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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10207, 2022 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35715570

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease with evidence of distinct tumor types that develop through different somatically altered pathways. To better understand the impact of the host genome on somatically mutated genes and pathways, we assessed associations of germline variations with somatic events via two complementary approaches. We first analyzed the association between individual germline genetic variants and the presence of non-silent somatic mutations in genes in 1375 CRC cases with genome-wide SNPs data and a tumor sequencing panel targeting 205 genes. In the second analysis, we tested if germline variants located within previously identified regions of somatic allelic imbalance were associated with overall CRC risk using summary statistics from a recent large scale GWAS (n≃125 k CRC cases and controls). The first analysis revealed that a variant (rs78963230) located within a CNA region associated with TLR3 was also associated with a non-silent mutation within gene FBXW7. In the secondary analysis, the variant rs2302274 located in CDX1/PDGFRB frequently gained/lost in colorectal tumors was associated with overall CRC risk (OR = 0.96, p = 7.50e-7). In summary, we demonstrate that an integrative analysis of somatic and germline variation can lead to new insights about CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Desequilíbrio Alélico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Células Germinativas/patologia , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
2.
Eur J Cancer ; 168: 119-127, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women diagnosed with breast cancer prior to age 45 years (<45y) and within the first 5 years postpartum (postpartum breast cancer, PPBC) have the greatest risk for distal metastatic recurrence. METHODS: Pooling data from the Colorado Young Women Breast Cancer cohort and the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study (N = 2519 cases), we examined the association of parity, age, and clinical factors with overall survival (OS) of breast cancer over 15 years of follow-up. RESULTS: Women with PPBC diagnosed at <45y had the lowest OS (p < 0.0001), while OS of nulliparous cases diagnosed at <45y did not differ from OS of cases diagnosed at 45-65y regardless of parity status. After adjustment for study site, race/ethnicity, clinical stage, year of diagnosis and stratification for oestrogen receptor status, PPBC remained an independent factor associated with poor OS. Among cases diagnosed at <45y, nulliparous cases had 1.6 times better OS (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.61, 95%CI 0.42-0.87) compared to those with PPBC, with a more pronounced survival difference among stage I breast cancers (HR = 0.30, 95%CI 0.11-0.79). Among very young women diagnosed at age ≤35y, nulliparous cases had 2.3 times better OS (HR = 0.44, 95%CI 0.23-0.84) compared to PPBC. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that postpartum status is the main driver of poor prognosis in young women with breast cancer, with the strongest association in patients diagnosed at age ≤35y and in those with stage I disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paridade , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1837, 2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35115550

RESUMO

Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease in which the interplay among multiple risk factors remains unclear. Energy homeostasis genes play an important role in carcinogenesis and their interactions with the serum concentrations of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 on the risk of breast cancer have not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the modifying effect of the genetic variation in some energy homeostasis genes on the association of serum concentrations of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 with breast cancer risk. We analyzed 78 SNPs from 10 energy homeostasis genes in premenopausal women from the 4-Corner's Breast Cancer Study (61 cases and 155 controls) and the Mexico Breast Cancer Study (204 cases and 282 controls). After data harmonization, 71 SNPs in HWE were included for interaction analysis. Two SNPs in two genes (MBOAT rs13272159 and NPY rs16131) showed an effect modification on the association between IGF-1 serum concentration and breast cancer risk (Pinteraction < 0.05, adjusted Pinteraction < 0.20). In addition, five SNPs in three genes (ADIPOQ rs182052, rs822391 and rs7649121, CARTPT rs3846659, and LEPR rs12059300) had an effect modification on the association between IGFBP-3 serum concentration and breast cancer risk (Pinteraction < 0.05, adjusted Pinteraction < 0.20). Our findings showed that variants of energy homeostasis genes modified the association between the IGF-1 or IGFBP-3 serum concentration and breast cancer risk in premenopausal women. These findings contribute to a better understanding of this multifactorial pathology.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Pré-Menopausa , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
4.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 114(4): 528-539, 2022 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) among individuals aged younger than 50 years has been increasing. As screening guidelines lower the recommended age of screening initiation, concerns including the burden on screening capacity and costs have been recognized, suggesting that an individualized approach may be warranted. We developed risk prediction models for early-onset CRC that incorporate an environmental risk score (ERS), including 16 lifestyle and environmental factors, and a polygenic risk score (PRS) of 141 variants. METHODS: Relying on risk score weights for ERS and PRS derived from studies of CRC at all ages, we evaluated risks for early-onset CRC in 3486 cases and 3890 controls aged younger than 50 years. Relative and absolute risks for early-onset CRC were assessed according to values of the ERS and PRS. The discriminatory performance of these scores was estimated using the covariate-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: Increasing values of ERS and PRS were associated with increasing relative risks for early-onset CRC (odds ratio per SD of ERS = 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08 to 1.20; odds ratio per SD of PRS = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.51 to 1.68), both contributing to case-control discrimination (area under the curve = 0.631, 95% CI = 0.615 to 0.647). Based on absolute risks, we can expect 26 excess cases per 10 000 men and 21 per 10 000 women among those scoring at the 90th percentile for both risk scores. CONCLUSIONS: Personal risk scores have the potential to identify individuals at differential relative and absolute risk for early-onset CRC. Improved discrimination may aid in targeted CRC screening of younger, high-risk individuals, potentially improving outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 127, 2022 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996992

