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1.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 57(5): 303-311, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30689457

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sodium hypochlorite is used as a bleaching and disinfecting agent and is commonly found in household bleach. OBJECTIVE: The objective is to review critically the epidemiology, mechanisms of toxicity, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of hypochlorite poisoning. METHODS: PubMed was searched from January 1950 to June 2018 using the terms "Hypochlorite", "Sodium Hypochlorite", "Sodium Oxychloride", "Hypochlorous Acid", "Bleach", "Chlorine Bleach", in combination with the keywords "poisoning", "poison", "toxicity", "ingestion", "adverse effects", "overdose", and "intoxication". In addition, bibliographies of identified articles were screened for additional relevant studies including non-indexed reports. Non-peer-reviewed sources were also included. These searches produced 110 citations which were considered relevant. EPIDEMIOLOGY: There is limited information regarding statistical trends on world-wide poisoning from sodium hypochlorite. In the United States of America, poison control center data have shown that enquiries regarding hypochlorite bleaches have ranged from 43,000 to 46,000 per year over the period 2012-2016. Mechanisms of toxicity: Hypochlorite's potential to cause toxicity is related to its oxidizing capacity and the pH of the solution. Toxicity arises from its corrosive activity upon contact with mucous membranes and skin. Features following ingestion: While small accidental ingestions are very unlikely to cause clinically significant toxicity, large ingestions may cause corrosive gastrointestinal injury and systemic effects, including metabolic acidosis, hypernatremia, and hyperchloremia. Features following dental exposure: Hypochlorite is used extensively by dentists for cleaning root canals and is safe if the solution remains within the root canal. Extrusions into the periapical area can result in severe pain with localized large and diffuse swelling and hemorrhage. Features following skin exposure: Prolonged or extensive exposure may cause skin irritation and damage to the skin or dermal hypersensitivity. Such exposures can result in either immediate or delayed-type skin reactions. High concentration solutions have caused severe chemical skin burns. Features following inhalation: Although there are only limited data, inhalation of hypochlorite alone is likely to lead to no more than mild irritation of the upper airways. Features following ocular exposure: Corneal injuries from ocular exposure are generally mild with burning discomfort and superficial disturbance of the corneal epithelium with recovery within 1 or 2 days. With higher concentration solutions, severe eye irritation can occur. DIAGNOSIS: The diagnosis can typically be made on the basis of a careful history, including details of the specific product used, its hypochlorite concentration, and the amount involved. As hypochlorite bleach produces a characteristic smell of chlorine, this may provide a diagnostic clue. In severe cases, corrosive injury is suggested on presentation because of hypersalivation, difficulty swallowing, retrosternal pain or hematemesis. MANAGEMENT: Symptom-directed supportive care is the mainstay of management. Gastrointestinal decontamination is not beneficial. Local corrosive injury is the major focus of treatment in severe cases. Fiberoptic endoscopy and CT thorax/abdomen are complimentary and have been shown to be useful in corrosive injuries in assessing the severity of injury, risk of mortality and risk of subsequent stricture formation and should be performed as soon as possible after ingestion. Dental periapical extrusion injuries should be left open for some minutes to allow bleeding through the tooth and to limit hematoma development in tissue spaces. Once the bleeding has ceased, the canal can be dressed with non-setting calcium hydroxide and sealed coronally. CONCLUSIONS: Accidental ingestion of household bleach is not normally of clinical significance. However, those who ingest a large amount of a dilute formulation or a high concentration preparation can develop severe, and rarely fatal, corrosive injury so prompt supportive care is essential as there is no specific antidote. Treatment primarily consists of symptom-directed supportive care.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/envenenamento , Oxidantes/envenenamento , Envenenamento , Hipoclorito de Sódio/envenenamento , Clareadores Dentários/envenenamento , Acidose/induzido quimicamente , Acidose/epidemiologia , Animais , Desinfetantes/química , Oftalmopatias/induzido quimicamente , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipernatremia/induzido quimicamente , Hipernatremia/diagnóstico , Hipernatremia/epidemiologia , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Oxidantes/química , Envenenamento/diagnóstico , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Envenenamento/terapia , Prognóstico , Doenças Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Dermatopatias/induzido quimicamente , Dermatopatias/epidemiologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/química , Clareadores Dentários/química
2.
N Z Med J ; 131(1473): 59-71, 2018 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29649198

