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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 212: 111999, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550078

RESUMO

Tramadol is a widely used analgesic with additional antidepressant and anxiolytic effects. This compound has been reported in continental waters reaching concentrations of µg/L as a consequence of its inefficient removal in sewage treatment plants and increasing use over time. In this study, European chubs (Squalius cephalus) were exposed to 1 µg/L of tramadol in water for 42 days with a subsequent 14 days of depuration. Our results revealed that chubs exposed to this analgesic underwent changes in their behaviour as compared to the control group. The behavioural outcome was also influenced by the individual concentration of tramadol in brain tissue. In particular, experimental fish presented anxiolytic-like effects, characterized by less bold and less social individuals. Exposed animals were less frequently out of the shelter and moved a shorter distance, indicating that they explored the new environment less during the boldness test. In the novel object recognition experiment, although they distinguished the new item, they examined it less and displayed a reduced activity. Shoal cohesion was disrupted as observed in an increased distance between individuals. After the depuration phase, this alteration remained whereas the boldness effect disappeared. Moreover, the degree of behavioural changes was correlated with the concentration of the substance in brain. According to our findings, chronic presence of tramadol in the environment can impact the fitness of exposed aquatic fauna by altering evolutionary crucial behaviours.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Tramadol/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Água Doce/química , Tramadol/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244017, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382718

RESUMO

Hormonal changes such as increased cortisol level in blood plasma in response to stress and social environmental stimuli are common among vertebrates including humans and typically accompanied by other physiological processes, such as changes in body pigmentation and/or pupil dilatation. The role of pupil size variation (PSV) as a response to stress have yet to be investigated in fish. We exposed albino and pigmented European catfish to short-term stress and measured changes in pupil size and cortisol level. Albinos showed lower pupil dilatation and higher cortisol levels than did pigmented conspecifics. A clear positive relationship between pupil dilatation and cortisol concentrations was observed for both pigmented and albino specimens, suggesting that PSV can be used as a stress indicator in fish, irrespective of albino's inability to express social communication by coloring. During the follow-up, we investigated whether a penultimate contest between albino individuals would impact contestants' social stress during subsequent contact. We observed PSV during the contact of unfamiliar albino catfish with different penultimate experiences (winner (W) and/or loser (L)). Then, the following treatment combinations were tested: WW, WL and LL. Twenty-four-hour contact of two unfamiliar catfish resulted in higher pupil dilatation among individuals with previous winner experience. Among treatment combinations, a WL contest displayed the highest pupil dilatation for winners. PSV reflected socially induced stress in individuals that was accompanied by the "winner" experience and dominancy in albinos. To conclude, the present study validates pupil dilatation as a non-invasive method to evaluate stress level in pigmented as well as albino fish in various contexts.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Pupila/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Animais , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Pigmentação da Pele , Estresse Psicológico/sangue
3.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143108, 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162133

RESUMO

Reservoirs are known to alter temperature and flow regimes, shift nutrient cycles, reduce downstream species diversity and enable a predominantly upstream spread of non-native species. However, information about the seasonal dynamics of the spread of non-natives from a reservoir to its tributaries and the further consequences regarding the spatial distribution of native species is rare. We observed the occurrence of fish in the Vltava River and its tributaries (Elbe catchment area, central Europe) upstream of the Lipno Reservoir for five consecutive years. We radio-tagged two non-native and four native species. To detect assemblage spatial variability, we sampled sites in the study area by electrofishing twice per year (spring and autumn). We expected seasonal trends in non-native species appearance in upstream reservoir tributaries and, conversely, low motivation of native fishes to descend to the reservoir. By analysing nearly 3000 individuals of 21 species from the longitudinal profile of the study area, we observed an effect of reservoir distance on the native species ratio in the upper Vltava catchment area, i.e., an increase in distance increased the native species proportion, and the opposite was observed for non-native species. Analyses of 3798 tracking positions of 193 tagged individuals showed massive spring dispersal of non-native species from the reservoir to the main tributary, the Vltava River, and their return to the reservoir for wintering. Their upstream movement positively correlated with an increase in flow rate. Native Salmo trutta showed a specific shift from the Vltava River to smaller streams during the summer, when the presence of non-native species in the Vltava River was most significant. These findings indicate that non-native species repeatedly spread from the reservoir to the upstream river stretch and its tributaries and potentially compete with native species for resources.