RESUMO

Identification of new genetic markers may improve the prediction of colorectal cancer prognosis. Our objective was to examine genome-wide associations of germline genetic variants with disease-specific survival in an analysis of 16,964 cases of colorectal cancer. We analyzed genotype and colorectal cancer-specific survival data from a consortium of 15 studies. Approximately 7.5 million SNPs were examined under the log-additive model using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for clinical factors and principal components. Additionally, we ran secondary analyses stratifying by tumor site and disease stage. We used a genome-wide p-value threshold of 5 × 10-8 to assess statistical significance. No variants were statistically significantly associated with disease-specific survival in the full case analysis or in the stage-stratified analyses. Three SNPs were statistically significantly associated with disease-specific survival for cases with tumors located in the distal colon (rs698022, HR = 1.48, CI 1.30-1.69, p = 8.47 × 10-9) and the proximal colon (rs189655236, HR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.65-2.77, p = 9.19 × 10-9 and rs144717887, HR = 2.01, 95% CI 1.57-2.58, p = 3.14 × 10-8), whereas no associations were detected for rectal tumors. Findings from this large genome-wide association study highlight the potential for anatomical-site-stratified genome-wide studies to identify germline genetic risk variants associated with colorectal cancer-specific survival. Larger sample sizes and further replication efforts are needed to more fully interpret these findings.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Loci Gênicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int J Cancer ; 150(9): 1447-1454, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34888857

RESUMO

Elevated blood levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) have been linked to colorectal cancer (CRC) survival. We evaluated genetic variants associated with CRP levels and their interactions with sex and lifestyle factors in association with CRC-specific mortality. Our study included 16 142 CRC cases from the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium. We identified 618 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with CRP levels from the NHGRI-EBI GWAS Catalog. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between SNPs and CRC-specific mortality adjusting for age, sex, genotyping platform/study and principal components. We investigated their interactions with sex and lifestyle factors using likelihood ratio tests. Of 5472 (33.9%) deaths accrued over up to 10 years of follow-up, 3547 (64.8%) were due to CRC. No variants were associated with CRC-specific mortality after multiple comparison correction. We observed strong evidence of interaction between variant rs1933736 at FRK gene and sex in relation to CRC-specific mortality (corrected Pinteraction  = .0004); women had higher CRC-specific mortality associated with the minor allele (HR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.04-1.19) whereas an inverse association was observed for men (HR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.82-0.94). There was no evidence of interactions between CRP-associated SNPs and alcohol, obesity or smoking. Our study observed a significant interaction between sex and a CRP-associated variant in relation to CRC-specific mortality. Future replication of this association and functional annotation of the variant are needed.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa , Neoplasias Colorretais , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
7.
Int J Cancer ; 150(2): 208-220, 2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469597