RESUMO

AIM: In autumn 2008, an outbreak of toxic honey poisoning was identified. The outbreak was not recognised initially until three cases from one family group presented to hospital, with a common factor of recent consumption of locally produced honey. The aim of this study was to investigate potential cases of this honey poisoning and determine which toxin was involved. METHOD: The incident was investigated retrospectively by Waikato District Health Board's Population Health unit and the New Zealand Food Safety Authority (NZFSA). Identified patients were followed up by questionnaire to gather case information. HortResearch (now Plant and Food Research) tested honey samples for toxins. RESULTS: The causative agent was identified as tutin, which comes from the New Zealand native plant tutu (Coriaria arborea) which has long been known as a potential source of contamination of honey produced in the warmer parts of New Zealand. Retrospective case investigation identified a total of 22 possible or probable cases, based on a clinical case definition. The spectrum of toxic effects reported were broadly similar to those previously described for tutin, derived either directly from the plant itself or indirectly from honey. There were 13 samples of honey, linked to symptomatic individuals, which were available for testing. Of these, 10 were positive for tutin and its hydroxy metabolite hyenanchin (hydroxytutin) and one was positive for hyenanchin alone. CONCLUSION: Toxic honey production is a significant risk in parts of New Zealand. Beekeepers and health professionals need to be informed of this risk and know how best to manage it. Due to this poisoning incident, public and professional awareness of honey poisoning has been substantially enhanced. This incident led to development of new food safety standards for New Zealand honey.


Assuntos
Mel , Picrotoxina/análogos & derivados , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Sesquiterpenos/envenenamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Picrotoxina/envenenamento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Emerg Med Australas ; 28(3): 335-40, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27157681

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The New Zealand National Poisons Centre has, over a number of years, developed an electronic poisons information database. In 2002, this was released as toxinz™ (University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand), an Internet accessible version. The objective of this study is to describe New Zealand subscriber utilisation of TOXINZ with an emphasis on pharmaceutical monographs viewed. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of records of New Zealand subscriber access to TOXINZ monographs during the period 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2012. Telephone enquiry data to the New Zealand National Poisons Centre was also obtained for the same time period. RESULTS: Over the decade, 201 255 TOXINZ monographs were accessed, with annual numbers of documents viewed doubling from 13 718 in 2003 to 28 782 in 2012. Pharmaceuticals were the largest group viewed with 132 316 documents accessed (65.7% of all documents), followed by monographs relating to chemicals 46 061 (22.9%), substances of abuse 6698 (3.3%), plants 6563 (3.3%), supportive care 4668 (2.3%), animals 2553 (1.3%), and other 2396 (1.2%). In regard to the pharmaceuticals, high or rapidly increasing levels of enquiries were identified for venlafaxine, quetiapine, paracetamol, zopiclone and tramadol. Investigation of telephone enquiries to the New Zealand National Poisons Centre showed total poisoning calls increased slightly over the 10 year period, whereas telephone enquiries from hospitals halved. CONCLUSION: The TOXINZ Internet accessible poisons information database has proved to be a well-utilised addition to the New Zealand National Poisons Centre's service.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Internet , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações , Venenos , Toxicologia/educação , Acesso à Informação , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
N Z Med J ; 127(1403): 17-23, 2014 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25290495

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate poisoning exposures to chemicals that were unlabelled, mislabelled or not in their original containers in New Zealand over the last 10 years, based on calls to the New Zealand National Poisons Centre (NZNPC). METHODS: Call data from the NZNPC between 2003 and 2012 were analysed retrospectively. Parameters reviewed included patient age, route and site of exposure, product classification and recommended intervention. RESULTS: Of the 324,411 calls received between 2003 and 2012, 100,465 calls were associated with acute human exposure to chemicals. There were 757 inquiries related to human exposure to mislabelled or unlabelled chemicals consisting of 0.75% of chemical exposures. Adults were involved in 51% of incidents, children, <5 years 32%, 5-10 years 10%, and adolescents 5%. Child exploratory behaviour was responsible for 38% of calls and adult unintentional exposures 61%. Medical attention was advised in 26% of calls. CONCLUSION: Inadvertent exposure to toxic products stored in unlabelled or mislabelled containers is a problem for all age groups. Although it represents a small proportion of total calls to the NZNPC it remains a potential risk for serious poisoning. It is important that chemicals are stored securely, in their original containers, and never stored in drinking vessels.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Medicamentos , Produtos Domésticos , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Med Toxicol ; 10(1): 40-4, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23760886

