.89-1.33) and Q4 vs Q1 processed meat HR, 1.11 (95% CI, 0.87-1.42). Results were similar for patients with stage IV CRC. However, patients with stage I-III CRC who reported an intake of processed meat above the study-specific medians had a higher risk of death from any cause (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01-1.25) than patients who reported eating at or less than the median. CONCLUSION: In this large consortium of CRC patient cohorts, intake of red and processed meat before a diagnosis of CRC was not associated with shorter survival time after diagnosis, although a possible weak adverse association cannot be excluded. Studies that evaluate dietary data from several time points before and after cancer diagnosis are required to confirm these findings.

8.
Am J Epidemiol ; 187(12): 2672-2680, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30188971

RESUMO

Diagnosing pleiotropy is critical for assessing the validity of Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses. The popular MR-Egger method evaluates whether there is evidence of bias-generating pleiotropy among a set of candidate genetic instrumental variables. In this article, we propose a statistical method-global and individual tests for direct effects (GLIDE)-for systematically evaluating pleiotropy among the set of genetic variants (e.g., single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)) used for MR. As a global test, simulation experiments suggest that GLIDE is nearly uniformly more powerful than the MR-Egger method. As a sensitivity analysis, GLIDE is capable of detecting outliers in individual variant-level pleiotropy, in order to obtain a refined set of genetic instrumental variables. We used GLIDE to analyze both body mass index and height for associations with colorectal cancer risk in data from the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and the Colon Cancer Family Registry (multiple studies). Among the body mass index-associated SNPs and the height-associated SNPs, several individual variants showed evidence of pleiotropy. Removal of these potentially pleiotropic SNPs resulted in attenuation of respective estimates of the causal effects. In summary, the proposed GLIDE method is useful for sensitivity analyses and improves the validity of MR.

9.
J Transl Med ; 16(1): 191, 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The TGFß-signaling pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Loss of function of several genes within this pathway, such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been seen as key events in CRC progression. METHODS: In this study we comprehensively evaluate differential gene expression (RNASeq) of 81 genes in the TGFß-signaling pathway and evaluate how dysregulated genes are associated with miRNA expression (Agilent Human miRNA Microarray V19.0). We utilize paired carcinoma and normal tissue from 217 CRC cases. We evaluate the associations between differentially expressed genes and miRNAs and sex, age, disease stage, and survival months. RESULTS: Thirteen genes were significantly downregulated and 14 were significantly upregulated after considering fold change (FC) of > 1.50 or < 0.67 and multiple comparison adjustment. Bone morphogenetic protein genes BMP5, BMP6, and BMP2 and growth differentiation factor GDF7 were downregulated. BMP4, BMP7, INHBA (Inhibin beta A), TGFBR1, TGFB2, TGIF1, TGIF2, and TFDP1 were upregulated. In general, genes with the greatest dysregulation, such as BMP5 (FC 0.17, BMP6 (FC 0.25), BMP2 (FC 0.32), CDKN2B (FC 0.32), MYC (FC 3.70), BMP7 (FC 4.17), and INHBA (FC 9.34) showed dysregulation in the majority of the population (84.3, 77.4, 81.1, 80.2, 82.0, 51.2, and 75.1% respectively). Four genes, TGFBR2, ID4, ID1, and PITX2, were un-associated or slightly upregulated in microsatellite-stable (MSS) tumors while downregulated in microsatellite-unstable (MSI) tumors. Eight dysregulated genes were associated with miRNA differential expression. E2F5 and THBS1 were associated with one or two miRNAs; RBL1, TGFBR1, TGIF2, and INHBA were associated with seven or more miRNAs with multiple seed-region matches. Evaluation of the joint effects of mRNA:miRNA identified interactions that were stronger in more advanced disease stages and varied by survival months. CONCLUSION: These data support an interaction between miRNAs and genes in the TGFß-signaling pathway in association with CRC risk. These interactions are associated with unique clinical characteristics that may provide targets for further investigations.

