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1.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625560

RESUMO

PBX1 is an essential developmental transcription factor, mutations in which have recently been associated with CAKUTHED syndrome, characterised by multiple congenital defects including congenital heart disease. During analysis of a whole-exome-sequenced cohort of heterogeneous CHD patients, we identified a de novo missense variant, PBX1:c.551G>C p.R184P, in a patient with tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve and extra-cardiac phenotypes. Functional analysis of this variant by creating a CRISPR-Cas9 gene-edited mouse model revealed multiple congenital anomalies. Congenital heart defects (persistent truncus arteriosus and ventricular septal defect), hypoplastic lungs, hypoplastic/ectopic kidneys, aplastic adrenal glands and spleen, as well as atretic trachea and palate defects were observed in the homozygous mutant embryos at multiple stages of development. We also observed developmental anomalies in a proportion of heterozygous embryos, suggestive of a dominant mode of inheritance. Analysis of gene expression and protein levels revealed that although Pbx1 transcripts are higher in homozygotes, amounts of PBX1 protein are significantly decreased. Here, we have presented the first functional model of a missense PBX1 variant and provide strong evidence that p.R184P is disease-causal. Our findings also expand the phenotypic spectrum associated with pathogenic PBX1 variants in both humans and mice.

3.
Genet Med ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501586

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Exome sequencing (ES) has the potential to improve management of congenital anomalies and neurodevelopmental disorders in fetuses, infants, and children. US payers are key stakeholders in patient access to ES. We examined how payers view insurance coverage and clinical utility of pediatric and prenatal ES. METHODS: We employed the framework approach of qualitative research to conduct this study. The study cohort represented 14 payers collectively covering 170,000,000 enrollees. RESULTS: Seventy-one percent of payers covered pediatric ES despite perceived insufficient evidence because they saw merit in available interventions or in ending the diagnostic odyssey. None covered prenatal ES, because they saw no merit. For pediatric ES, 50% agreed with expanded aspects of clinical utility (e.g., information utility), and 21% considered them sufficient for coverage. For prenatal ES, payers saw little utility until in utero interventions become available. CONCLUSION: The perceived merit of ES is becoming a factor in payers' coverage for serious diseases with available interventions, even when evidence is perceived insufficient. Payers' views on ES's clinical utility are expanding to include informational utility, aligning with the views of patients and other stakeholders. Our findings inform clinical research, patient advocacy, and policy-making, allowing them to be more relevant to payers.

4.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(11): 2190-2195, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465153

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies are genetic disorders in which both the developmental disability and the frequent epileptic activity are the effect of a specific gene variant. While heterozygous variants in SCN1B have been described in families with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, Type 1, only three cases of homozygous, missense variants in SCN1B have been reported in association with autosomal recessive inheritance of a severe developmental and epileptic encephalopathy. We present two siblings who are homozygous for a novel, missense variant in SCN1B, c.265C>T, predicting p.Arg89Cys. The proband is an 11-year-old female with infantile-onset, fever-induced, intractable generalized tonic-clonic seizures, myoclonic seizures, and developmental slowing and autism spectrum disorder occurring later in the course of the disease. Her 4-year-old brother had a similar epilepsy phenotype, but still displays normal development. This variant has not been previously reported in the homozygous state in control databases. The variant was predicted to be damaging and occurred in the vicinity of other epileptic encephalopathy-associated missense variants that are biallelic and located in the extracellular immunoglobulin loop domain of the protein, which mediates interaction of the beta-1 subunit with cellular adhesion molecules. Our report is the first set of siblings with homozygosity for the p.Arg89Cys variant in SCN1B and further implicates biallelic mutations in this gene as a cause of epileptic encephalopathy mimicking Dravet syndrome. Interestingly, the phenotype we observed was milder compared to that previously described in patients with recessive SCN1B mutations.

