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1.
Cancer ; 127(20): 3742-3750, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The IBIS/Tyrer-Cuzick model is used clinically to guide breast cancer screening and prevention, but was developed primarily in non-Hispanic White women. Little is known about its long-term performance in a racially/ethnically diverse population. METHODS: The Women's Health Initiative study enrolled postmenopausal women from 1993-1998. Women were included who were aged <80 years at enrollment with no prior breast cancer or mastectomy and with data required for IBIS/Tyrer-Cuzick calculation (weight; height; ages at menarche, first birth, and menopause; menopausal hormone therapy use; and family history of breast or ovarian cancer). Calibration was assessed by the ratio of observed breast cancer cases to the number expected by the IBIS/Tyrer-Cuzick model (O/E; calculated as the sum of cumulative hazards). Differential discrimination was tested for by self-reported race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander, and American Indian or Alaskan Native) using Cox regression. Exploratory analyses, including simulation of a protective single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs140068132 at 6q25, were performed. RESULTS: During follow-up (median 18.9 years, maximum 23.4 years), 6783 breast cancer cases occurred among 90,967 women. IBIS/Tyrer-Cuzick was well calibrated overall (O/E ratio = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.97) and in most racial/ethnic groups, but overestimated risk for Hispanic women (O/E ratio = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.62-0.90). Discrimination did not differ by race/ethnicity. Exploratory simulation of the protective SNP suggested improved IBIS/Tyrer-Cuzick calibration for Hispanic women (O/E ratio = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.66-0.96). CONCLUSIONS: The IBIS/Tyrer-Cuzick model is well calibrated for several racial/ethnic groups over 2 decades of follow-up. Studies that incorporate genetic and other risk factors, particularly among Hispanic women, are essential to improve breast cancer-risk prediction.

2.
Cancer ; 127(15): 2801-2806, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To identify additional at-risk groups for lung cancer screening, which targets persons with a long history of smoking and thereby misses younger or nonsmoking cases, the authors evaluated germline pathogenic variants (PVs) in patients with lung adenocarcinoma for an association with an accelerated onset. METHODS: The authors assembled a retrospective cohort (1999-2018) of oncogenetic clinic patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Eligibility required a family history of cancer, data on smoking, and a germline biospecimen to screen via a multigene panel. Germline PVs (TP53/EGFR, BRCA2, other Fanconi anemia [FA] pathway genes, and non-FA DNA repair genes) were interrogated for associations with the age at diagnosis via an accelerated failure time model. RESULTS: Subjects (n = 187; age, 28-89 years; female, 72.7%; Hispanic, 11.8%) included smokers (minimum of 5 pack-years; n = 65) and nonsmokers (lighter ever smokers [n = 18] and never smokers [n = 104]). Overall, 26.7% of the subjects carried 1 to 2 germline PVs: TP53 (n = 5), EGFR (n = 2), BRCA2 (n = 6), another FA gene (n = 11), or another DNA repair gene (n = 28). After adjustment for smoking, sex, and ethnicity, the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma was accelerated 12.2 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5-20.6 years) by BRCA2 PVs, 9.0 years (95% CI, 0.5-16.5 years) by TP53/EGFR PVs, and 6.1 years (95% CI, -1.0 to 12.6 years) by PVs in other FA genes. PVs in other DNA repair genes showed no association. Germline associations did not vary by smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Among lung adenocarcinoma cases, germline PVs (TP53, EGFR, BRCA2, and possibly other FA genes) may be associated with an earlier onset. With further study, the criteria for lung cancer screening may need to include carriers of high-risk PVs, and findings could influence precision therapy and reduce lung cancer mortality by earlier stage diagnosis.