10.
Genomics ; 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29860032

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We examined expression of genes in the p53-signaling pathway. We determine if genes that have significantly different expression in carcinoma tissue compared to normal mucosa also have significantly differentially expressed miRNAs. We utilize a sample of 217 CRC cases. METHODS: We focused on fold change (FC) > 1.50 or <0.67 for genes and miRNAs, that were statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. We evaluated the linear association between the differential expression of miRNA and mRNA. miRNA:mRNA seed-region matches also were determined. RESULTS: Eleven dysregulated genes were associated with 37 dysregulated miRNAs; all were down-stream from the TP53 gene. MiR-150-5p (HR = 0.82) and miR-196b-5p (HR 0.73) significantly reduced the likelihood of dying from CRC when miRNA expression increased in rectal tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that activation of p53 from cellular stress, could target downstream genes that in turn could influence cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and angiogenesis through mRNA:miRNA interactions.

11.
Cancer Res ; 78(16): 4790-4799, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29921691

RESUMO

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs' (NSAID) use has consistently been associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer; however, studies showed inconsistent results on which cohort of individuals may benefit most. We performed multivariable logistic regression analysis to systematically test for the interaction between regular use of NSAIDs and other lifestyle and dietary factors on colorectal cancer risk among 11,894 cases and 15,999 controls. Fixed-effects meta-analyses were used for stratified analyses across studies for each risk factor and to summarize the estimates from interactions. Regular use of any NSAID, aspirin, or nonaspirin NSAIDs was significantly associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer within almost all subgroups. However, smoking status and BMI were found to modify the NSAID-colorectal cancer association. Aspirin use was associated with a 29% lower colorectal cancer risk among never-smokers [odds ratios (OR) = 0.71; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.64-0.79], compared with 19% and 17% lower colorectal cancer risk among smokers of pack-years below median (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.71-0.92) and above median (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74-0.94), respectively (P interaction = 0.048). The association between any NSAID use and colorectal cancer risk was also attenuated with increasing BMI (P interaction = 0.075). Collectively, these results suggest that obese individuals and heavy smokers are unlikely to benefit as much as other groups from the prophylactic effect of aspirin against colorectal cancer.Significance: Obesity and heavy smoking attenuate the benefit of aspirin use for colorectal cancer prevention. Cancer Res; 78(16); 4790-9. ©2018 AACR.

12.
Genes Cancer ; 9(1-2): 53-65, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29725503

RESUMO

Uncontrolled cell replication is a key component of carcinogenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate genes involved in checkpoints, DNA repair, and genes encoding for key proteins regulating the cell cycle. We investigated how miRNAs and mRNAs in colorectal cancer subjects interact to regulate the cell cycle. Using RNA-Seq data from 217 individuals, we analyzed differential expression (carcinoma minus normal mucosa) of 123 genes within the cell cycle pathway with differential miRNA expression, adjusting for age and sex. Multiple comparison adjustments for gene/miRNA associations were made at the gene level using an FDR <0.05. Differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs were tested for associations with colorectal cancer survival. MRNA and miRNA sequences were compared to identify seed region matches to support biological interpretation of the observed associations. Sixty-seven mRNAs were dysregulated with a fold change (FC) <0.67 or >1.50. Thirty-two mRNAs were associated with 48 miRNAs; 102 of 290 total associations had identified seed matches; of these, ten had negative beta coefficients. Hsa-miR-15a-5p and hsa-miR-20b-5p were associated with colorectal cancer survival with an FDR <0.05 (HR 0.86 95% CI 0.79, 0.94; HR 0.83 95% CI 0.75, 0.91 respectively). Our findings suggest that miRNAs impact mRNA translation at multiple levels within the cell cycle.