4.
Conserv Physiol ; 8(1): coaa088, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005421

RESUMO

A simple and low-cost method of monitoring and collecting particulate matter detaching from (or interacting with) aquatic animals is described using a novel device based on an airlift pump principle applied to floating cages. The efficiency of the technique in particle collection is demonstrated using polyethylene microspheres interacting with a cyprinid fish (Carassius carassius) and a temporarily parasitic stage (glochidia) of an endangered freshwater mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) dropping from experimentally infested host fish (Salmo trutta). The technique enables the monitoring of temporal dynamics of particle detachment and their continuous collection both in the laboratory and in situ, allowing the experimental animals to be kept under natural water quality regimes and reducing the need for handling and transport. The technique can improve the representativeness of current experimental methods used in the fields of environmental parasitology, animal feeding ecology and microplastic pathway studies in aquatic environments. In particular, it makes it accessible to study the physiological compatibility of glochidia and their hosts, which is an essential but understudied autecological feature in mussel conservation programs worldwide. Field placement of the technique can also aid in outreach programs with pay-offs in the increase of scientific literacy of citizens concerning neglected issues such as the importance of fish hosts for the conservation of freshwater mussels.

5.
PeerJ ; 8: e9356, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714655

RESUMO

Background: The aquatic environment has been contaminated with various anthropogenic pollutants, including psychoactive compounds that may alter the physiology and behavior of free-living organisms. The present study focused on the condition and related mortality of the juvenile chub (Squalius cephalus). The aim of the study was to test whether the adverse effects of the antidepressants sertraline and citalopram, the analgesic tramadol and the illicit drug methamphetamine, on fish condition exist under environmentally relevant concentrations and whether these effects persist after a depuration period. Innovative analyses of the fish brain concentrations of these compounds were performed with the aim to show relationship between compound brain tissue concentration and fish condition. Methods: The laboratory experiment consisted of 42 days of exposure and a subsequent 14-day depuration period with regular monitoring of the condition and mortality of exposed and control fish. Identical methodology, including individual brain concentration analyses for the tested compounds, was applied for all substances. Additional study on feeding under sertraline exposure was also conducted. The feeding was measured from the 28th day of the exposure, three times in a week, by observation of food intake during 15 minutes in social environment. Results: The effects of particular psychoactive compounds on chub condition varied. While sertraline induced a lower condition and increased mortality, the effects of methamphetamine were inverse, and tramadol and citalopram had no significant effect at all. Individual brain concentrations of the tested compounds showed that the effects of sertraline and methamphetamine on fish condition were increased with brain concentration increases. Additionally, the food intake was reduced in case of sertraline. In contrast, there was no relationship between tramadol and citalopram brain tissue concentration and fish condition, suggesting that the concentration-dependent effect is strongly compound-specific. Methamphetamine was the only compound with a persistent effect after the depuration period. Our results demonstrate the suitability of the brain concentration evidence approach and suggest that changes in fish condition and other related parameters can be expected in freshwater ecosystems polluted with specific psychoactive compounds.

6.
Aggress Behav ; 46(5): 412-424, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542801

RESUMO

Aggressiveness has been one of the behavioral traits most examined with various standard testing methods. We used two distinct methods (the mirror and the real opponent tests) to evaluate individual aggression and relate it to the activity and individual stress of chub (Squalius cephalus L.). Three hypotheses were formulated and tested: (a) there is a significant positive relationship between the aggressiveness of individuals measured with the mirror and the real opponent tests, indicating their convergent validity; (b) the irregularities in response to the aggressiveness and activity tests lead to the context-specific expression of the behavioral syndromes; and (c) there is a significant positive relationship between the stress induced in individuals by both tests of aggressiveness, demonstrating individually consistent stress-coping strategies. The first and the second hypothesis were confirmed, while the third hypothesis was rejected. Our results suggest that particular tests of aggressiveness could act as a situation with high strength, leaving little variation between individual responses. Thus, we propose that for the proper interpretation of various studies using different tests to study identical behavioral traits, it is important to consider the convergent validity of not only the tested behavioral traits but also the individual stress responses. The chub also showed stress relieve through aggressiveness, suggesting the species as a prospective animal model to the study interaction between the stress and the aggressiveness. A detailed aggression ethogram of chub was provided to facilitate the use of this specie in future studies.