3.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 188(3): 759-768, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826040

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The prevalence, penetrance, and spectrum of pathogenic variants that predispose women to two or more breast cancers is largely unknown. METHODS: We queried clinical and genetic data from women with one or more breast cancer diagnosis who received multigene panel testing between 2013 and 2018. Clinical data were obtained from provider-completed test request forms. For each gene on the panel, a multivariable logistic regression model was constructed to test for association with risk of multiple breast cancer diagnoses. Models accounted for age of diagnosis, personal and family cancer history, and ancestry. Results are reported as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: This study included 98,979 patients: 88,759 (89.7%) with a single breast cancer and 10,220 (10.3%) with ≥ 2 breast cancers. Of women with two or more breast cancers, 13.2% had a pathogenic variant in a cancer predisposition gene compared to 9.4% with a single breast cancer. BRCA1, BRCA2, CDH1, CHEK2, MSH6, PALB2, PTEN, and TP53 were significantly associated with two or more breast cancers, with ORs ranging from 1.35 for CHEK2 to 3.80 for PTEN. Overall, pathogenic variants in all breast cancer risk genes combined were associated with both metachronous (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.53-1.79, p = 7.2 × 10-33) and synchronous (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.19-1.50, p = 2.4 × 10-6) breast cancers. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that several high and moderate penetrance breast cancer susceptibility genes are associated with ≥ 2 breast cancers, affirming the association of two or more breast cancers with diverse genetic etiologies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Genes BRCA2 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
4.
Hum Mutat ; 42(3): 223-236, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300245

RESUMO

Germline pathogenic variants in TP53 are associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, a cancer predisposition disorder inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern associated with a high risk of malignancy, including early-onset breast cancers, sarcomas, adrenocortical carcinomas, and brain tumors. Intense cancer surveillance for individuals with TP53 germline pathogenic variants is associated with reduced cancer-related mortality. Accurate and consistent classification of germline variants across clinical and research laboratories is important to ensure appropriate cancer surveillance recommendations. Here, we describe the work performed by the Clinical Genome Resource TP53 Variant Curation Expert Panel (ClinGen TP53 VCEP) focused on specifying the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) guidelines for germline variant classification to the TP53 gene. Specifications were developed for 20 ACMG/AMP criteria, while nine were deemed not applicable. The original strength level for the 10 criteria was also adjusted due to current evidence. Use of TP53-specific guidelines and sharing of clinical data among experts and clinical laboratories led to a decrease in variants of uncertain significance from 28% to 12% compared with the original guidelines. The ClinGen TP53 VCEP recommends the use of these TP53-specific ACMG/AMP guidelines as the standard strategy for TP53 germline variant classification.

5.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 1053, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline TP53 mutations are associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, a severe and rare hereditary cancer syndrome. Despite the rarity of germline TP53 mutations, the clinical implication for mutation carriers and their families is significant. The risk management of TP53 germline mutation carriers is more stringent than BRCA carriers, and radiotherapy should be avoided when possible. METHODS: TP53 gene mutation screening was performed in 2538 Chinese breast cancer patients who tested negative for BRCA mutations. RESULTS: Twenty TP53 mutations were identified with high next-generation sequencing concerning for germline mutations in Chinese breast cancer families. The majorities of the TP53 carriers had early-onset, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, and had strong family history of cancer. Among all, 11 patients carried a germline mutation and 6 of which were likely de novo germline mutations. In addition, 1 case was suspected to be induced by chemotherapy or radiation, as this patient had no significant family history of cancer and aberrant clonal expansion can commonly include TP53 mutations. Furthermore, we have identified one mosaic LFS case. Two novel mutations (c.524_547dup and c.529_546del) were identified in patients with early-onset. CONCLUSIONS: In view of the high lifetime risk of malignancy, identification of patients with germline TP53 mutations are important for clinicians to aid in accurate risk assessment and offer surveillance for patients and their families.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954205

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women with breast cancer have a 4%-16% lifetime risk of a second primary cancer. Whether mutations in genes other than BRCA1/2 are enriched in patients with breast and another primary cancer over those with a single breast cancer (S-BC) is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified pathogenic germline mutations in 17 cancer susceptibility genes in patients with BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer in 2 different cohorts: cohort 1, high-risk breast cancer program (multiple primary breast cancer [MP-BC], n = 551; S-BC, n = 449) and cohort 2, familial breast cancer research study (MP-BC, n = 340; S-BC, n = 1,464). Mutation rates in these 2 cohorts were compared with a control data set (Exome Aggregation Consortium [ExAC]). RESULTS: Overall, pathogenic mutation rates for autosomal, dominantly inherited genes were higher in patients with MP-BC versus S-BC in both cohorts (8.5% v 4.9% [P = .02] and 7.1% v 4.2% [P = .03]). There were differences in individual gene mutation rates between cohorts. In both cohorts, younger age at first breast cancer was associated with higher mutation rates; the age of non-breast cancers was unrelated to mutation rate. TP53 and MSH6 mutations were significantly enriched in patients with MP-BC but not S-BC, whereas ATM and PALB2 mutations were significantly enriched in both groups compared with ExAC. CONCLUSION: Mutation rates are at least 7% in all patients with BRCA1/2 mutation-negative MP-BC, regardless of age at diagnosis of breast cancer, with mutation rates up to 25% in patients with a first breast cancer diagnosed at age < 30 years. Our results suggest that all patients with breast cancer with a second primary cancer, regardless of age of onset, should undergo multigene panel testing.