13.
Br J Cancer ; 118(12): 1639-1647, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substantial evidence supports an association between use of menopausal hormone therapy and decreased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, indicating a role of exogenous sex hormones in CRC development. However, findings on endogenous oestrogen exposure and CRC are inconsistent. METHODS: We used a Mendelian randomisation approach to test for a causal effect of age at menarche and age at menopause as surrogates for endogenous oestrogen exposure on CRC risk. Weighted genetic risk scores based on 358 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with age at menarche and 51 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with age at menopause were used to estimate the association with CRC risk using logistic regression in 12,944 women diagnosed with CRC and 10,741 women without CRC from three consortia. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to address pleiotropy and possible confounding by body mass index. RESULTS: Genetic risk scores for age at menarche (odds ratio per year 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.95-1.02) and age at menopause (odds ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.94-1.01) were not significantly associated with CRC risk. The sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Our study does not support a causal relationship between genetic risk scores for age at menarche and age at menopause and CRC risk.

14.
Cancer Inform ; 17: 1176935118766522, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29636593

RESUMO

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways regulate many cellular functions including cell proliferation and apoptosis. We examined associations of differential gene and microRNA (miRNA) expression between carcinoma and paired normal mucosa for 241 genes in the KEGG-identified MAPK-signaling pathway among 217 colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. Gene expression data (RNA-Seq) and miRNA expression data (Agilent Human miRNA Microarray V19.0; Agilent Technologies Inc., Santa Clara, CA, USA) were analyzed. We first identified genes most strongly associated with CRC using a fold change (FC) of >1.50 or <0.67) that were statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. We then determined miRNAs associated with dysregulated genes and through miRNA:mRNA (messenger RNA) seed region matches discerned genes with a greater likelihood of having a direct biological association. Ninety-nine genes had a meaningful FC for all CRC, microsatellite unstable-specific tumors, or microsatellite stable-specific tumors. Thirteen dysregulated genes were associated with miRNAs, totaling 68 miRNA:mRNA associations. Thirteen of the miRNA:mRNA associations had seed region matches where the differential expression between the miRNA and mRNA was inversely related suggesting a direct association as a result of their binding. Several direct associations, upstream of ERK1/ERK2, JNK, and p38, were found for PDGFRA with 7 miRNAs; RASGRP3 and PRKCB with miR-203a; and TGFBR1 with miR-6071 and miR-2117. Other associations between miRNAs and mRNAs are most likely indirect, resulting from feedback and feed forward loops. Our results suggest that miRNAs may alter MAPK signaling through direct binding with key genes in this pathway. We encourage others to validate results in targeted CRC experiments that can help solidify important therapeutic targets.

15.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer ; 57(7): 366-376, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29575536

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) accounts for about 8% of all new cancer cases diagnosed in the US. We used whole exome sequence data from triplet samples (colon carcinoma, colon adenoma, and normal tissue) from 18 individuals to assess gene mutation rates. Of the 2 204 genes that were mutated, APC, TTN, TP53, KRAS, OBSCN, SOX9, PCDH17, SIGLEC10, MYH6, and BRD9 were consistent with genes being an early driver of carcinogenesis, in that they were mutated in multiple adenomas and multiple carcinomas. Fifty-two genes were mutated in ≥12.5% of microsatellite stable (MSS) carcinomas but not in any of the adenomas, in line with the profile of a late driver event involved in tumor progression. Thirty-eight genes were sequenced in a larger independent set of 148 carcinoma/normal tissue pairs to obtain more precise mutation frequencies. Eight of the genes, APC, TP53, ATM, CSMD3, LRP1B, RYR2, BIRC6, and MUC17, contained mutations in >20% of the carcinomas. Interestingly, mutations in four genes in addition to APC that are associated with dysregulation of Wnt signaling, were all classified as early driver events. Most of the genes that are commonly associated with colon cancer, including APC, TP53, and KRAS, were all classified as being early driver genes being mutated in both adenomas and carcinomas. Classifying genes as potential early and late driver events points to candidate genes that may help dissect pathways involved in both tumor initiation and progression.