Assuntos
Agressão , Cyprinidae , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Estudos Prospectivos , Síndrome
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(31): 31812-31821, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487008

RESUMO

Various types of micropollutants, e.g., pharmaceuticals and their metabolites and resistant strains of pathogenic microorganisms, are usually found in hospital wastewaters. The aim of this paper was to study the presence of 74 frequently used pharmaceuticals, legal and illegal drugs, and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in 5 hospital wastewaters in Slovakia and Czechia and to compare the efficiency of several advanced oxidations processes (AOPs) for sanitation and treatment of such highly polluted wastewaters. The occurrence of micropollutants and antibiotic-resistant bacteria was investigated by in-line SPE-LC-MS/MS technique and cultivation on antibiotic and antibiotic-free selective diagnostic media, respectively. The highest maximum concentrations were found for cotinine (6700 ng/L), bisoprolol (5200 ng/L), metoprolol (2600 ng/L), tramadol (2400 ng/L), sulfamethoxazole (1500 ng/L), and ranitidine (1400 ng/L). In the second part of the study, different advanced oxidation processes, modified Fenton reaction, ferrate(VI), and oxidation by boron-doped diamond electrode were tested in order to eliminate the abovementioned pollutants. Obtained results indicate that the modified Fenton reaction and application of boron-doped diamond electrode were able to eliminate almost the whole spectrum of selected micropollutants with efficiency higher than 90%. All studied methods achieved complete removal of the antibiotic-resistant bacteria present in hospital wastewaters.


Assuntos
Ferro/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Boro , Cromatografia Líquida , República Tcheca , Diamante , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Eletrodos , Hospitais , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Drogas Ilícitas/análise , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Oxirredução , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Eslováquia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/instrumentação , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Aquat Toxicol ; 211: 173-180, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991163

RESUMO

Interspecific relationships frequently determine the effect a pollutant can have on an organism, and this is especially true in closely interacting species such as hosts and parasites. The high spatial and temporal variability of contaminant concentrations combined with the movement of aquatic biota can further influence the consequences that are associated with contamination. We used a full factorial design for the exposed and unexposed partners of the relationship between the parasitic larvae (glochidia) of the European freshwater mussel (Anodonta anatina) and its host fish (Squalius cephalus) to identify the sources of variation in the sublethal endpoints of species interaction (the intensity of parasite attachment, the spatial position of glochidia on the host body, and encapsulation success). We used the water-borne human pharmaceutical compounds methamphetamine (a central nervous system stimulant) and tramadol (an opioid) at environmentally relevant concentrations (˜ 6.7 and 3.8 nmol L-1 of methamphetamine and tramadol, respectively) as a proxy for contaminant exposure because these compounds are emerging aquatic stressors that are known for high spatial and temporal variability in their detected concentration levels. The relationship between the bivalve and the fish species was influenced by the preceding contact with both methamphetamine and tramadol, but this effect was highly asymmetric. Our experimental design enabled us to identify the specific changes in the relationship outcome that are elicited by the exposure of individual partners, such as the significant increase in glochidia infection success rate from 59.6 ± 3.9% to 78.7 ± 2.8% (means ± s.e.) that was associated with host exposure to methamphetamine. Additionally, the significant interaction effect of the exposure was demonstrated by the lowered proportion of glochidia attached to gills after the coexposure of both partners to tramadol. The impact of pharmaceuticals on wild aquatic host-parasite relationships provides an example of the risks that are associated with the unintentional discharge of biologically active compounds into freshwater habitats. Given the increasing evidence showing the ecological impact of waste pharmaceuticals, the use of multitrophic interaction endpoints after joint and unilateral exposures provides an important step towards the realistic risk assessment of these compounds.


Assuntos
Anodonta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cyprinidae/parasitologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Anodonta/efeitos dos fármacos , Água Doce/química , Brânquias/parasitologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Toxicidade
9.
J Exp Biol ; 222(Pt 1)2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352825

RESUMO

Parasites alter their host behaviour and vice versa as a result of mutual adaptations in the evolutionary arms race. One of these adaptations involves changes in host thermoregulation, which has the potential to harm the parasite and thereby act as a defence mechanism. We used a model of the brown trout (Salmo trutta) experimentally parasitised with glochidia ectoparasitic larvae from the endangered freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) to reveal whether parasitisation alters fish behavioural thermoregulation. A study using radiotelemetry temperature sensors was performed during almost one year of the M. margaritifera parasitic stage. Glochidia-infested S. trutta altered their thermoregulation through active searching for habitats with different thermal regimes. The general preference for temperatures in infested fish varied and was either above or below the temperature preferred by uninfested individuals. Infested fish also preferred different temperatures across localities, whereas uninfested fish maintained their thermal preference no matter which stream they inhabited. Glochidia further induced the expression of a behavioural syndrome among S. trutta personality traits, suggesting that it might increase the probability that the fish host would occur in the glochidia temperature optimum. Our findings present the first evidence that thermoregulation plays a fundamental role in the relationship of affiliated mussels and their fish hosts. Incorporating thermoregulation as a factor in the study of this relationship can help to interpret results from previous behavioural studies, as well as to optimise management measures related to endangered mussels.