7.
Cancer Res ; 80(17): 3732-3744, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675277

RESUMO

Germline mutations in TP53 cause a rare high penetrance cancer syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS). Here, we identified a rare TP53 tetramerization domain missense mutation, c.1000G>C;p.G334R, in a family with multiple late-onset LFS-spectrum cancers. Twenty additional c.1000G>C probands and one c.1000G>A proband were identified, and available tumors showed biallelic somatic inactivation of TP53. The majority of families were of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, and the TP53 c.1000G>C allele was found on a commonly inherited chromosome 17p13.1 haplotype. Transient transfection of the p.G334R allele conferred a mild defect in colony suppression assays. Lymphoblastoid cell lines from the index family in comparison with TP53 normal lines showed that although classical p53 target gene activation was maintained, a subset of p53 target genes (including PCLO, PLTP, PLXNB3, and LCN15) showed defective transactivation when treated with Nutlin-3a. Structural analysis demonstrated thermal instability of the G334R-mutant tetramer, and the G334R-mutant protein showed increased preponderance of mutant conformation. Clinical case review in comparison with classic LFS cohorts demonstrated similar rates of pediatric adrenocortical tumors and other LFS component cancers, but the latter at significantly later ages of onset. Our data show that TP53 c.1000G>C;p.G334R is found predominantly in Ashkenazi Jewish individuals, causes a mild defect in p53 function, and leads to low penetrance LFS. SIGNIFICANCE: TP53 c.1000C>G;p.G334R is a pathogenic, Ashkenazi Jewish-predominant mutation associated with a familial multiple cancer syndrome in which carriers should undergo screening and preventive measures to reduce cancer risk.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Judeus , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Linhagem
8.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 11(4): 962-972, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of patients undergoing autologous haematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) is growing, but little is known about the factors that predict adverse outcomes. Low muscle mass and obesity are associated with disability and premature mortality in individuals with non-malignant diseases and may predict outcomes after autologous HCT. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 320 patients who underwent autologous HCT for Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma between 2009 and 2014. Sarcopenia {skeletal muscle index male: <43 cm/m2 [body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m2 ] or < 53 cm/m2 [BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 ] and female: <41 cm/m2 [regardless of BMI]) and obesity [total abdominal adiposity ≥450.0 cm2 (male), ≥396.4 cm2 (female)] were assessed from single-slice abdominal pre-HCT computed tomography images. Length of hospital stay, first unplanned intensive care unit admission, and 30-day unplanned readmission were evaluated based on body composition using multivariable regression analysis, and mortality was evaluated with Kaplan-Meier analysis and Gray's test. RESULTS: Median age at HCT was 53.3 years (range, 18.5 to 78.1 years); 26.3% were sarcopenic and an additional 7.8% were sarcopenic obese pre-HCT. Sarcopenic obesity was associated with increased risk of prolonged hospitalization [odds ratio (OR) = 3.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-9.8], intensive care unit admission (OR = 4.7, 95% CI 1.5-16.1), and unplanned readmission after HCT (OR = 13.6, 95% CI 2.5-62.8). Patients who were sarcopenic obese also had the highest mortality risk at 1 year [hazard ratio (HR): 3.9, 95% CI 1.1-11.0] and 5 years (HR: 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.5), compared with patients with normal body composition. Sarcopenia alone, but not obesity alone, was associated with an increased risk of these outcomes, albeit with a lower magnitude of risk than in patients who were sarcopenic obese. CONCLUSIONS: Sarcopenic obesity was an important predictor of outcomes in patients undergoing autologous HCT. These findings could inform targeted prevention strategies in patients at highest risk of complications after HCT.