Assuntos
Adenoma/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinoma/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Idoso , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
16.
Cancer Med ; 7(5): 2192-2199, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29582567

RESUMO

A family history of colorectal cancer (CRC) in first-degree relatives (FDRs) increases the risk of CRC. However, the influence of family history on survival among CRC patients remains unclear. We conducted a pooled analysis of survival in 5010 incident CRC cases. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the association of family history with overall survival (OS) and CRC-specific survival (CSS). We also assessed the impact of the number of affected FDRs and age at CRC diagnosis in the affected FDRs on survival. Among CRC cases, 819 (16%) patients reported a family history of CRC. There were 1580 total deaths over a median follow-up of 4.6 years, of which 1046 (66%) deaths were due to CRC. Having a family history of CRC was not associated with OS [hazard ratio (HR), 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.89-1.19] or CSS (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.95-1.36)]. There were no associations between the number of affected relatives or age at CRC diagnosis of the affected relative with survival (all Ptrend  > 0.05). However, a family history of CRC did confer worse CSS in patients diagnosed with distal colon cancer (HR, 1.45, 95% CI, 1.03-2.04). A family history of CRC was generally not associated with survival after CRC diagnosis. However, having a family history of CRC was associated with worse CRC prognosis in individuals with distal colon cancer, suggesting a possible genetic predisposition with distinct pathogenic mechanism that may lead to worse survival in this group.

17.
Apoptosis ; 23(3-4): 237-250, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29516317

RESUMO

Apoptosis is genetically regulated and involves intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. We examined 133 genes within these pathways to identify whether they are expressed differently in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and normal tissue (N = 217) and if they are associated with similar differential miRNA expression. Gene expression data (RNA-Seq) and miRNA expression data (Agilent Human miRNA Microarray V19.0) were generated. We focused on dysregulated genes with a fold change (FC) of > 1.50 or < 0.67, that were significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. miRNA:mRNA seed-region matches were determined. Twenty-three genes were significantly downregulated (FC < 0.67) and 18 were significantly upregulated (FC > 1.50). Of these 41 genes, 11 were significantly associated with miRNA differential expression. BIRC5 had the greatest number of miRNA associations (14) and the most miRNAs with a seed-region match (10). Four of these matches, miR-145-5p, miR-150-5p, miR-195-5p, and miR-650, had a negative beta coefficient. CSF2RB was associated with ten total miRNAs (five with a seed-region match, and one miRNA, miR-92a-3p, with a negative beta coefficient). Of the three miRNAs associated with CTSS, miR-20b-5p, and miR-501-3p, had a seed-region match and a negative beta coefficient between miRNA:mRNA pairs. Several miRNAs that were associated with dysregulated gene expression, seed-region matches, and negative beta coefficients also were associated with CRC-specific survival. Our data suggest that miRNAs could influence several apoptosis-related genes. BIRC5, CTSS, and CSF2R all had seed-region matches with miRNAs that would favor apoptosis. Our study identifies several miRNA associated with apoptosis-related genes, that if validated, could be important therapeutic targets.