Assuntos
Bivalves/fisiologia , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Truta , Aclimatação , Animais , Bivalves/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia
10.
Ecol Evol ; 8(9): 4495-4507, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29760890

RESUMO

The movement of individuals within preferred areas is reduced by a high availability of food and information about its distribution, while high number of competitors promotes increased movement. Experienced animals use information about social and physical environment to improve resources exploitation, tended to maintain positions within the preferred areas and reuse the environment that is often referred to as site fidelity. In this study, radio-telemetry was used to observe the movements of 98 adult brown trout, Salmo trutta, in oligotrophic streams with different population densities; to determine subpopulation site fidelity, 5,195 conspecifics from 14 subpopulations were individually tagged during spring and autumn. During a 7-year-long field study, we tested the hypothesis that brown trout individuals from subpopulations with high site fidelity would display lower movement. The hypothesis was supported, and reduced movement was further related to high subpopulation density in association with high slope indicating the physical environment-influenced movement. The probability of contact between individuals increased with subpopulation site fidelity and subpopulation density. No influence of food abundance on brown trout movement was found. Furthermore, increased body size predicted higher movement (and vice versa). The least movement occurred during the day and during the full moons. Our study tended to show that individuals reused preferred areas and needed less movement to exploit available resources.

11.
J Environ Manage ; 208: 169-179, 2018 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29268184

RESUMO

Barriers represent one of the largest anthropogenic impacts on the ecological status of rivers, and they also potentially restrict fishes' ability to respond to future environmental changes. Thus, river management aims to restore the longitudinal connectivity of rivers to allow continuous migration and movement of water, sediments and biota. However, it is often unclear whether the targeted barriers are also those most relevant for fish species, particularly to track future habitat shifts caused by environmental change. In this study, we applied species distribution models and the GIS-based fish dispersal model FIDIMO to evaluate the impacts of barriers (e.g. weirs and dams) on the dispersal of 17 native fish species in the European River Elbe with a particular focus on climate- and land use-induced habitat shifts. Specifically, we compared three scenarios of longitudinal connectivity: (i) current longitudinal connectivity, (ii) connectivity improvements as planned by river managers for 2021 and (iii) a reference with full longitudinal connectivity. The models indicated that barriers restricted the movement of two modeled fish species on average, thus impeding fishes' abilities to track future habitat shifts. Moreover, the number of species affected by barriers increased downstream. For the River Elbe, our results suggest that river management has most likely identified the most relevant barriers in respect to the modeled species and future environmental change. We emphasize that river management and barrier prioritization must thoroughly consider species-specific movement and dispersal abilities, as well as the specific spatial arrangement of barriers in the river system in relation to the spatial distribution of species' populations and suitable habitats.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Peixes , Animais , Biota , Rios , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
Glob Chang Biol ; 23(11): 4970-4986, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28500795

RESUMO

The future distribution of river fishes will be jointly affected by climate and land use changes forcing species to move in space. However, little is known whether fish species will be able to keep pace with predicted climate and land use-driven habitat shifts, in particular in fragmented river networks. In this study, we coupled species distribution models (stepwise boosted regression trees) of 17 fish species with species-specific models of their dispersal (fish dispersal model FIDIMO) in the European River Elbe catchment. We quantified (i) the extent and direction (up- vs. downstream) of predicted habitat shifts under coupled "moderate" and "severe" climate and land use change scenarios for 2050, and (ii) the dispersal abilities of fishes to track predicted habitat shifts while explicitly considering movement barriers (e.g., weirs, dams). Our results revealed median net losses of suitable habitats of 24 and 94 river kilometers per species for the moderate and severe future scenarios, respectively. Predicted habitat gains and losses and the direction of habitat shifts were highly variable among species. Habitat gains were negatively related to fish body size, i.e., suitable habitats were projected to expand for smaller-bodied fishes and to contract for larger-bodied fishes. Moreover, habitats of lowland fish species were predicted to shift downstream, whereas those of headwater species showed upstream shifts. The dispersal model indicated that suitable habitats are likely to shift faster than species might disperse. In particular, smaller-bodied fish (<200 mm) seem most vulnerable and least able to track future environmental change as their habitat shifted most and they are typically weaker dispersers. Furthermore, fishes and particularly larger-bodied species might substantially be restricted by movement barriers to respond to predicted climate and land use changes, while smaller-bodied species are rather restricted by their specific dispersal ability.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Peixes/fisiologia , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Modelos Biológicos , Rios , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Physiol Behav ; 171: 127-134, 2017 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28087365