9.
Genet Med ; 22(5): 825-830, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911673

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Guidelines for variant interpretation incorporate variant hotspots in critical functional domains as evidence for pathogenicity (e.g., PM1 and PP2), but do not use "coldspots," that is, regions without essential functions that tolerate variation, as evidence a variant is benign. To improve variant classification we evaluated BRCA1 and BRCA2 missense variants reported in ClinVar to identify regions where pathogenic missenses are extremely infrequent, defined as coldspots. METHODS: We used Bayesian approaches to model variant classification in these regions. RESULTS: BRCA1 exon 11 (~60% of the coding sequence), and BRCA2 exons 10 and 11 (~65% of the coding sequence), are coldspots. Of 89 pathogenic (P) or likely pathogenic (LP) missense variants in BRCA1, none are in exon 11 (odds <0.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.0-0.01). Of 34 P or LP missense variants in BRCA2, none are in exons 10-11 (odds <0.01, 95% CI 0.0-0.01). More than half of reported missense variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are in coldspots (3115/5301 = 58.8%). Reclassifying these 3115 VUS as likely benign would substantially improve variant classification. CONCLUSION: In BRCA1 and BRCA2 coldspots, missense variants are very unlikely to be pathogenic. Classification schemes that incorporate coldspots can reduce the number of VUS and mitigate risks from reporting benign variation as VUS.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Éxons , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética
10.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 11(7): 1054-1060, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980412

RESUMO

Earlier age at onset is one characteristic of hereditary cancer syndromes, so most studies of genetic testing have focused on young patients with cancer. However, recent studies of multigene panel tests in unselected cancer populations have detected a considerable proportion of older patients with germline pathogenic variants (PVs) in cancer susceptibility genes. As the number of older patients with cancer continues to rise, clinicians should be aware of genetic/genomic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) criteria in both young and older adults. Identifying individuals with a germline PV in a cancer susceptibility gene may be important for precision therapy of current cancers and screening and prevention of new primary cancers, as well as cascade testing to identify high cancer risks for family members. Typically, hereditary predisposition germline genetic testing has been recommended for patients with early onset cancers and/or a family history of cancer. However, more recently international guidelines recommend testing for potential therapeutic intervention regardless of age for some tumors frequently seen in older patients, such as epithelial ovarian, pancreatic, and metastatic prostate and breast cancers. GCRA in older patients may present challenges including: clonal hematopoiesis (CH) confounding test interpretation, ethical aspects (autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence), patient health status, comorbidities, as well as lack of insurance coverage. These factors should be considered during genetic counseling and when considering cancer screening and risk reduction procedures. This manuscript reviews available data on common hereditary cancer syndromes in older patients and provides tools to help providers perform GCRA in this population.

11.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 11(2): 316-319, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575519

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to identify pathogenic variants (PV) associated with germline cancer predisposition in an unselected cohort of older breast cancer survivors. Older patients with cancer may also be at higher risk for clonal hematopoiesis (CH) due to their age and chemotherapy exposure. Therefore, we also explored the prevalence of PVs suggestive of CH. METHODS: We evaluated 44 older adults (65 years or older) diagnosed with breast cancer who survived at least two years after diagnosis from a prospective study, compared to healthy controls over the age of 65 (n = 36). DNA extracted from blood samples and a multi-gene panel test was used to evaluate for common hereditary cancer predisposition and CH PVs. Fisher's exact test was used to compare PV rates between groups. RESULTS: Eight PVs in ATM, BRCA2 (x2), PALB2, RAD51D, BRIP1, and MUTYH (x2) were identified in 7 of 44 individuals with breast cancer (15.9%, 95% CI: 7-30%), whereas none were identified in healthy controls (p = .01). Results remained statistically significant after removal of MUTYH carriers (p = .045). PVs indicative of CH (ATM, NBN, and PPM1D [x2]) were identified in three of 27 individuals with breast cancer who received chemotherapy and in one healthy control. CONCLUSION: Moderate-risk and later disease onset high-risk hereditary cancer predisposition PVs were statistically significantly enriched in our survivorship cohort compared to controls. Because age- and chemotherapy-related CH are more frequent in this population, care must be taken to differentiate potential CH PVs from germline cancer predisposition PVs.

12.
Fam Cancer ; 19(1): 1-10, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555933

RESUMO

In 20-30% of patients suspected of a familial colorectal cancer (CRC) syndrome, no underlying genetic cause is detected. Recent advances in whole exome sequencing have generated evidence for new CRC-susceptibility genes including POLE, POLD1 and NTHL1¸ but many patients remain unexplained. Whole exome sequencing was performed on DNA from nine patients from five different families with familial clusters of CRC in which traditional genetic testing failed to yield a diagnosis. Variants were filtered by minor allele frequencies, followed by prioritization based on in silico prediction tools, and the presence in cancer susceptibility genes or genes in cancer-associated pathways. Effects of frameshift variants on protein structure were modeled using I-Tasser. One known pathogenic variant in POLD1 was detected (p.S478N), together with variants in 17 candidate genes not previously associated with CRC. Additional in silico analysis using SIFT, PROVEAN and PolyPhen on the 14 missense variants indicated a possible damaging effect in nine of 14 variants. Modeling of the insertions/deletions showed a damaging effect of two variants in NOTCH2 and CYP1B1. One family was explained by a mutation in a known familial CRC gene. In the remaining four families, the most promising candidates found are a frameshift NOTCH2 and a missense RAB25 variant. This study provides potential novel candidate variants in unexplained familial CRC patients, however, functional validation is imperative to confirm the role of these variants in CRC tumorigenesis. Additionally, while whole exome sequencing enables detection of variants throughout the exome, other causes explaining the familial phenotype such as multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms accumulating to a polygenic risk or epigenetic events, might be missed with this approach.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Genes Neoplásicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/genética , DNA Polimerase III/genética , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Linhagem , Receptor Notch2/genética , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/genética
13.
Pharmacol Ther ; 207: 107458, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863816

RESUMO

Circulating tumor DNA holds substantial promise as an early detection biomarker, particularly for cancers that do not have currently accepted screening methodologies, such as ovarian, pancreatic, and gastric cancers. Many features intrinsic to ctDNA analysis may be leveraged to enhance its use as an early cancer detection biomarker: including ctDNA fragment lengths, DNA copy number variations, and associated patient phenotypic information. Furthermore, ctDNA testing may be synergistically used with other multi-omic biomarkers to enhance early detection. For instance, assays may incorporate early detection proteins (i.e., CA-125), epigenetic markers, circulating tumor RNA, nucleosomes, exosomes, and associated immune markers. Many companies are currently competing to develop a marketable early cancer detection test that leverages ctDNA. Although some hurdles (like early stage disease assay accuracy, high implementation costs, confounding from clonal hematopoiesis, and lack of clinical utility studies) need to be addressed before integration into healthcare, ctDNA assays hold substantial potential as an early cancer screening test.


Assuntos
DNA Tumoral Circulante , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Animais , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética
14.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 17(9): 1032-1041, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487681

RESUMO

Identifying individuals with hereditary syndromes allows for improved cancer surveillance, risk reduction, and optimized management. Establishing criteria for assessment allows for the identification of individuals who are carriers of pathogenic genetic variants. The NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Colorectal provide recommendations for the assessment and management of patients with high-risk colorectal cancer syndromes. These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on criteria for the evaluation of Lynch syndrome and considerations for use of multigene testing in the assessment of hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/diagnóstico , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/terapia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/diagnóstico , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/terapia , Medição de Risco
15.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(12): 2517-2521, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445185

RESUMO

Clonal hematopoiesis (CH), characterized by the accumulation of acquired somatic mutations in the blood, is associated with an elevated risk of aging-related diseases and premature mortality in non-cancer populations. Patients who undergo autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are also at high risk of premature onset of aging-related conditions. Therefore, we examined the association between pretreatment CH and late-occurring (≥1 year) nonrelapse mortality (NRM) after HCT. We evaluated pathogenic and likely pathogenic CH variants (PVs) in 10 patients who developed NRM after HCT and in 29 HCT recipient controls matched by age at HCT ± 2 years (median, 64.6 years; range, 38.5 to 74.7 years), sex (79.5% male), diagnosis (61.5% with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 18.0% with Hodgkin lymphoma, and 20.5% with multiple myeloma), and duration of follow-up. We analyzed mobilized hematopoietic stem cell DNA in samples collected before HCT using a custom panel of amplicons covering the coding exons of 79 myeloid-related genes associated with CH. PVs with allele fractions >2% were used for analyses. Cases were significantly more likely than controls to have CH (70% versus 24.1%; P = .002), to have ≥2 unique PVs (60% versus 6.9%; P < .001), and to have PVs with allelic fractions ≥10% (40% versus 3.4%; P = .003). Here we provide preliminary evidence of an association between pre-HCT CH and NRM after HCT independent of chronologic age. Integration of CH analyses may improve the accuracy of existing pre-HCT risk prediction models, setting the stage for personalized risk assessment strategies and targeted treatments to optimally prevent or manage late complications associated with HCT.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Hematopoese , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Linfoma não Hodgkin , Mieloma Múltiplo , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Envelhecimento/patologia , Autoenxertos , Feminino , Humanos , Linfoma não Hodgkin/metabolismo , Linfoma não Hodgkin/mortalidade , Linfoma não Hodgkin/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/metabolismo , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(504)2019 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391323

RESUMO

Longitudinal analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has shown promise for monitoring treatment response. However, most current methods lack adequate sensitivity for residual disease detection during or after completion of treatment in patients with nonmetastatic cancer. To address this gap and to improve sensitivity for minute quantities of residual tumor DNA in plasma, we have developed targeted digital sequencing (TARDIS) for multiplexed analysis of patient-specific cancer mutations. In reference samples, by simultaneously analyzing 8 to 16 known mutations, TARDIS achieved 91 and 53% sensitivity at mutant allele fractions (AFs) of 3 in 104 and 3 in 105, respectively, with 96% specificity, using input DNA equivalent to a single tube of blood. We successfully analyzed up to 115 mutations per patient in 80 plasma samples from 33 women with stage I to III breast cancer. Before treatment, TARDIS detected ctDNA in all patients with 0.11% median AF. After completion of neoadjuvant therapy, ctDNA concentrations were lower in patients who achieved pathological complete response (pathCR) compared to patients with residual disease (median AFs, 0.003 and 0.017%, respectively, P = 0.0057, AUC = 0.83). In addition, patients with pathCR showed a larger decrease in ctDNA concentrations during neoadjuvant therapy. These results demonstrate high accuracy for assessment of molecular response and residual disease during neoadjuvant therapy using ctDNA analysis. TARDIS has achieved up to 100-fold improvement beyond the current limit of ctDNA detection using clinically relevant blood volumes, demonstrating that personalized ctDNA tracking could enable individualized clinical management of patients with cancer treated with curative intent.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , DNA Tumoral Circulante/análise , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasia Residual/sangue , Neoplasia Residual/tratamento farmacológico , Bioensaio , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasia Residual/genética , Curva ROC , Padrões de Referência , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Neurol Genet ; 5(2): e565, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192300

RESUMO

Objective: To expand the clinical spectrum of lysyl-tRNA synthetase (KARS) gene-related diseases, which so far includes Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, congenital visual impairment and microcephaly, and nonsyndromic hearing impairment. Methods: Whole-exome sequencing was performed on index patients from 4 unrelated families with leukoencephalopathy. Candidate pathogenic variants and their cosegregation were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Effects of mutations on KARS protein function were examined by aminoacylation assays and yeast complementation assays. Results: Common clinical features of the patients in this study included impaired cognitive ability, seizure, hypotonia, ataxia, and abnormal brain imaging, suggesting that the CNS involvement is the main clinical presentation. Six previously unreported and 1 known KARS mutations were identified and cosegregated in these families. Two patients are compound heterozygous for missense mutations, 1 patient is homozygous for a missense mutation, and 1 patient harbored an insertion mutation and a missense mutation. Functional and structural analyses revealed that these mutations impair aminoacylation activity of lysyl-tRNA synthetase, indicating that defective KARS function is responsible for the phenotypes in these individuals. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that patients with loss-of-function KARS mutations can manifest CNS disorders, thus broadening the phenotypic spectrum associated with KARS-related disease.

18.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(8): 1543-1546, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207089

RESUMO

1p36 deletion syndrome is a well-described condition with a recognizable phenotype, including cognitive impairment, seizures, and structural brain anomalies such as periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). In a large series of these individuals by Battaglia et al., "birth history was notable in 50% of the cases for varying degrees of perinatal distress." Given the potential for perinatal distress, seizures and PVL, we questioned if this disorder has clinical overlap with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We reviewed the medical records of 69 individuals with 1p36 deletion to clarify the perinatal phenotype of this disorder and determine if there is evidence of perinatal distress and/or hypoxic injury. Our data provides evidence that these babies have signs of perinatal distress. The majority (59% term; 75% preterm) needed resuscitation and approximately 18% had cardiac arrest. Most had abnormal brain imaging (84% term; 73% preterm) with abnormal white matter findings in over half of patients. PVL or suggestion of "hypoxic insult" was present in 18% of term and 45% of preterm patients. In conclusion, individuals with 1p36 deletion have evidence of perinatal distress, white matter changes, and seizures, which can mimic HIE but are likely related to their underlying chromosome disorder.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Fenótipo , Angústia Psicológica , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez
19.
Cancer Genet ; 235-236: 31-38, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056428

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) hereditary pan-cancer panel testing can identify somatic variants, which exhibit lower allele frequencies than do germline variants and may confound hereditary cancer predisposition testing. This analysis examined the prevalence and characteristics of likely-somatic variants among 348,543 individuals tested using a clinical NGS hereditary pan-cancer panel. Variants showing allele frequencies between 10% and 30% were interpreted as likely somatic and identified in 753 (0.22%) individuals. They were most frequent in TP53, CHEK2 and ATM, commonly as C-to-T transitions. Among individuals who carried a likely-somatic variant and reported no personal cancer history, 54.2% (78/144) carried a variant in TP53, CHEK2 or ATM. With a reported cancer history, this percentage increased to 81.1% (494/609), predominantly in CHEK2 and TP53. Their presence was associated with age (OR=3.1, 95% CI 2.5, 3.7; p<0.001) and personal history of cancer (OR=3.3, 95% CI 2.7, 4.0; p<0.001), particularly ovarian cancer. Germline ATM pathogenic variant carriers showed significant enrichment of likely-somatic variants (OR=2.8, 95% CI 1.6, 4.9; p = 0.005), regardless of cancer status. The appearance of likely-somatic variants is consistent with clonal hematopoiesis, possibly influenced by cancer treatment. These findings highlight the precision required of diagnostic laboratories to deliver accurate germline testing results.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Sequência de Bases , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
20.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(5): 884-888, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Women diagnosed with breast cancer (BC) at an older age are less likely to undergo genetic cancer risk assessment and genetic testing since the guidelines and referrals are biased toward earlier age at diagnosis. Thus, we determined the prevalence and type of pathogenic cancer predisposition variants among women with a history of BC diagnosed at the age of 65 years or older vs younger than 65 years. DESIGN: Prospective registration cohort. SETTING: The Clinical Cancer Genomics Community Research Network, including 40 community-based clinics in the United States and 5 in Latin America. PARTICIPANTS: Women with BC and genetic testing results. MEASUREMENTS: Sociodemographic characteristics, clinical variables, and genetic profiles were compared between women aged 65 years and older and those younger than 65 years at BC diagnosis. RESULTS: Among 588 women diagnosed with BC and aged 65 years and older and 9412 diagnosed at younger than 65 years, BC-associated pathogenic variants (PVs) were detected in 5.6% of those aged 65 years and older (n = 33) and 14.2% of those younger than 65 years (n = 1340) (P < .01). PVs in high-risk genes (eg, BRCA1 and BRCA2) represented 81.1% of carriers among women aged 65 years and older (n = 27) and 93.1% of those younger than 65 years (n = 1248) (P = .01). BRCA2 PVs represented 42.4% of high-risk gene findings for those aged 65 years and older, whereas BRCA1 PVs were most common among carriers younger than 65 years (49.7%). PVs (n = 7) in moderate-risk genes represented 21.2% for carriers aged 65 years and older and 7.3% of those younger than 65 years (n = 98; P < .01). CHEK2 PVs were the most common moderate-risk gene finding in both groups. CONCLUSION: Clinically actionable BC susceptibility PVs, particularly in BRCA2 and CHEK2, were relatively prevalent among older women undergoing genetic testing. The significant burden of PVs for older women with BC provides a critical reminder to recognize the full spectrum of eligibility and provide genetic testing for older women, rather than exclusion based on chronological age alone. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:884-888, 2019.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco/métodos , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Morbidade/tendências , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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