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mercuric chloride poisoning is rare yet potentially life-threatening. We report a case of poisoning with a potentially significant amount of mercuric chloride which responded to aggressive management. CASE REPORT: A 19-year-old female presented to the Emergency Department with nausea, abdominal discomfort, vomiting of blood-stained fluid, and diarrhea following suicidal ingestion of 2-4 g of mercuric chloride powder. An abdominal radiograph showed radio-opaque material within the gastric antrum and the patient's initial blood mercury concentration was 17.9 µmol/L (or 3.58 mg/L) at 3 h post-ingestion. Given the potential toxicity of inorganic mercury, the patient was admitted to the intensive care unit and chelation with dimercaprol was undertaken. Further clinical effects included mild hemodynamic instability, acidosis, hypokalemia, leukocytosis, and fever. The patient's symptoms began to improve 48 h after admission and resolved fully within a week. DISCUSSION: Mercuric chloride has an estimated human fatal dose of between 1 and 4 g. Despite a reported ingestion of a potentially lethal dose and a high blood concentration, this patient experienced mild to moderate poisoning only and she responded to early and appropriate intervention. Mercuric chloride can produce a range of toxic effects including corrosive injury, severe gastrointestinal disturbances, acute renal failure, circulatory collapse, and eventual death. Treatment includes close observation and aggressive supportive care along with chelation, preferably with 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonate or 2,3-meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid.


Assuntos
Indicadores e Reagentes/toxicidade , Cloreto de Mercúrio/toxicidade , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/tratamento farmacológico , Tentativa de Suicídio , Adulto , Quelantes/administração & dosagem , Quelantes/uso terapêutico , Terapia por Quelação , Dimercaprol/administração & dosagem , Dimercaprol/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Indicadores e Reagentes/química , Indicadores e Reagentes/farmacocinética , Injeções Intramusculares , Cloreto de Mercúrio/antagonistas & inibidores , Cloreto de Mercúrio/farmacocinética , Mercúrio/sangue , Mercúrio/química , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/sangue , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 52(1): 72-7, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24369045

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the death of Alexander the Great to determine if he died from natural causes or was poisoned and, if the latter, what was the most likely poison. METHODS: OVID MEDLINE (January 1950-May 2013) and ISI Web of Science (1900-May 2013) databases were searched and bibliographies of identified articles were screened for additional relevant studies. These searches identified 53 relevant citations. Classical literature associated with Alexander's death. There are two divergent accounts of Alexander's death. The first has its origins in the Royal Diary, allegedly kept in Alexander's court. The second account survives in various versions of the Alexander Romance. Nature of the terminal illness. The Royal Diary describes a gradual onset of fever, with a progressive inability to walk, leading to Alexander's death, without offering a cause of his demise. In contrast, the Romance implies that members of Alexander's inner circle conspired to poison him. The various medical hypotheses include cumulative debilitation from his previous wounds, the complications of alcohol imbibing (resulting in alcohol hepatitis, acute pancreatitis, or perforated peptic ulcer), grief, a congenital abnormality, and an unhealthy environment in Babylon possibly exacerbated by malaria, typhoid fever, or some other parasitic or viral illness. Was it poisoning? Of all the chemical and botanical poisons reviewed, we believe the alkaloids present in the various Veratrum species, notably Veratrum album, were capable of killing Alexander with comparable symptoms to those Alexander reportedly experienced over the 12 days of his illness. Veratrum poisoning is heralded by the sudden onset of epigastric and substernal pain, which may also be accompanied by nausea and vomiting, followed by bradycardia and hypotension with severe muscular weakness. Alexander suffered similar features for the duration of his illness. CONCLUSION: If Alexander the Great was poisoned, Veratrum album offers a more plausible cause than arsenic, strychnine, and other botanical poisons.