5.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(9): e818, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Threonine Aspartase 1 (Taspase 1) is a highly conserved site-specific protease whose substrates are broad-acting nuclear transcription factors that govern diverse biological programs, such as organogenesis, oncogenesis, and tumor progression. To date, no single base pair mutations in Taspase 1 have been implicated in human disease. METHODS: A female infant with a new pattern of diagnostic abnormalities was identified, including severe craniofacial anomalies, anterior and posterior segment dysgenesis, immunodeficiency, and macrocytic anemia. Trio-based whole exome sequencing was performed to identify disease-causing variants. RESULTS: Whole exome sequencing revealed a normal female karyotype (46,XX) without increased regions of homozygosity. The proband was heterozygous for a de novo missense variant, c.1027G>A predicting p.(Val343Met), in the TASP1 gene (NM_017714.2). This variant has not been observed in population databases and is predicted to be deleterious. CONCLUSION: One human patient has been reported previously with a large TASP1 deletion and substantial evidence exists regarding the role of several known Taspase 1 substrates in human craniofacial and hematopoietic disorders. Moreover, Taspase 1 deficiency in mice results in craniofacial, ophthalmological and structural brain defects. Taken together, there exists substantial evidence to conclude that the TASP1 variant, p.(Val343Met), is pathogenic in this patient.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 631-639, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353024

RESUMO

Notch signaling is an established developmental pathway for brain morphogenesis. Given that Delta-like 1 (DLL1) is a ligand for the Notch receptor and that a few individuals with developmental delay, intellectual disability, and brain malformations have microdeletions encompassing DLL1, we hypothesized that insufficiency of DLL1 causes a human neurodevelopmental disorder. We performed exome sequencing in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders. The cohort was identified using known Matchmaker Exchange nodes such as GeneMatcher. This method identified 15 individuals from 12 unrelated families with heterozygous pathogenic DLL1 variants (nonsense, missense, splice site, and one whole gene deletion). The most common features in our cohort were intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, seizures, variable brain malformations, muscular hypotonia, and scoliosis. We did not identify an obvious genotype-phenotype correlation. Analysis of one splice site variant showed an in-frame insertion of 12 bp. In conclusion, heterozygous DLL1 pathogenic variants cause a variable neurodevelopmental phenotype and multi-systemic features. The clinical and molecular data support haploinsufficiency as a mechanism for the pathogenesis of this DLL1-related disorder and affirm the importance of DLL1 in human brain development.

7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 413-424, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327508

RESUMO

WD40 repeat-containing proteins form a large family of proteins present in all eukaryotes. Here, we identified five pediatric probands with de novo variants in WDR37, which encodes a member of the WD40 repeat protein family. Two probands shared one variant and the others have variants in nearby amino acids outside the WD40 repeats. The probands exhibited shared phenotypes of epilepsy, colobomas, facial dysmorphology reminiscent of CHARGE syndrome, developmental delay and intellectual disability, and cerebellar hypoplasia. The WDR37 protein is highly conserved in vertebrate and invertebrate model organisms and is currently not associated with a human disease. We generated a null allele of the single Drosophila ortholog to gain functional insights and replaced the coding region of the fly gene CG12333/wdr37 with GAL4. These flies are homozygous viable but display severe bang sensitivity, a phenotype associated with seizures in flies. Additionally, the mutant flies fall when climbing the walls of the vials, suggesting a defect in grip strength, and repeat the cycle of climbing and falling. Similar to wall clinging defect, mutant males often lose grip of the female abdomen during copulation. These phenotypes are rescued by using the GAL4 in the CG12333/wdr37 locus to drive the UAS-human reference WDR37 cDNA. The two variants found in three human subjects failed to rescue these phenotypes, suggesting that these alleles severely affect the function of this protein. Taken together, our data suggest that variants in WDR37 underlie a novel syndromic neurological disorder.

8.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; : 1055665619858257, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248274

RESUMO

Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS) is a rare genetic disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in the Snf2-related CREBBP activator protein (SRCAP) gene. The syndrome is characterized by proportional short stature, delayed bone maturation, delayed speech development, and facial dysmorphism. Submucous cleft palate and cleft lip have been reported in FHS, but to our knowledge orofacial clefting in this condition has not been assessed in detail. Here, we report on a case of bilateral cleft lip in a patient with FHS confirmed by exome sequencing.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(6): 1088-1096, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104772