RESUMO

Reproductive and hormonal factors may influence breast cancer risk via endogenous estrogen exposure. Cumulative menstrual months (CMM) can be used as a surrogate measure of this exposure. Using harmonized data from four population-based breast cancer studies (7284 cases and 7242 controls), we examined ethnicity-specific associations between CMM and breast cancer risk using logistic regression, adjusting for menopausal status and other risk factors. Higher CMM was associated with increased breast cancer risk in non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanics and Asian Americans regardless of menopausal status (all FDR adjusted P trends = .0004), but not in African Americans. In premenopausal African Americans, there was a suggestive trend of lower risk with higher CMM. Stratification by body mass index (BMI) among premenopausal African American women showed a nonsignificant positive association with CMM in nonobese (BMI <30 kg/m2 ) women and a significant inverse association in obese women (OR per 50 CMM = 0.56, 95% CI 0.37-0.87, Ptrend  = .03). Risk patterns were similar for hormone receptor positive (HR+; ER+ or PR+) breast cancer; a positive association was found in all premenopausal and postmenopausal ethnic groups except in African Americans. HR- (ER- and PR-) breast cancer was not associated with CMM in all groups combined, except for a suggestive positive association among premenopausal Asian Americans (OR per 50 CMM = 1.33, P = .07). In summary, these results add to the accumulating evidence that established reproductive and hormonal factors impact breast cancer risk differently in African American women compared to other ethnic groups, and also differently for HR- breast cancer than HR+ breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Menstruação , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Menopausa , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836419

RESUMO

Salicylic acid (SA) has observationally been shown to decrease colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, that rapidly deacetylates to SA) is an effective primary and secondary chemopreventive agent. Through a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach, we aimed to address whether levels of SA affected CRC risk, stratifying by aspirin use. A two-sample MR analysis was performed using GWAS summary statistics of SA (INTERVAL and EPIC-Norfolk, N = 14,149) and CRC (CCFR, CORECT, GECCO and UK Biobank, 55,168 cases and 65,160 controls). The DACHS study (4410 cases and 3441 controls) was used for replication and stratification of aspirin-use. SNPs proxying SA were selected via three methods: (1) functional SNPs that influence the activity of aspirin-metabolising enzymes; (2) pathway SNPs present in enzymes' coding regions; and (3) genome-wide significant SNPs. We found no association between functional SNPs and SA levels. The pathway and genome-wide SNPs showed no association between SA and CRC risk (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 0.84-1.27 and OR: 1.08, 95% CI: 0.86-1.34, respectively). Results remained unchanged upon aspirin use stratification. We found little evidence to suggest that an SD increase in genetically predicted SA protects against CRC risk in the general population and upon stratification by aspirin use.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Ácido Salicílico/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Ácido Salicílico/administração & dosagem
9.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 5(4)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34377935

RESUMO

Background: Smoking is associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Previous studies suggested this association may be restricted to certain molecular subtypes of CRC, but large-scale comprehensive analysis is lacking. Methods: A total of 9789 CRC cases and 11 231 controls of European ancestry from 11 observational studies were included. We harmonized smoking variables across studies and derived sex study-specific quartiles of pack-years of smoking for analysis. Four somatic colorectal tumor markers were assessed individually and in combination, including BRAF mutation, KRAS mutation, CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), and microsatellite instability (MSI) status. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between smoking and risk of CRC subtypes by molecular characteristics, adjusting for age, sex, and study. All statistical tests were 2-sided and adjusted for Bonferroni correction. Results: Heavier smoking was associated with higher risk of CRC overall and stratified by individual markers (P trend < .001). The associations differed statistically significantly between all molecular subtypes, which was the most statistically significant for CIMP and BRAF. Compared with never-smokers, smokers in the fourth quartile of pack-years had a 90% higher risk of CIMP-positive CRC (odds ratio = 1.90, 95% confidence interval = 1.60 to 2.26) but only 35% higher risk for CIMP-negative CRC (odds ratio = 1.35, 95% confidence interval = 1.22 to 1.49; P difference = 2.1 x 10-6). The association was also stronger in tumors that were CIMP positive, MSI high, or KRAS wild type when combined (P difference < .001). Conclusion: Smoking was associated with differential risk of CRC subtypes defined by molecular characteristics. Heavier smokers had particularly higher risk of CRC subtypes that were CIMP positive and MSI high in combination, suggesting that smoking may be involved in the development of colorectal tumors via the serrated pathway.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Mutação , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Feminino , Genes ras/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Metilação , não Fumantes , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Fenótipo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Fatores Sexuais , Fumantes
10.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 5(3)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041438

RESUMO

Background: Incidence of early-onset (younger than 50 years of age) colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing in many countries. Thus, elucidating the role of traditional CRC risk factors in early-onset CRC is a high priority. We sought to determine whether risk factors associated with late-onset CRC were also linked to early-onset CRC and whether association patterns differed by anatomic subsite. Methods: Using data pooled from 13 population-based studies, we studied 3767 CRC cases and 4049 controls aged younger than 50 years and 23 437 CRC cases and 35 311 controls aged 50 years and older. Using multivariable and multinomial logistic regression, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the association between risk factors and early-onset CRC and by anatomic subsite. Results: Early-onset CRC was associated with not regularly using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.21 to 1.68), greater red meat intake (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.16), lower educational attainment (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.16), alcohol abstinence (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.39), and heavier alcohol use (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.50). No factors exhibited a greater excess in early-onset compared with late-onset CRC. Evaluating risks by anatomic subsite, we found that lower total fiber intake was linked more strongly to rectal (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.14 to 1.48) than colon cancer (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.27; P = .04). Conclusion: In this large study, we identified several nongenetic risk factors associated with early-onset CRC, providing a basis for targeted identification of those most at risk, which is imperative in mitigating the rising burden of this disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/etiologia , Neoplasias Retais/etiologia , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Alcoolismo/complicações , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bovinos , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Escolaridade , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Carne , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias Retais/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
11.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(7): 1349-1358, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A positive association between circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and colorectal cancer survival was reported in observational studies, which are susceptible to unmeasured confounding and reverse causality. We used a Mendelian randomization approach to evaluate the association between genetically predicted CRP concentrations and colorectal cancer-specific survival. METHODS: We used individual-level data for 16,918 eligible colorectal cancer cases of European ancestry from 15 studies within the International Survival Analysis of Colorectal Cancer Consortium. We calculated a genetic-risk score based on 52 CRP-associated genetic variants identified from genome-wide association studies. Because of the non-collapsibility of hazard ratios from Cox proportional hazards models, we used the additive hazards model to calculate hazard differences (HD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between genetically predicted CRP concentrations and colorectal cancer-specific survival, overall and by stage at diagnosis and tumor location. Analyses were adjusted for age at diagnosis, sex, body mass index, genotyping platform, study, and principal components. RESULTS: Of the 5,395 (32%) deaths accrued over up to 10 years of follow-up, 3,808 (23%) were due to colorectal cancer. Genetically predicted CRP concentration was not associated with colorectal cancer-specific survival (HD, -1.15; 95% CI, -2.76 to 0.47 per 100,000 person-years; P = 0.16). Similarly, no associations were observed in subgroup analyses by stage at diagnosis or tumor location. CONCLUSIONS: Despite adequate power to detect moderate associations, our results did not support a causal effect of circulating CRP concentrations on colorectal cancer-specific survival. IMPACT: Future research evaluating genetically determined levels of other circulating inflammatory biomarkers (i.e., IL6) with colorectal cancer survival outcomes is needed.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
12.
Gut ; 70(7): 1325-1334, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: An understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of colorectal cancer (CRC) is critical for improving precision prevention, including individualized screening recommendations and the discovery of novel drug targets and repurposable drug candidates for chemoprevention. Known differences in molecular characteristics and environmental risk factors among tumors arising in different locations of the colorectum suggest partly distinct mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The extent to which the contribution of inherited genetic risk factors for CRC differs by anatomical subsite of the primary tumor has not been examined. DESIGN: To identify new anatomical subsite-specific risk loci, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses including data of 48 214 CRC cases and 64 159 controls of European ancestry. We characterised effect heterogeneity at CRC risk loci using multinomial modelling. RESULTS: We identified 13 loci that reached genome-wide significance (p<5×10-8) and that were not reported by previous GWASs for overall CRC risk. Multiple lines of evidence support candidate genes at several of these loci. We detected substantial heterogeneity between anatomical subsites. Just over half (61) of 109 known and new risk variants showed no evidence for heterogeneity. In contrast, 22 variants showed association with distal CRC (including rectal cancer), but no evidence for association or an attenuated association with proximal CRC. For two loci, there was strong evidence for effects confined to proximal colon cancer. CONCLUSION: Genetic architectures of proximal and distal CRC are partly distinct. Studies of risk factors and mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and precision prevention strategies should take into consideration the anatomical subsite of the tumour.


Assuntos
Colo , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Heterogeneidade Genética , Neoplasias Retais/genética , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ceco , Colo Ascendente , Colo Descendente , Colo Sigmoide , Colo Transverso , Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 113(1): 38-47, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) is a complex phenotype that may interact with genetic variants to influence colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: We tested multiplicative statistical interactions between BMI (per 5 kg/m2) and approximately 2.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms with colorectal cancer risk among 14 059 colorectal cancer case (53.2% women) and 14 416 control (53.8% women) participants. All analyses were stratified by sex a priori. Statistical methods included 2-step (ie, Cocktail method) and single-step (ie, case-control logistic regression and a joint 2-degree of freedom test) procedures. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Each 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI was associated with higher risks of colorectal cancer, less so for women (odds ratio [OR] = 1.14, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.11 to 1.18; P = 9.75 × 10-17) than for men (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.20 to 1.32; P = 2.13 × 10-24). The 2-step Cocktail method identified an interaction for women, but not men, between BMI and a SMAD7 intronic variant at 18q21.1 (rs4939827; Pobserved = .0009; Pthreshold = .005). A joint 2-degree of freedom test was consistent with this finding for women (joint P = 2.43 × 10-10). Each 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI was more strongly associated with colorectal cancer risk for women with the rs4939827-CC genotype (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.16 to 1.32; P = 2.60 × 10-10) than for women with the CT (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.09 to 1.19; P = 1.04 × 10-8) or TT (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.14; P = .02) genotypes. CONCLUSION: These results provide novel insights on a potential mechanism through which a SMAD7 variant, previously identified as a susceptibility locus for colorectal cancer, and BMI may influence colorectal cancer risk for women.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteína Smad7/genética , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(3): 564-575, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence for aspirin's chemopreventative properties on colorectal cancer (CRC) is substantial, but its mechanism of action is not well-understood. We combined a proteomic approach with Mendelian randomization (MR) to identify possible new aspirin targets that decrease CRC risk. METHODS: Human colorectal adenoma cells (RG/C2) were treated with aspirin (24 hours) and a stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) based proteomics approach identified altered protein expression. Protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs) from INTERVAL (N = 3,301) and expression QTLs (eQTLs) from the eQTLGen Consortium (N = 31,684) were used as genetic proxies for protein and mRNA expression levels. Two-sample MR of mRNA/protein expression on CRC risk was performed using eQTL/pQTL data combined with CRC genetic summary data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), Colorectal Transdisciplinary (CORECT), Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (GECCO) consortia and UK Biobank (55,168 cases and 65,160 controls). RESULTS: Altered expression was detected for 125/5886 proteins. Of these, aspirin decreased MCM6, RRM2, and ARFIP2 expression, and MR analysis showed that a standard deviation increase in mRNA/protein expression was associated with increased CRC risk (OR: 1.08, 95% CI, 1.03-1.13; OR: 3.33, 95% CI, 2.46-4.50; and OR: 1.15, 95% CI, 1.02-1.29, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: MCM6 and RRM2 are involved in DNA repair whereby reduced expression may lead to increased DNA aberrations and ultimately cancer cell death, whereas ARFIP2 is involved in actin cytoskeletal regulation, indicating a possible role in aspirin's reduction of metastasis. IMPACT: Our approach has shown how laboratory experiments and population-based approaches can combine to identify aspirin-targeted proteins possibly affecting CRC risk.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Proteômica/métodos , Aspirina/farmacologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(12): 2719-2728, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High numbers of lymphocytes in tumor tissue, including T regulatory cells (Treg), have been associated with better colorectal cancer survival. Tregs, a subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes, are mediators of immunosuppression in cancer, and therefore variants in genes related to Treg differentiation and function could be associated with colorectal cancer prognosis. METHODS: In a prospective German cohort of 3,593 colorectal cancer patients, we assessed the association of 771 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 58 Treg-related genes with overall and colorectal cancer-specific survival using Cox regression models. Effect modification by microsatellite instability (MSI) status was also investigated because tumors with MSI show greater lymphocytic infiltration and have been associated with better prognosis. Replication of significant results was attempted in 2,047 colorectal cancer patients of the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium (ISACC). RESULTS: A significant association of the TGFBR3 SNP rs7524066 with more favorable colorectal cancer-specific survival [hazard ratio (HR) per minor allele: 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.74-0.94; P value: 0.0033] was replicated in ISACC (HR: 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.98; P value: 0.03). Suggestive evidence for association was found with two IL7 SNPs, rs16906568 and rs7845577. Thirteen SNPs with differential associations with overall survival according to MSI in the discovery analysis were not confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Common genetic variation in the Treg pathway implicating genes such as TGFBR3 and IL7 was shown to be associated with prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. IMPACT: The implicated genes warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 4(5): pkaa042, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) is associated with a decreased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. As CRC is a heterogeneous disease, we evaluated whether the association of HT and CRC differs across etiologically relevant, molecularly defined tumor subtypes and tumor location. METHODS: We pooled data on tumor subtypes (microsatellite instability status, CpG island methylator phenotype status, BRAF and KRAS mutations, pathway: adenoma-carcinoma, alternate, serrated), tumor location (proximal colon, distal colon, rectum), and HT use among 8220 postmenopausal women (3898 CRC cases and 4322 controls) from 8 observational studies. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of ever vs never HT use with each tumor subtype compared with controls. Models were adjusted for study, age, body mass index, smoking status, and CRC family history. All statistical tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: Among postmenopausal women, ever HT use was associated with a 38% reduction in overall CRC risk (OR =0.62, 95% CI = 0.56 to 0.69). This association was similar according to microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype and BRAF or KRAS status. However, the association was attenuated for tumors arising through the serrated pathway (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.66 to 1.01) compared with the adenoma-carcinoma pathway (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.55 to 0.73; P het =.04) and alternate pathway (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.51 to 0.72). Additionally, proximal colon tumors had a weaker association (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.62 to 0.80) compared with rectal (OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.46 to 0.63) and distal colon (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.49 to 0.66; P het =.01) tumors. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a strong inverse association between HT use and overall CRC risk, which may predominantly reflect a benefit of HT use for tumors arising through the adenoma-carcinoma and alternate pathways as well as distal colon and rectal tumors.