RESUMO

Parasitization by the larvae (glochidia) of freshwater mussels can cause harm to a fish's gills, resulting in less effective respiration and/or reduced activity by the host fish. The impact of glochidia infections on the host's physiology remains poorly understood, and no information is available concerning energy consumption in parasitized fish. Hence, we obtained glochidia of the invasive unionid mussel Sinanodonta (Anodonta) woodiana and experimentally infected common carp, Cyprinus carpio, tagged with physiological sensors to measure energy consumption. We tested the hypothesis that parasitization affects energy consumption in the host fish, reflected as higher energy costs for movement and reduced movement activity over eight days post-infection within a twenty-four-hour cycle. Parasitized fish showed higher energy costs of movement; however, no changes in movement activity were found compared with activity in control fish. Significantly increased biochemical indices were measured in host fish blood samples, including aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferase levels, indicating liver injury, and high concentrations of potassium (K+), signifying kidney injury (hyperkalemia). Increased Cl- concentrations indicate gill dysfunction. Our results show that the energy costs due to glochidia parasitization are independent of overall movement activity patterns and vary in time according to the parasitic phase and the diurnal cycle. Moreover, the side effects of parasitization have a more important impact on fish hosts than has been shown in previous reports.


Assuntos
Carpas/fisiologia , Carpas/parasitologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Análise de Variância , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Carpas/sangue , Cloretos/sangue , Eletromiografia , Parasitos/patogenicidade , Potássio/sangue , Probabilidade
14.
PeerJ ; 4: e1937, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27114883

RESUMO

In addition to hypopigmentation of the skin and red iris colouration, albino animals also display distinct physiological and behavioural alterations. However, information on the social interactions of albino animals is rare and has mostly been limited to specially bred strains of albino rodents and animals from unique environments in caves. Differentiating between the effects of albinism and domestication on behaviour in rodents can be difficult, and social behaviour in cave fish changes according to species-specific adaptations to conditions of permanent darkness. The agonistic behaviours of albino offspring of pigmented parents have yet to be described. In this study, we observed agonistic behaviour in albino and pigmented juvenile Silurus glanis catfish. We found that the total number of aggressive interactions was lower in albinos than in pigmented catfish. The distance between conspecifics was also analysed, and albinos showed a tendency towards greater separation from their same-coloured conspecifics compared with pigmented catfish. These results demonstrate that albinism can be associated with lower aggressiveness and with reduced shoaling behaviour preference, as demonstrated by a tendency towards greater separation of albinos from conspecifics.

15.
Glob Chang Biol ; 22(4): 1505-22, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26649996

RESUMO

River ecosystems are threatened by future changes in land use and climatic conditions. However, little is known of the influence of interactions of these two dominant global drivers of change on ecosystems. Does the interaction amplify (synergistic interaction) or buffer (antagonistic interaction) the impacts and does their interaction effect differ in magnitude, direction and spatial extent compared to single independent pressures. In this study, we model the impact of single and interacting effects of land use and climate change on the spatial distribution of 33 fish species in the Elbe River. The varying effects were modeled using step-wise boosted regression trees based on 250 m raster grid cells. Species-specific models were built for both 'moderate' and 'extreme' future land use and climate change scenarios to assess synergistic, additive and antagonistic interaction effects on species losses, species gains and diversity indices and to quantify their spatial distribution within the Elbe River network. Our results revealed species richness is predicted to increase by 0.7-2.9 species by 2050 across the entire river network. Changes in species richness are likely to be spatially variable with significant changes predicted for 56-85% of the river network. Antagonistic interactions would dominate species losses and gains in up to 75% of the river network. In contrast, synergistic and additive effects would occur in only 20% and 16% of the river network, respectively. The magnitude of the interaction was negatively correlated with the magnitudes of the single independent effects of land use and climate change. Evidence is provided to show that future land use and climate change effects are highly interactive resulting in species range shifts that would be spatially variable in size and characteristic. These findings emphasize the importance of adaptive river management and the design of spatially connected conservation areas to compensate for these high species turnovers and range shifts.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Peixes , Modelos Teóricos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Europa (Continente) , Rios
16.
PLoS One ; 10(5): e0128279, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26018869

RESUMO

Physiological and behavioural constraints hinder albino individuals. Albino animals are rare in the wild; this trait is associated with easy detection by predators, non-native or damaged environments, and exclusively aphotic environments in total darkness. The social aspect of albinism is reported only for human beings, and the effect is distinguishable in time and space when social benefits, are used to a limited the extent. Thus far, the social consequences of albinism for animals remain unknown. We used socially established groups of the pigmented catfish, (Silurus glanis), to observe space and temporal distance detachment of albino specimens in laboratory conditions. The albino fish were separated at larger distances from the group than pigmented individuals with the same social status determined by familiarity, and this asymmetry also varied in time. Albinism-related ostracism results in a solitary existence, usually followed by enhanced predation risk. The motivation for an individual's exclusion from a group appears to be the avoidance of the predation risk that increases not only for an odd individual but also for conspecifics within a group. Our findings indicate a role for albinism in behavioural processes related to sociality in a group of conspecifics.


Assuntos
Albinismo/fisiopatologia , Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Pigmentação/fisiologia , Animais , Escuridão
17.
PLoS One ; 9(6): e98997, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24896256

RESUMO

Animals use dispersed resources within their home range (HR) during regular day-to-day activities. The high-quality area intensively used by an individual, where critical resources are concentrated, has been designated as the core area (CA). This study aimed to describe how animals utilize energy in the HR and CA assuming that changes would occur according to the size of the used areas. We observed energetic costs of space use in the largest European freshwater predator catfish, Silurus glanis, using physiological sensors. Catfish consumed significantly more energy within the CA compared to the rest of the HR area. In addition, energetic costs of space use within a large area were lower. These results generally indicate that utilization of larger areas is related to less demanding activities, such as patrolling and searching for new resources and mates. In contrast, fish occurrence in small areas appears to be related to energetically demanding use of spatially limited resources.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/metabolismo , Espaços Confinados , Metabolismo Energético , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Telemetria/instrumentação , Animais , Água Doce
18.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 68(7-8): 1273-7, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19945884

RESUMO

This work deals with most significant sources of uncertainty in determination of radionuclides massic activity in 200 L drums with radioactive waste (RAW) from decommissioning of nuclear power plant (NPP) A1 and operational air cleaning filters coming from different parts of NPP's ventilation system. It turned out that the most significant source of uncertainty is determination of photo peak detection efficiency, in particular measurement geometry. The detection efficiency of HPGe detector has been determined by calculation using ISOCS software (In Situ Object Counting System) and detector characteristics delivered by the manufacturer (LABSOCS). The detector efficiency is influenced by various factors like measurement geometry, deviation from standard geometry, environmental characteristics, sample properties (density, material composition), used collimator etc. Mentioned factors and their contributions to the uncertainty of detection efficiency and thus to the total uncertainty of massic activity determination have been individually evaluated in the paper. The main part of the work consists of evaluation of maximum uncertainty factor due to presence of hypothetical point source in measurement volume for both types of measurement geometry.


Assuntos
Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/análise , Resíduos Radioativos/análise , Radioisótopos/análise , Espectrometria gama/normas , Incerteza , Filtração/instrumentação , Centrais Nucleares
19.
J Environ Qual ; 31(6): 1930-9, 2002.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12469843

RESUMO

Surface contamination by bomb-derived and Chernobyl-derived 137Cs has been subject to changes due to physical decay and lateral transport of contaminated soil particles, which have resulted in an on-going transfer of radionuclides from terrestrial ecosystems to surface water, river bed sediments, and flood plains. Knowledge of the different sources of spatial variation of 137Cs is particularly essential for estimating 137Cs transfer to fluvial systems and for successfully applying 137Cs as an environmental tracer in soil erosion studies. This study combined a straightforward sediment redistribution model and geostatistical interpolation of point samples of 137Cs activities in soil to distinguish the effects of sediment erosion and deposition from other sources of variation in 137Cs in the small Mochovce catchment in Slovakia. These other sources of variation could then be interpreted. Besides erosion and deposition processes, the initial pattern of 137Cs deposition, floodplain sedimentation, and short-range spatial variation were identified as the major sources of spatial variation of the 137Cs inventory.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Centrais Elétricas , Cinza Radioativa , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Ucrânia
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