RESUMO

Conceptual frameworks are useful in research because they can highlight priority research domains, inform decisions about interventions, identify outcomes and factors to measure, and display how factors might relate to each other to generate and test hypotheses. Discovery, translational, and implementation research are all critical to the overall mission of genomic medicine and prevention, but they have yet to be organized into a unified conceptual framework. To fill this gap, our diverse team collaborated to develop the Genomic Medicine Integrative Research (GMIR) Framework, a simple but comprehensive tool to aid the genomics community in developing research questions, strategies, and measures and in integrating genomic medicine and prevention into clinical practice. Here we present the GMIR Framework and its development, along with examples of its use for research development, demonstrating how we applied it to select and harmonize measures for use across diverse genomic medicine implementation projects. Researchers can utilize the GMIR Framework for their own research, collaborative investigations, and clinical implementation efforts; clinicians can use it to establish and evaluate programs; and all stakeholders can use it to help allocate resources and make sure that the full complexity of etiology is included in research and program design, development, and evaluation.

10.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0212121, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017898

RESUMO

Nonsense suppression therapy (NST) utilizes compounds such as PTC124 (Ataluren) to induce translational read-through of stop variants by promoting the insertion of near cognate, aminoacyl tRNAs that yield functional proteins. We used NST with PTC124 to determine if we could successfully rescue nonsense variants in human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4) in vitro and in a zebrafish bmp4 allele with a stop variant in vivo. We transfected 293T/17 cells with wildtype or mutant human BMP4 cDNA containing p.Arg198* and p.Glu213* and exposed cells to 0-20 µM PTC124. Treatment with 20 µM PTC124 produced a small, non-significant increase in BMP4 when targeting the p.Arg198* allele, but not the p.Glu213* allele, as measured with an In-cell ELISA assay. We then examined the ability of PTC124 to rescue the ventral tail fin defects associated with homozygosity for the p.Glu209* allele of bmp4 (bmp4st72/st72) in Danio rerio. We in-crossed bmp4st72/+ heterozygous fish and found a statistically significant increase in homozygous larvae without tail fin and ventroposterior defects, consistent with phenotypic rescue, after treatment of dechorionated larvae with 0.5 µM PTC124. We conclude that treatment with PTC124 can rescue bmp4 nonsense variants, but that the degree of rescue may depend on sequence specific factors and the amount of RNA transcript available for rescue. Our work also confirms that zebrafish show promise as a useful animal model for assessing the efficacy of PTC124 treatment on nonsense variants.

11.
J Med Genet ; 56(7): 444-452, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A single variant in NAA10 (c.471+2T>A), the gene encoding N-acetyltransferase 10, has been associated with Lenz microphthalmia syndrome. In this study, we aimed to identify causative variants in families with syndromic X-linked microphthalmia. METHODS: Three families, including 15 affected individuals with syndromic X-linked microphthalmia, underwent analyses including linkage analysis, exome sequencing and targeted gene sequencing. The consequences of two identified variants in NAA10 were evaluated using quantitative PCR and RNAseq. RESULTS: Genetic linkage analysis in family 1 supported a candidate region on Xq27-q28, which included NAA10. Exome sequencing identified a hemizygous NAA10 polyadenylation signal (PAS) variant, chrX:153,195,397T>C, c.*43A>G, which segregated with the disease. Targeted sequencing of affected males from families 2 and 3 identified distinct NAA10 PAS variants, chrX:g.153,195,401T>C, c.*39A>G and chrX:g.153,195,400T>C, c.*40A>G. All three variants were absent from gnomAD. Quantitative PCR and RNAseq showed reduced NAA10 mRNA levels and abnormal 3' UTRs in affected individuals. Targeted sequencing of NAA10 in 376 additional affected individuals failed to identify variants in the PAS. CONCLUSION: These data show that PAS variants are the most common variant type in NAA10-associated syndromic microphthalmia, suggesting reduced RNA is the molecular mechanism by which these alterations cause microphthalmia/anophthalmia. We reviewed recognised variants in PAS associated with Mendelian disorders and identified only 23 others, indicating that NAA10 harbours more than 10% of all known PAS variants. We hypothesise that PAS in other genes harbour unrecognised pathogenic variants associated with Mendelian disorders. The systematic interrogation of PAS could improve genetic testing yields.