17.
Cancer Res ; 80(20): 4578-4590, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816852

RESUMO

Protective associations of fruits, vegetables, and fiber intake with colorectal cancer risk have been shown in many, but not all epidemiologic studies. One possible reason for study heterogeneity is that dietary factors may have distinct effects by colorectal cancer molecular subtypes. Here, we investigate the association of fruit, vegetables, and fiber intake with four well-established colorectal cancer molecular subtypes separately and in combination. Nine observational studies including 9,592 cases with molecular subtypes for microsatellite instability (MSI), CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), and somatic mutations in BRAF and KRAS genes, and 7,869 controls were analyzed. Both case-only logistic regression analyses and polytomous logistic regression analyses (with one control set and multiple case groups) were used. Higher fruit intake was associated with a trend toward decreased risk of BRAF-mutated tumors [OR 4th vs. 1st quartile = 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.65-1.04)] but not BRAF-wildtype tumors [1.09 (0.97-1.22); P difference as shown in case-only analysis = 0.02]. This difference was observed in case-control studies and not in cohort studies. Compared with controls, higher fiber intake showed negative association with colorectal cancer risk for cases with microsatellite stable/MSI-low, CIMP-negative, BRAF-wildtype, and KRAS-wildtype tumors (P trend range from 0.03 to 3.4e-03), which is consistent with the traditional adenoma-colorectal cancer pathway. These negative associations were stronger compared with MSI-high, CIMP-positive, BRAF-mutated, or KRAS-mutated tumors, but the differences were not statistically significant. These inverse associations for fruit and fiber intake may explain, in part, inconsistent findings between fruit or fiber intake and colorectal cancer risk that have previously been reported. SIGNIFICANCE: These analyses by colorectal cancer molecular subtypes potentially explain the inconsistent findings between dietary fruit or fiber intake and overall colorectal cancer risk that have previously been reported.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Frutas , Verduras , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Fatores de Risco
18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1800-1808, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) is associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer. Genome-wide interaction analysis on single variants (G × E) has identified several SNPs that may interact with NSAIDs to confer colorectal cancer risk, but variations in gene expression levels may also modify the effect of NSAID use. Therefore, we tested interactions between NSAID use and predicted gene expression levels in relation to colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: Genetically predicted gene expressions were tested for interaction with NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk among 19,258 colorectal cancer cases and 18,597 controls from 21 observational studies. A Mixed Score Test for Interactions (MiSTi) approach was used to jointly assess G × E effects which are modeled via fixed interaction effects of the weighted burden within each gene set (burden) and residual G × E effects (variance). A false discovery rate (FDR) at 0.2 was applied to correct for multiple testing. RESULTS: Among the 4,840 genes tested, genetically predicted expression levels of four genes modified the effect of any NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk, including DPP10 (PG×E = 1.96 × 10-4), KRT16 (PG×E = 2.3 × 10-4), CD14 (PG×E = 9.38 × 10-4), and CYP27A1 (PG×E = 1.44 × 10-3). There was a significant interaction between expression level of RP11-89N17 and regular use of aspirin only on colorectal cancer risk (PG×E = 3.23 × 10-5). No interactions were observed between predicted gene expression and nonaspirin NSAID use at FDR < 0.2. CONCLUSIONS: By incorporating functional information, we discovered several novel genes that interacted with NSAID use. IMPACT: These findings provide preliminary support that could help understand the chemopreventive mechanisms of NSAIDs on colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1817-1824, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomeres play an important role in colorectal cancer prognosis. Variation in telomere maintenance genes may be associated with survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis, but evidence is limited. In addition, possible interactions between telomere maintenance genes and prognostic factors, such as smoking and sex, also remain to be investigated. METHODS: We conducted gene-wide analyses of colorectal cancer prognosis in 4,896 invasive colorectal cancer cases from the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO); 1,871 common variants within 13 telomere maintenance genes were included. Cox models were fit to estimate associations of these variants individually with overall and colorectal cancer-specific survival. Likelihood ratio tests were used to test for interaction by smoking and sex. P values were adjusted using Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: The association between minor allele of rs7200950 (ACD) with colorectal cancer-specific survival varied significantly by smoking pack-years (corrected P = 0.049), but no significant trend was observed. By sex, minor alleles for rs2975843 (TERF1), rs75676021 (POT1), and rs74429678 (POT1) were associated with decreased overall and/or colorectal cancer-specific survival in women but not in men. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reported a gene-wide statistically significant interaction with sex (TERF1, POT1). Although significant interaction by smoking pack-years (ACD) was observed, there was no evidence of a dose response. Validation of these findings in other large studies and further functional annotation on these SNPs are warranted. IMPACT: Our study found a gene-smoking and gene-sex interaction on survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis, providing new insights into the role of genetic polymorphisms in telomere maintenance on colorectal cancer prognosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Telômero/metabolismo , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(6): 1128-1134, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in patients with colorectal cancer have been consistently associated with higher mortality in observational studies. It is unclear whether low 25(OH)D levels directly influence colorectal cancer mortality. To minimize bias, we use genetic variants associated with vitamin D levels to evaluate the association with overall and colorectal cancer-specific survival. METHODS: Six genetic variants have been robustly identified to be associated with 25(OH)D levels in genome-wide association studies. On the basis of data from the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium, the individual genetic variants and a weighted genetic risk score were tested for association with overall and colorectal cancer-specific survival using Cox proportional hazards models in 7,657 patients with stage I to IV colorectal cancer, of whom 2,438 died from any cause and 1,648 died from colorectal cancer. RESULTS: The 25(OH)D decreasing allele of SNP rs2282679 (GC gene, encodes group-specific component/vitamin D-binding protein) was associated with poorer colorectal cancer-specific survival, although not significant after multiple-testing correction. None of the other five SNPs showed an association. The genetic risk score showed nonsignificant associations with increased overall [HR = 1.54; confidence interval (CI), 0.86-2.78] and colorectal cancer-specific mortality (HR = 1.76; 95% CI, 0.86-3.58). A significant increased risk of overall mortality was observed in women (HR = 3.26; 95% CI, 1.45-7.33; P heterogeneity = 0.01) and normal-weight individuals (HR = 4.14; 95% CI, 1.50-11.43, P heterogeneity = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our results provided little evidence for an association of genetic predisposition of lower vitamin D levels with increased overall or colorectal cancer-specific survival, although power might have been an issue. IMPACT: Further studies are warranted to investigate the association in specific subgroups.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Vitamina D/metabolismo
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