Assuntos
Envenenamento/história , Alcaloides de Veratrum/história , Alcaloides de Veratrum/envenenamento , Veratrum/envenenamento , Adulto , Bradicardia/induzido quimicamente , Causas de Morte , Pessoas Famosas , Febre/induzido quimicamente , História Antiga , Humanos , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Debilidade Muscular/induzido quimicamente , Dor/induzido quimicamente
12.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 50(6): 458-70, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22746383

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursors, gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD), are drugs of abuse which act primarily as central nervous system (CNS) depressants. In recent years, the rising recreational use of these drugs has led to an increasing burden upon health care providers. Understanding their toxicity is therefore essential for the successful management of intoxicated patients. We review the epidemiology, mechanisms of toxicity, toxicokinetics, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of poisoning due to GHB and its analogs and discuss the features and management of GHB withdrawal. METHODS: OVID MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science databases were searched using the terms "GHB," "gamma-hydroxybutyrate," "gamma-hydroxybutyric acid," "4-hydroxybutanoic acid," "sodium oxybate," "gamma-butyrolactone," "GBL," "1,4-butanediol," and "1,4-BD" alone and in combination with the keywords "pharmacokinetics," "kinetics," "poisoning," "poison," "toxicity," "ingestion," "adverse effects," "overdose," and "intoxication." In addition, bibliographies of identified articles were screened for additional relevant studies including nonindexed reports. Non-peer-reviewed sources were also included: books, relevant newspaper reports, and applicable Internet resources. These searches produced 2059 nonduplicate citations of which 219 were considered relevant. EPIDEMIOLOGY: There is limited information regarding statistical trends on world-wide use of GHB and its analogs. European data suggests that the use of GHB is generally low; however, there is some evidence of higher use among some sub-populations, settings, and geographical areas. In the United States of America, poison control center data have shown that enquiries regarding GHB have decreased between 2002 and 2010 suggesting a decline in use over this timeframe. MECHANISMS OF ACTION: GHB is an endogenous neurotransmitter synthesized from glutamate with a high affinity for GHB-receptors, present on both on pre- and postsynaptic neurons, thereby inhibiting GABA release. In overdose, GHB acts both directly as a partial GABA(b) receptor agonist and indirectly through its metabolism to form GABA. TOXICOKINETICS: GHB is rapidly absorbed by the oral route with peak blood concentrations typically occurring within 1 hour. It has a relatively small volume of distribution and is rapidly distributed across the blood-brain barrier. GHB is metabolized primarily in the liver and is eliminated rapidly with a reported 20-60 minute half-life. The majority of a dose is eliminated completely within 4-8 hours. The related chemicals, 1,4-butanediol and gamma butyrolactone, are metabolized endogenously to GHB. CLINICAL FEATURES OF POISONING: GHB produces CNS and respiratory depression of relatively short duration. Other commonly reported features include gastrointestinal upset, bradycardia, myoclonus, and hypothermia. Fatalities have been reported. MANAGEMENT OF POISONING: Supportive care is the mainstay of management with primary emphasis on respiratory and cardiovascular support. Airway protection, intubation, and/or assisted ventilation may be indicated for severe respiratory depression. Gastrointestinal decontamination is unlikely to be beneficial. Pharmacological intervention is rarely required for bradycardia; however, atropine administration may occasionally be warranted. WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME: Abstinence after chronic use may result in a withdrawal syndrome, which may persist for days in severe cases. Features include auditory and visual hallucinations, tremors, tachycardia, hypertension, sweating, anxiety, agitation, paranoia, insomnia, disorientation, confusion, and aggression/combativeness. Benzodiazepine administration appears to be the treatment of choice, with barbiturates, baclofen, or propofol as second line management options. CONCLUSIONS: GHB poisoning can cause potentially life-threatening CNS and respiratory depression, requiring appropriate, symptom-directed supportive care to ensure complete recovery. Withdrawal from GHB may continue for up to 21 days and can be life-threatening, though treatment with benzodiazepines is usually effective.


Assuntos
4-Butirolactona/envenenamento , Butileno Glicóis/envenenamento , Oxibato de Sódio/envenenamento , 4-Butirolactona/farmacocinética , Antídotos/uso terapêutico , Butileno Glicóis/farmacocinética , Carvão Vegetal/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Oxibato de Sódio/farmacocinética , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Irrigação Terapêutica , Distribuição Tecidual
13.
N Z Med J ; 125(1367): 87-118, 2012 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23321887

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: New Zealand has a number of plants, both native and introduced, contact with which can lead to poisoning. The New Zealand National Poisons Centre (NZNPC) frequently receives enquiries regarding exposures to poisonous plants. Poisonous plants can cause harm following inadvertent ingestion, via skin contact, eye exposures or inhalation of sawdust or smoked plant matter. AIM: The purpose of this article is to determine the 15 most common poisonous plant enquiries to the NZNPC and provide a review of current literature, discussing the symptoms that might arise upon exposure to these poisonous plants and the recommended medical management of such poisonings. METHODS: Call data from the NZNPC telephone collection databases regarding human plant exposures between 2003 and 2010 were analysed retrospectively. The most common plants causing human poisoning were selected as the basis for this review. An extensive literature review was also performed by systematically searching OVID MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar. Further information was obtained from book chapters, relevant news reports and web material. RESULTS: For the years 2003-2010 inclusive, a total of 256,969 enquiries were received by the NZNPC. Of these enquiries, 11,049 involved exposures to plants and fungi. The most common poisonous plant enquiries, in decreasing order of frequency, were: black nightshade (Solanum nigrum), arum lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica), kowhai (Sophora spp.), euphorbia (Euphorbia spp.), peace lily (Spathiphyllum spp.), agapanthus (Agapanthus spp.), stinking iris (Iris foetidissima), rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum), taro (Colocasia esculentum), oleander (Nerium oleander), daffodil (Narcissus spp.), hemlock (Conium maculatum), karaka (Corynocarpus laevigatus), foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) and ongaonga/New Zealand tree nettle (Urtica ferox). The combined total of enquiries for these 15 species was 2754 calls (representing approximately 25% of all enquiries regarding plant exposures). The signs and symptoms resulting from poisoning from these plants are discussed. Medical treatment recommendations are made. CONCLUSION: Poisoning following ingestion or other forms of exposures to plants in New Zealand is relatively common, particularly among children. However, serious adverse reactions are comparatively rare. Accurate plant identification and details on the type of exposure can be important in assessing the likely risks. Effective medical management of these poisonings can be achieved by following the principles outlined in this review.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Plantas/terapia , Plantas Tóxicas , Humanos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/epidemiologia , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações
16.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 49(3): 131-41, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21495881

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Benzylpiperazine (BZP) and trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP) are synthetic phenylpiperazine analogues. BZP was investigated as a potential antidepressant in the early 1970s but was found unsuitable for this purpose. More recently, BZP and TFMPP have been used as substitutes for amfetamine-derived designer drugs. They were legally available in a number of countries, particularly in New Zealand, and were marketed as party pills, but are now more heavily regulated. This article will review the mechanisms of toxicity, toxicokinetics, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of poisoning due to BZP and TFMPP. METHODS: OVID MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science were searched systematically for studies on BZP and TFMPP and the bibliographies of identified articles were screened for additional relevant studies including nonindexed reports. Nonpeer-reviewed sources were also accessed. In all, 179 papers excluding duplicates were identified and 74 were considered relevant. MECHANISMS OF ACTION: BZP and TFMPP have stimulant and amfetamine-like properties. They enhance the release of catecholamines, particularly of dopamine, from sympathetic nerve terminals, increasing intra-synaptic concentrations. The resulting elevated intra-synaptic monoamine concentrations cause increased activation of both central and peripheral α- and ß-adrenergic postsynaptic receptors. BZP has primarily dopaminergic and noradrenergic action while TFMPP has a more direct serotonin agonist activity. TOXICOKINETICS: There is limited information on the kinetics of these drugs. Following ingestion, peak plasma concentrations are reached after 60 to 90 min. Both drugs would be expected to cross the blood brain barrier and they are metabolized mainly by hydroxylation and N-dealkylation catalyzed by cytochrome P450 and catechol-o-methyl transferase enzymes. In humans, only small amounts of both BZP and TFMPP are excreted in the urine, suggesting a low bioavailability. The serum half-lives of BZP and TFMPP are relatively short with elimination being essentially complete in 44 h for BZP and 24 h for TFMPP. CLINICAL FEATURES: These compounds can cause harmful effects when taken recreationally. Commonly reported features include palpitations, agitation, anxiety, confusion, dizziness, headache, tremor, mydriasis, insomnia, urine retention, and vomiting. Seizures are induced in some patients even at low doses. Severe multiorgan toxicity has been reported, though fatalities have not been recorded conclusively. MANAGEMENT: Supportive care including the termination of seizures is paramount, with relief of symptoms usually being provided by benzodiazepines alone. CONCLUSIONS: BZP and TFMP can cause sympathomimetic effects in the intoxicated patient. Appropriate, symptom-directed supportive care should ensure a good recovery.


Assuntos
Drogas Desenhadas/toxicidade , Drogas Ilícitas/toxicidade , Piperazinas/toxicidade , Agonistas do Receptor de Serotonina/toxicidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etiologia , Drogas Desenhadas/farmacocinética , Febre/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas/farmacocinética , Piperazinas/farmacocinética , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Agonistas do Receptor de Serotonina/farmacocinética , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/metabolismo
18.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 48(7): 675-94, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20849327

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Metamfetamine is a highly addictive amfetamine analog that acts primarily as a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant. The escalating abuse of this drug in recent years has lead to an increasing burden upon health care providers. An understanding of the drug's toxic effects and their medical treatment is therefore essential for the successful management of patients suffering this form of intoxication. AIM: The aim of this review is to summarize all main aspects of metamfetamine poisoning including epidemiology, mechanisms of toxicity, toxicokinetics, clinical features, diagnosis, and management. METHODS: A summary of the literature on metamfetamine was compiled by systematically searching OVID MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science. Further information was obtained from book chapters, relevant news reports, and web material. Epidemiology. Following its use in the Second World War, metamfetamine gained popularity as an illicit drug in Japan and later the United States. Its manufacture and use has now spread to include East and South-East Asia, North America, Mexico, and Australasia, and its world-wide usage, when combined with amfetamine, exceeds that of all other drugs of abuse except cannabis. Mechanisms of toxicity. Metamfetamine acts principally by stimulating the enhanced release of catecholamines from sympathetic nerve terminals, particularly of dopamine in the mesolimbic, mesocortical, and nigrostriatal pathways. The consequent elevation of intra-synaptic monoamines results in an increased activation of central and peripheral α±- and ß-adrenergic postsynaptic receptors. This can cause detrimental neuropsychological, cardiovascular, and other systemic effects, and, following long-term abuse, neuronal apoptosis and nerve terminal degeneration. Toxicokinetics. Metamfetamine is rapidly absorbed and well distributed throughout the body, with extensive distribution across high lipid content tissues such as the blood-brain barrier. In humans the major metabolic pathways are aromatic hydroxylation producing 4-hydroxymetamfetamine and N-demethylation to form amfetamine. Metamfetamine is excreted predominantly in the urine and to a lesser extent by sweating and fecal excretion, with reported terminal half-lives ranging from ∼5 to 30 h. Clinical features. The clinical effects of metamfetamine poisoning can vary widely, depending on dose, route, duration, and frequency of use. They are predominantly characteristic of an acute sympathomimetic toxidrome. Common features reported include tachycardia, hypertension, chest pain, various cardiac dysrhythmias, vasculitis, headache, cerebral hemorrhage, hyperthermia, tachypnea, and violent and aggressive behaviour. Management. Emergency stabilization of vital functions and supportive care is essential. Benzodiazepines alone may adequately relieve agitation, hypertension, tachycardia, psychosis, and seizure, though other specific therapies can also be required for sympathomimetic effects and their associated complications. CONCLUSION: Metamfetamine may cause severe sympathomimetic effects in the intoxicated patient. However, with appropriate, symptom-directed supportive care, patients can be expected to make a full recovery.


Assuntos
Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/envenenamento , Metanfetamina/envenenamento , Humanos , Metanfetamina/química , Metanfetamina/farmacocinética , Envenenamento/diagnóstico , Envenenamento/terapia
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