18.
Gastroenterology ; 154(8): 2152-2164.e19, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29458155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Guidelines for initiating colorectal cancer (CRC) screening are based on family history but do not consider lifestyle, environmental, or genetic risk factors. We developed models to determine risk of CRC, based on lifestyle and environmental factors and genetic variants, and to identify an optimal age to begin screening. METHODS: We collected data from 9748 CRC cases and 10,590 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and the Colorectal Transdisciplinary study, from 1992 through 2005. Half of the participants were used to develop the risk determination model and the other half were used to evaluate the discriminatory accuracy (validation set). Models of CRC risk were created based on family history, 19 lifestyle and environmental factors (E-score), and 63 CRC-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies (G-score). We evaluated the discriminatory accuracy of the models by calculating area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values, adjusting for study, age, and endoscopy history for the validation set. We used the models to project the 10-year absolute risk of CRC for a given risk profile and recommend ages to begin screening in comparison to CRC risk for an average individual at 50 years of age, using external population incidence rates for non-Hispanic whites from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program registry. RESULTS: In our models, E-score and G-score each determined risk of CRC with greater accuracy than family history. A model that combined both scores and family history estimated CRC risk with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value of 0.63 (95% confidence interval, 0.62-0.64) for men and 0.62 (95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.63) for women; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values based on only family history ranged from 0.53 to 0.54 and those based only E-score or G-score ranged from 0.59 to 0.60. Although screening is recommended to begin at age 50 years for individuals with no family history of CRC, starting ages calculated based on combined E-score and G-score differed by 12 years for men and 14 for women, for individuals with the highest vs the lowest 10% of risk. CONCLUSIONS: We used data from 2 large international consortia to develop CRC risk calculation models that included genetic and environmental factors along with family history. These determine risk of CRC and starting ages for screening with greater accuracy than the family history only model, which is based on the current screening guideline. These scoring systems might serve as a first step toward developing individualized CRC prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/normas , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Modelos Biológicos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Curva ROC , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores Sexuais
19.
Oncotarget ; 9(5): 6075-6085, 2018 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29464056

RESUMO

The Wnt-signaling pathway functions in regulating cell growth and thus is involved in the carcinogenic process of several cancers, including colorectal cancer. We tested the hypothesis that multiple genes in this signaling pathway are dysregulated and that miRNAs are associated with these dysregulated genes. We used data from 217 colorectal cancer (CRC) cases to evaluate differences in Wnt-signaling pathway gene expression between paired CRC and normal mucosa and identify miRNAs that are associated with these genes. Gene expression data from RNA-Seq and miRNA expression data from Agilent Human miRNA Microarray V19.0 were analyzed. We focused on genes most strongly associated with CRC (fold change (FC) of >1.5 or <0.67) and that were statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Of the 138 Wnt-signaling pathway genes examined, 27 were significantly down-regulated (FC<0.67) and 32 genes were significantly up-regulated (FC>1.50) after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Thirteen of the 66 Wnt-signaling genes that were differentially expressed in CRC tumors were associated with differential expression of miRNAs. A total of 93 miRNA:mRNA associations were detected for these 13 genes. Of these 93 associations, 36 miRNA seed-region matches were observed, suggesting that miRNAs have both direct and indirect effects on Wnt-signaling pathway genes. In summary, our data supports the hypothesis that the Wnt-signaling pathway is dysregulated in CRC and suggest that miRNAs may importantly influence that dysregulation.

20.
Int J Cancer ; 142(11): 2273-2285, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330856

RESUMO

Few risk factors have been identified for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) which lacks expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). This more aggressive subtype disproportionately affects some racial/ethnic minorities and is associated with lower survival. We pooled data from three population-based studies (558 TNBC and 5,111 controls) and examined associations of TNBC risk with reproductive history and breast-feeding. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using multivariable logistic regression. For younger women, aged <50 years, TNBC risk was increased two-fold for parous women who never breast-fed compared to nulliparous women (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.12-3.63). For younger parous women, longer duration of lifetime breast-feeding was associated with a borderline reduced risk (≥24 vs. 0 months: OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.26-1.04, Ptrend = 0.06). Considering the joint effect of parity and breast-feeding, risk was increased two-fold for women with ≥3 full-term pregnancies (FTPs) and no or short-term (<12 months) breast-feeding compared to women with 1-2 FTPs and breast-feeding ≥12 months (OR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.22-5.35). None of these associations were observed among older women (≥50 years). Differences in reproductive patterns possibly contribute to the ethnic differences in TNBC incidence. Among controls aged <50 years, the prevalence of no or short-term breast-feeding and ≥3 FTPs was highest for Hispanics (22%), followed by African Americans (18%), Asian Americans (15%) and non-Hispanic whites (6%). Breast-feeding is a modifiable behavioral factor that may lower TNBC risk and mitigate the effect of FTPs in women under age 50 years.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA