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1.
Metallomics ; 13(1)2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570134

RESUMO

Cerium (Ce) is a rare earth element that is incorporated in numerous consumer products, either in its cationic form or as engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Given the propensity of small oxide particles to dissolve, it is unclear whether biological responses induced by ENPs will be due to the nanoparticles themselves or rather due to their dissolution. This study provides the foundation for the development of transcriptomic biomarkers that are specific for ionic Ce in the freshwater alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, exposed either to ionic Ce or to two different types of small Ce ENPs (uncoated, ∼10 nm, or citrate-coated, ∼4 nm). Quantitative reverse transcription PCR was used to analyse mRNA levels of four ionic Ce-specific genes (Cre17g.737300, MMP6, GTR12, and HSP22E) that were previously identified by whole transcriptome analysis in addition to two oxidative stress biomarkers (APX1 and GPX5). Expression was characterized for exposures to 0.03-3 µM Ce, for 60-360 min and for pH 5.0-8.0. Near-linear concentration-response curves were obtained for the ionic Ce and as a function of exposure time. Some variability in the transcriptomic response was observed as a function of pH, which was attributed to the formation of metastable Ce species in solution. Oxidative stress biomarkers analysed at transcriptomic and cellular levels confirmed that different effects were induced for dissolved Ce in comparison to Ce ENPs. The measured expression levels confirmed that changes in Ce speciation and the dissolution of Ce ENPs greatly influence Ce bioavailability.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 142081, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182185

RESUMO

The high biotic diversity supported by floodplains is ruled by the interplay of geomorphic and hydrological processes at various time scales, from daily fluctuations to decennial successions. Because understanding such processes is a key question in river restoration, we attempted to model changes in taxonomic richness in an assemblage of 58 macroinvertebrate taxa (21 gastropoda and 37 ephemeroptera, plecoptera and trichoptera, EPT) along two successional sequences typical for former braided channels. Individual models relating the occurrence of taxa to overflow and backflow durations were developed from field measurements in 19 floodplain channels of the Rhône floodplain (France) monitored over 10 years. The models were combined to simulate diversity changes along a progressive alluviation and disconnection sequence after the reconnection with the main river of a previously isolated channel. Two scenarios were considered: (i) an upstream + downstream reconnection creating a lotic channel, (ii) a downstream reconnection creating a semi-lotic channel. Reconnection led to a direct increase in invertebrate richness (on average x2.5). However, taxonomical richness showed a constant decrease as isolation progressed and reached an average of 2 for EPT and 7 for gastropods at the end of the scenarios. With more than 80% of the taxonomic models with an AUC equal or higher than 0.7 and slopes of linear relations between observed and predicted richness of 0.75 (gastropods) and 1 (EPT), the Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) provided a good basis for prediction of species assemblages. These models can be used to quantify a priori the sustainability and ecological efficiency of restoration actions and help floodplain restoration planning and management.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Invertebrados , Animais , França , Hidrologia , Rios
3.
Aquat Toxicol ; 231: 105711, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338702

RESUMO

Phytoplankton are characterized by a great phenotypic plasticity and amazing morphological variability, both playing a primary role in the acclimation to changing environments. However, there is a knowledge gap concerning the role of algal morphological plasticity in stress responses and acclimation to micropollutants. The present study aims at examining palmelloid colony formation of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii upon micropollutants exposure. Cells were exposed to four micropollutants (MPs, copper, cadmium, PFOS and paraquat) with different modes of action for a duration of 72 h. Effects of MPs on palmelloid formation, growth and physiological traits (chlorophyll fluorescence, membrane integrity and oxidative stress) were monitored by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Palmelloid formation was observed upon treatment with the four micropollutants. Number of palmelloid colonies and their size were dependent on MP concentration and exposure duration. Cells reverted to their unicellular lifestyle when colonies were harvested and inoculated in fresh medium indicating that palmelloid formation is a plastic response to micropollutants. No physiological effects of these compounds were observed in cells forming palmelloids. Palmelloid colonies accumulated lower Cd concentration than unicellular C. reinhardtii suggesting that colony formation protects the cells from MPs stress. The results show that colony formation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a stress response strategy activated to face sub-lethal micropollutant concentrations.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/anatomia & histologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Cádmio/toxicidade , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/citologia , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cobre/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Paraquat/toxicidade , Fitoplâncton
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188634

RESUMO

The scientific knowledge produced by academic research can be valued in all sectors of human activity, including private sector. The ROVALTAIN Foundation organized a round-table during its scientific day in 2019. It crossed the points of view of academic scientists and industrial partners, addressing five main topics. The first one concerned the validation of a common definition of the academic research/private partners interface. Then, the group discussed the place for academic expertise in the corporate world; the advantages of involving academic researchers in expertise for the private sector; and the limits of this model. To conclude, the need of a third party, like the ROVALTAIN Foundation, as a catalyzer in building the interface between academic research and private partners has been discussed.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20563, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239722

RESUMO

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most used engineered nanomaterials. Despite progress in assessing their environmental implications, knowledge gaps exist concerning the metabolic perturbations induced by AgNPs on phytoplankton, essential organisms in global biogeochemical cycles and food-web dynamics. We combine targeted metabolomics, biouptake and physiological response studies to elucidate metabolic perturbations in alga Poterioochromonas malhamensis induced by AgNPs and dissolved Ag. We show time-dependent perturbation of the metabolism of amino acids, nucleotides, fatty acids, tricarboxylic acids, photosynthesis and photorespiration by both Ag-treatments. The results suggest that dissolved Ag ions released by AgNPs are the major toxicity driver; however, AgNPs internalized in food vacuoles contributed to the perturbation of amino acid metabolism, TCA cycle and oxidative stress. The metabolic perturbations corroborate the observed physiological responses. We highlight the potential of metabolomics as a tool for understanding the molecular basis for these metabolic and physiological changes, and for early detection of stress.

6.
MethodsX ; 7: 101057, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32983922

RESUMO

In natural environment, the microorganisms are exposed to complex mixtures of contaminants, including manufactured nanoparticles and their aggregates. Evaluation of the toxicant accumulation in biota exposed to such cocktails is a challenging task because the microorganisms need to be separated from nanomaterial aggregates often of a comparable size. We propose a method for separation of TiO2 aggregates from green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and subsequent determination of cellular Hg concentration in algae exposed to mixture of Hg with nanoTiO2, known also to adsorb Hg. The method is based on differences in specific weight of algae and TiO2 aggregates, using medium speed centrifugation on a step gradient of sucrose. The efficiency of the separation method was tested with nanoTiO2 of three different primary sizes at four concentrations: 2, 20, 100 and 200 mg L-1. The method gives a possibility to separate nanoTiO2 and their aggregates from the algae with a mean recovery of 83.3% of algal cells, thus allowing a reliable determination of Hg accumulation by microalgae when co-exposed to Hg and nanoTiO2. • A rapid and reliable method to separate algal cells and nanoparticle aggregates of comparable size. • A method to measure the cellular amount of Hg in green alga co-exposed to Hg and nanoTiO2.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 727: 138129, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498199

RESUMO

The occurrence and dissemination of toxic metals, antibiotic resistant bacteria and their resistance genes (ARGs) in the aquatic ecosystems of sub-Saharan African countries are still understudied, despite their potential to threat human health and aquatic organisms. In this context, the co-contamination and seasonal distribution of toxic metals and ARG in river sediments receiving untreated urban sewages and hospital effluents from Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo were investigated. ARGs including ß-lactam resistance (blaCTX-M and blaSHV), carbapenem resistance (blaVIM, blaIMP, blaKPC, blaOXA-48 and blaNDM) and total bacterial load were quantified by using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in total DNA extracted from sediment. The amount of toxic metals in sediments was quantified using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results highlight high abundance of 16S rRNA and ARGs copy numbers in sediment samples. Strong pollution of rivers by toxic metals was found, with max values (mg kg-1) of 81.85(Cr), 5.09(Co), 33.84(Ni), 203.46 (Cu), 1055.92(Zn), 324.24(Pb) and 2.96(Hg). Results also highlight the high abundance of bacterial markers (8.06 × 109-2.42 × 1012 16S rRNA/g-1 DS) as well as antibiotic resistance genes (up to 4.58 × 108 ARG. g-1 DS) in the studied rivers. Significant correlations were observed between (i) metals (except Cd and Hg) and organic matter (R > 0.60, p < 0.05); and (ii) ARGs (except blaNDM) and 16S rRNA (R > 0.57, p < 0.05) suggesting a tight link between (i) metal contamination and anthropogenic pressure and (ii) microbial contamination of river and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Results demonstrated that multi-diffuse pollution originating from human activity contribute to the spread of toxic metals and ARGs into the aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Rios , Carbapenêmicos , Cidades , República Democrática do Congo , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Metais , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Poluentes Químicos da Água , beta-Lactamases
8.
Aquat Toxicol ; 224: 105502, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480176

RESUMO

The present study examined the effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nanoTiO2) and mercury (Hg) compounds on the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Mixtures containing nanoTiO2 of different primary sizes (5 nm, 15 nm and 20 nm), inorganic Hg (IHg) or monomethyl Hg (CH3Hg+, MeHg) were studied and compared with individual treatments. Oxidative stress and membrane damage were examined. Stability of nanoTiO2 materials in terms of hydrodynamic size and surface charge as well as Hg adsorption on different nanoTiO2 materials were characterized. The uptake of Hg compounds in the absence and presence of nanoTiO2 was also quantified. Results show that increasing concentrations of nanoTiO2 with different primary size diminished oxidative stress and membrane damage induced by high concentrations of IHg or MeHg, due to the adsorption of Hg on the nanoTiO2 aggregates and consequent decrease of cellular Hg concentrations. The observed alleviation effect of nanoTiO2 materials on Hg biouptake and toxicity was more pronounced for the materials with smaller primary size. IHg adsorbed onto the nanoTiO2 materials to a higher extent than MeHg. The present study highlights that the effects of contaminants are modulated by the co-existing engineered nanomaterials; therefore, it is essential to get a better understanding of their combined effect in the environment.


Assuntos
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/efeitos dos fármacos , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/química , Titânio/farmacologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Adsorção , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície , Titânio/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
9.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 74(3): 115-121, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197668

RESUMO

The present review critically examines the state-of-the-art of the research concerning the likely environmental implications of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) with specific emphasis on their interactions with phytoplankton in the aquatic environment. Phytoplankton plays a key role in the global carbon cycle and contributes to the half of the global primary production, thus representing some of the Earth ' s most critical organisms making the life on our planet possible. With examples from our own research and the literature, we illustrate what happens when aquatic organisms are unintentionally exposed to metal-containing ENPs, which are increasingly released into the environment from nano-enabled materials. We highlight the complexity of the ENPs behavior in the aquatic environment and focus on the three key steps of the bioavailability process: exposure availability, uptake availability and toxico-availability. The influence of the phytoplankton on the ENPs fate in the aquatic environment is discussed, too.


Assuntos
Ecotoxicologia , Nanopartículas , Organismos Aquáticos , Disponibilidade Biológica , Fitoplâncton
10.
Heliyon ; 6(2): e03386, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072064

RESUMO

The systematic killing of trees is usually aimed at eradicating pests or alien plant species susceptible to harm existing natural ecosystems. In some cases, trees may become the subject of dispute between neighbors, which sometimes ends in tree death after months or years of dispute. In this paper, we analyze a case of clandestine tree killing and look into ways through which evidence left by delinquents can be analyzed a posteriori with state-of-the-art approaches. The investigation presented here looks at a series of old-growth trees that were supposedly poisoned inside a protected, nineteenth century grove in Switzerland. After the sudden, unexplained death of several old Black poplar (Populus nigra) trees along the main alley in fall 2015 and their subsequent removal, the dying of five additional, neighboring Sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) and English walnut (Juglans regia) trees in 2016 promptly triggered a suite of criminal investigations at the property. During an initial inspection, a large number of boreholes was found in the root plates of the dying trees. We present findings obtained from tree-ring, wood anatomical and dendrogeochemical investigations performed on root, stem and leave material from the assumedly poisoned trees and show that massive amounts of chemical elements - supposedly in the form organic pesticides with high Al, As, Fe, Cr, Ni contents, aluminum phosphides or glyphosate-based pesticides - were injected into 36 boreholes drilled into the roots around September 2016. Results obtained in this study are currently used in criminal investigations, and are a nice example of how scientific detectives can help their "real World" colleagues in identifying delinquents.