12.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(8): 1413-1414, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912611
13.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(4): 582-593, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622326

RESUMO

The Integrator complex subunit 1 (INTS1) is a component of the integrator complex that comprises 14 subunits and associates with RPB1 to catalyze endonucleolytic cleavage of nascent snRNAs and assist RNA polymerase II in promoter-proximal pause-release on protein-coding genes. We present five patients, including two sib pairs, with biallelic sequence variants in INTS1. The patients manifested absent or severely limited speech, an abnormal gait, hypotonia and cataracts. Exome sequencing revealed biallelic variants in INTS1 in all patients. One sib pair demonstrated a missense variant, p.(Arg77Cys), and a frameshift variant, p.(Arg1800Profs*20), another sib pair had a homozygous missense variant, p.(Pro1874Leu), and the fifth patient had a frameshift variant, p.(Leu1764Cysfs*16) and a missense variant, p.(Leu2164Pro). We also report additional clinical data on three previously described individuals with a homozygous, loss of function variant, p.(Ser1784*) in INTS1 that shared cognitive delays, cataracts and dysmorphic features with these patients. Several of the variants affected the protein C-terminus and preliminary modeling showed that the p.(Pro1874Leu) and p.(Leu2164Pro) variants may interfere with INTS1 helix folding. In view of the cataracts observed, we performed in-situ hybridization and demonstrated expression of ints1 in the zebrafish eye. We used Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 to make larvae with biallelic insertion/deletion (indel) variants in ints1. The mutant larvae developed typically through gastrulation, but sections of the eye showed abnormal lens development. The distinctive phenotype associated with biallelic variants in INTS1 points to dysfunction of the integrator complex as a mechanism for intellectual disability, eye defects and craniofacial anomalies.

14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380203

RESUMO

Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) describes a group of developmental disorders affecting the lungs with its pulmonary vasculature. Mutations in the FOXF1 gene have been reported in most cases, and extrapulmonary findings were described. We present two patients with ACDMPV and FOXF1 mutations that illustrate the variability in presentation and outcome of their disease. Patient 1 was a full-term infant with imperforate anus and pulmonary hypertension. He required Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation on day of life (DOL) 3, and passed away on DOL 13 after no clinical improvement. Postmortem findings were consistent with ACDMPV. FOXF1 testing revealed a heterozygous pathogenic frameshift de novo mutation, c.1057_1078dup, p.(Gly360Valfs*58). Patient 2 is a 6-month-old female, with a small omphalocele. She had intermittent retractions at 1 week of age. She was admitted with pulmonary hypertension at 7 weeks of age. Lung biopsy confirmed ACDMPV. FOXF1 testing revealed a de novo, heterozygous likely pathogenic missense mutation c.253T>C, p.(Phe85Leu]). Our two patients had different presentations, ages of onset, and progression of their disease. Our second patient had patchy lung involvement on biopsy, which may explain the relatively delayed onset and longer survival. ACDMPV is an important consideration for full-term infants with worsening pulmonary hypertension early in life.

15.
Hum Genet ; 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30374660

RESUMO

As new genes for A/M are identified in the genomic era, the number of syndromes associated with A/M has greatly expanded. In this review, we provide a brief synopsis of the clinical presentation and molecular genetic etiology of previously characterized pathways involved in A/M, including the Sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2), Orthodenticle Homeobox 2 (OTX2) and Paired box protein-6 (PAX6) genes, and the Stimulated by retinoic acid gene 6 homolog (STRA6), Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 Family Member A3 (ALDH1A3), and RA Receptor Beta (RARß) genes that are involved in retinoic acid synthesis. Less common genetic causes of A/M, including genes involved in BMP signaling [Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4), Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 (BMP7) and SPARC-related modular calcium-binding protein 1 (SMOC1)], genes involved in the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex [Holocytochrome c-type synthase (HCCS), Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit 7B (COX7B), and NADH:Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase subunit B11 (NDUFB11)], the BCL-6 corepressor gene (BCOR), Yes-Associated Protein 1 (YAP1) and Transcription Factor AP-2 Alpha (TFAP2α), are more briefly discussed. We also review several recently described genes and pathways associated with A/M, including Smoothened (SMO) that is involved in Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling, Structural maintenance of chromosomes flexible hinge domain containing 1 (SMCHD1) and Solute carrier family 25 member 24 (SLC25A24), emphasizing phenotype-genotype correlations and shared pathways where relevant.

16.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 5(10): 1277-1285, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349862

RESUMO

De novo variants in DDX3X account for 1-3% of unexplained intellectual disability (ID) cases and are amongst the most common causes of ID especially in females. Forty-seven patients (44 females, 3 males) have been described. We identified 31 additional individuals carrying 29 unique DDX3X variants, including 30 postnatal individuals with complex clinical presentations of developmental delay or ID, and one fetus with abnormal ultrasound findings. Rare or novel phenotypes observed include respiratory problems, congenital heart disease, skeletal muscle mitochondrial DNA depletion, and late-onset neurologic decline. Our findings expand the spectrum of DNA variants and phenotypes associated with DDX3X disorders.

17.
Hum Mutat ; 39(11): 1677-1685, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311382

RESUMO

The use of genome-scale sequencing allows for identification of genetic findings beyond the original indication for testing (secondary findings). The ClinGen Actionability Working Group's (AWG) protocol for evidence synthesis and semi-quantitative metric scoring evaluates four domains of clinical actionability for potential secondary findings: severity and likelihood of the outcome, and effectiveness and nature of the intervention. As of February 2018, the AWG has scored 127 genes associated with 78 disorders (up-to-date topics/scores are available at www.clinicalgenome.org). Scores across these disorders were assessed to compare genes/disorders recommended for return as secondary findings by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) with those not currently recommended. Disorders recommended by the ACMG scored higher on outcome-related domains (severity and likelihood), but not on intervention-related domains (effectiveness and nature of the intervention). Current practices indicate that return of secondary findings will expand beyond those currently recommended by the ACMG. The ClinGen AWG evidence reports and summary scores are not intended as classifications of actionability, rather they provide a resource to aid decision makers as they determine best practices regarding secondary findings. The ClinGen AWG is working with the ACMG Secondary Findings Committee to update future iterations of their secondary findings list.

18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(3): 319-327, 2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30193136

RESUMO

The Clinical Sequencing Evidence-Generating Research (CSER) consortium, now in its second funding cycle, is investigating the effectiveness of integrating genomic (exome or genome) sequencing into the clinical care of diverse and medically underserved individuals in a variety of healthcare settings and disease states. The consortium comprises a coordinating center, six funded extramural clinical projects, and an ongoing National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) intramural project. Collectively, these projects aim to enroll and sequence over 6,100 participants in four years. At least 60% of participants will be of non-European ancestry or from underserved settings, with the goal of diversifying the populations that are providing an evidence base for genomic medicine. Five of the six clinical projects are enrolling pediatric patients with various phenotypes. One of these five projects is also enrolling couples whose fetus has a structural anomaly, and the sixth project is enrolling adults at risk for hereditary cancer. The ongoing NHGRI intramural project has enrolled primarily healthy adults. Goals of the consortium include assessing the clinical utility of genomic sequencing, exploring medical follow up and cascade testing of relatives, and evaluating patient-provider-laboratory level interactions that influence the use of this technology. The findings from the CSER consortium will offer patients, healthcare systems, and policymakers a clearer understanding of the opportunities and challenges of providing genomic medicine in diverse populations and settings, and contribute evidence toward developing best practices for the delivery of clinically useful and cost-effective genomic sequencing in diverse healthcare settings.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30074570

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To present the scope of prenatal diagnosis and early treatment of patients with clinically heterogeneous phenotypic retinal dysplasia associated with NDP gene variants. METHODS: Retrospective. Review of electronic medical records. RESULTS: Twenty-nine-year-old woman known to carry a NDP gene variant presented to the eye clinic for consultation and risk assessment at her second pregnancy. Her 11-year-old son had bilateral retinal detachment, despite surgical treatment. The family declined prenatal testing. The patient was born full term, was examined, and underwent genetic testing after birth. He was found to have bilateral retinal avascular periphery abnormalities and preretinal hemorrhages on the left eye. The patient received bilateral laser treatment at 2 months of age. He was found to be doing well at 16 months after treatment with adequate visual acuity and flat maculae. The asymptomatic mother and maternal grandfather of the proband were found to have retinal periphery abnormalities with unremarkable posterior pole and excellent visual acuity. CONCLUSION: NDP gene variants associated with X-linked familial exudative vitreoretinopathy phenotype benefit from early treatment. Providers who take care of these patients need to monitor closely the pregnancy and delivery of a male child born to a female carrier to offer appropriate and timely treatment.

20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(9): 1797-1798, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30063092
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