11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(24): 14134-14143, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738528

RESUMO

The present study investigates the changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition and its influences on trace metal dispersion from the Shuya River (SR) in the Petrozavodsk Bay of Lake Onega during ice-covered and ice-free periods. Humic substances (HS) found in the SR dominated the composition of DOM through the river-bay-lake continuum in both periods. When the bay was ice-covered, both the aromaticity and the size of HS varied in the water column according to a horizontal stratification and decreased in the bay, while under ice-free conditions, they decreased along the river-lake gradient, suggesting in both cases a decrease in the proportion of HS with high aromatic character. These findings were associated with an overall decrease in the proportion of HS components that have the highest molecular masses. The quantification of metal bound to HS revealed that these characteristics were associated with a decrease in the binding capacity of the HS for Fe and Al but not Cu while dispersing in the bay to the lake. Pb was found to bind on HS, but its behavior in the bay could not be related to the HS dispersion nor to the changes in HS properties.


Assuntos
Lagos , Oligoelementos , Substâncias Húmicas , Metais , Rios
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(19): 11122-11132, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466451

RESUMO

As plants and associated insects are at the bottom of some terrestrial food webs, they are the primary contributors to mercury (Hg) fluxes in ecosystems. In addition to the trophic position of these organisms, factors related to their life traits have been hypothesized to influence their exposure to Hg. This study investigates the transfer of Hg in a soil-nettle-insect system and the insect-related factors affecting their Hg concentrations in a revegetated chlor-alkali landfill. Twenty-three insect species were identified and classified according to their life traits, their relationship with nettle, and their morphological characteristics. We observed low total mercury (THg) concentrations in nettles, with only 1% methylmercury (MeHg) being detected, while concentrations ranged from 5 to 3700 µg/kg dry wt. in insects with a MeHg percentage of up to 75%. The nettle-related insects were primarily exposed to Hg through the food web with significant biomagnification, particularly at the level of secondary predators. Within the nettle-unrelated group, the insect habitat was the most explanatory factor, with the highest enrichment being for the insects that spent part of their cycle in direct contact with Hg sources. Therefore, these insects require special attention because they are an essential vector of Hg transfer for terrestrial top predators.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Compostos de Metilmercúrio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Cadeia Alimentar , Insetos
13.
Aquat Toxicol ; 214: 105259, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352075

RESUMO

The potential of using gene expression signature as a biomarker of toxicants exposure was explored in the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exposed 2 h to mercury (Hg) as inorganic mercury (IHg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) in presence of copper (Cu) and Suwannee River Humic Acid (SRHA). Total cellular Hg (THg = IHg + MeHg) decreased in presence of SRHA for 0.7 nM IHg and 0.4 nM MeHg, but increased for 70 nM IHg exposure. In mixtures of IHg + MeHg and (IHg or MeHg) + Cu, SRHA decreased THg uptake, except for 0.7 nM IHg + 0.4 nM MeHg which was unchanged (p-value>0.05). In the absence of SRHA, 0.5 µM Cu strongly decreased intracellular THg concentration for 70 nM IHg, while it had no effect for 0.7 nM IHg and 0.4 nM MeHg. The expression of single transcripts was not correlated with measured THg uptake, but a subset of 60 transcripts showed signatures specific to the exposed metal(s) and was congruent with exposure concentration. Notably, the range of fold change values of this subset correlated with THg bioaccumulation with a two-slope pattern in line with [THg]intra/[THg]med ratios. Gene expression signature seems a promising approach to complement chemical analyses to assess bioavailability of toxicants in presence of other metals and organic matter.


Assuntos
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/genética , Exposição Ambiental , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cádmio/toxicidade , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/metabolismo , Feminino , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Temperatura , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(16): 9361-9369, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356746

RESUMO

Uranium (U) speciation was investigated in anoxically preserved porewater samples of a natural mountain wetland in Gola di Lago, Ticino, Switzerland. U porewater concentrations ranged from less than 1 µg/L to tens of µg/L, challenging the available analytical approaches for U speciation in natural samples. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry allowed the characterization of colloid populations and the determination of the size distribution of U species in the porewater. Most of the U was associated with three fractions: <0.3 kDa, likely including dissolved U and very small U colloids; a 1-3 kDa fraction containing humic-like organic compounds, dispersed Fe, and, to a small extent, Fe nanoparticles; and a third fraction (5-50 nm), containing a higher amount of Fe and a lower amount of organic matter and U relative to the 1-3 kDa fraction. The proportion of U associated with the 1-3 kDa colloids varied spatially and seasonally. Using anion exchange resins, we also found that a significant proportion of U occurs in its reduced form, U(IV). Tetravalent U was interpreted as occurring within the colloidal pool of U. This study suggests that U(IV) can occur as small (1-3 kDa), organic-rich, and thus potentially mobile colloidal species in naturally reducing wetland environments.


Assuntos
Urânio , Poluentes Radioativos da Água , Coloides , Oxirredução , Suíça , Áreas Alagadas
15.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt A): 715-722, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185361

RESUMO

Concerns about possible environmental implications of nano- and micro-plastics are continuously raising. Hence, comprehensive understanding of their behaviour, bioaccumulation and toxicity potential is required. Nevertheless, systematic studies on their fate and possible effects in freshwaters, as well as the influence of particle-specific and environmental factors on their behaviour and impacts are still missing. The aims of the present study are thus two-fold: (i) to examine the role of the surface charge on nanoplastic stability and acute effects to freshwater zooplankton; (ii) to decipher the influence of the refractory natural organic matter (NOM) on the nanoplastic fate and effects. Amidine and carboxyl-stabilized polystyrene (PS) spheres of 200 nm diameter characterized by opposite primary surface charges and neutral buoyancy were selected as model nanoplastics. The results demonstrated that the surface functionalization of the polystyrene nanoplastics controls their aggregation behaviour. Alginate or Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA) modified significantly the surface charge of positively-charged amidine PS nanoplastic and the aggregation state, while had no significant influence on the negatively-charged carboxyl PS nanoplastic. Both amidine and carboxyl PS nanoplastics were ingested by the zooplankton and concentrated mainly in the gut of water flea Daphnia magna and larvae Thamnocephalus platyurus, and the stomach of rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. Amidine PS nanoplastic was more toxic than carboxyl one. The toxicity decreased in the order D. magna (48 h -immobilization) > B. calyciflorus (24 h - lethality) > T. platyurus (24 h - lethality). Alginate or SRHA reduced significantly the toxicity of both amidine and carboxyl PS nanoplastics to the studied zooplankton representatives. The implications of this laboratory study findings to natural environment were discussed.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Plásticos/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Zooplâncton/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anostraca/efeitos dos fármacos , Anostraca/metabolismo , Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Daphnia/metabolismo , Água Doce , Gastrópodes , Substâncias Húmicas , Larva , Rotíferos/efeitos dos fármacos , Rotíferos/metabolismo , Zooplâncton/metabolismo
17.
Environ Pollut ; 250: 331-337, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003145

RESUMO

Microalgae are widely used as representative primary producers in ecotoxicology, while macrophytes are much less studied. Here we compared the bioavailability and cellular toxicity pathways of 2 h-exposure to 10-6 mol L-1 Cu in the macrophyte Elodea nuttallii and the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Uptake rate was similar but faster in the algae than in the macrophyte, while RNA-Sequencing revealed a similar number of regulated genes. Early-regulated genes were congruent with expected adverse outcome pathways for Cu with Gene Ontology terms including gene regulation, energy metabolism, transport, cell processes, stress, antioxidant metabolism and development. However, the gene regulation level was higher in E. nuttallii than in C. reinhardtii and several categories were more represented in the macrophyte than in the microalga. Moreover, several categories including oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPP), nitrate metabolism and metal handling were only found for E. nuttallii, whereas categories such as cell motility, polyamine metabolism, mitochondrial electron transport and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) were unique to C. reinhardtii. These differences were attributed to morphological and metabolic differences and highlighted dissimilarities between a sessile and a mobile species. Our results highlight the efficiency of transcriptomics to assess early molecular responses in biota, and the importance of studying more aquatic plants for a better understanding on the impact and fate of environmental contaminants.


Assuntos
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/fisiologia , Cobre/metabolismo , Hydrocharitaceae/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/metabolismo , Cobre/toxicidade , Hydrocharitaceae/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 170: 771-777, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593990

RESUMO

Combination of biotic and abiotic factors influences the effects of naturally occurring or anthropogenic chemicals on photosynthetic microorganisms in the aquatic environment. Nonetheless, the combined effects of physical stressors and species-species interaction on chemicals' toxicity are still poorly understood. The present study examines the responses of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. alone and in mixtures to copper exposure under increasing visible light intensities. Cell growth, chlorophyll bleaching, oxidative stress and membrane permeability were determined by flow cytometry in both mono- and multi-species tests. The results revealed that species-species interactions influenced copper toxicity under different light regimes at 4 h and 48 h - exposure. For a given light condition, monocultures of Synechocystis sp. were more sensitive to copper than those of C. reinhardtii. In long-term incubation C. reinhardtii sensitivity to copper diminished in presence of Synechocystis sp. under low-intensity light, however it was enhanced under high-intensity light. The present results revealed the complex interplay between visible light intensity variations, species-species interaction and copper effects to phytoplankton in long- term exposure.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobre/toxicidade , Luz , Interações Microbianas , Synechocystis/efeitos dos fármacos , Processos de Crescimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cocultura , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Permeabilidade , Fotossíntese , Fitoplâncton/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(15): 8876-8884, 2018 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29984984

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) remains hazardous in aquatic environments because of its biomagnification in food webs. Nonetheless, Hg uptake and impact in primary producers is still poorly understood. Here, we compared the cellular toxicity of inorganic and methyl Hg (IHg and MeHg, respectively) in the aquatic plant Elodea nuttallii. IHg and MeHg regulated contigs involved in similar categories (e.g., energy metabolism, development, transport, secondary metabolism), but MeHg regulated more contigs, supporting a higher molecular impact than IHg. At the organism level, MeHg induced antioxidants, while IHg decreased chlorophyll content. The uptake of Hg and expression of a subset of contigs was subsequently studied in complex media. Measured uptake pointed to a contrasted impact of cell walls and copper (Cu) on IHg and MeHg. Using a speciation modeling, differences in uptake were attributed to the differences in affinities of IHg and MeHg to organic matter in relation to Cu speciation. We also identified a distinct gene expression signature for IHg, MeHg, and Cu, further supporting different molecular toxicity of these trace elements. Our data provided fundamental knowledge on IHg and MeHg uptake in a key aquatic primary producer and confirmed the potential of transcriptomics to assess Hg exposure in environmentally realistic systems.


Assuntos
Hydrocharitaceae , Mercúrio , Compostos de Metilmercúrio , Cobre , Cadeia Alimentar
20.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 13(1): 159, 2018 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29796771

RESUMO

Recently, the green synthesis of metal nanoparticles has attracted wide attention due to its feasibility and very low environmental impact. This approach was applied in this study to synthesise nanoscale gold (Au), platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), silver (Ag) and copper oxide (CuO) materials in simple aqueous media using the natural polymer gum karaya as a reducing and stabilising agent. The nanoparticles' (NPs) zeta-potential, stability and size were characterised by Zetasizer Nano, UV-Vis spectroscopy and by electron microscopy. Moreover, the biological effect of the NPs (concentration range 1.0-20.0 mg/L) on a unicellular green alga (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) was investigated by assessing algal growth, membrane integrity, oxidative stress, chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence and photosystem II photosynthetic efficiency. The resulting NPs had a mean size of 42 (Au), 12 (Pt), 1.5 (Pd), 5 (Ag) and 180 (CuO) nm and showed high stability over 6 months. At concentrations of 5 mg/L, Au and Pt NPs only slightly reduced algal growth, while Pd, Ag and CuO NPs completely inhibited growth. Ag, Pd and CuO NPs showed strong biocidal properties and can be used for algae prevention in swimming pools (CuO) or in other antimicrobial applications (Pd, Ag), whereas Au and Pt lack these properties and can be ranked as harmless to green alga.

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