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1.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e030731, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434782

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a non-invasive alternative to surgery for the treatment of non-metastatic prostate cancer (PC). The objectives of the Novel Integration of New prostate radiation schedules with adJuvant Androgen deprivation (NINJA) clinical trial are to compare two emerging SBRT regimens for efficacy with technical substudies focussing on MRI only planning and the use of knowledge-based planning (KBP) to assess radiotherapy plan quality. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Eligible patients must have biopsy-proven unfavourable intermediate or favourable high-risk PC, have an Eastern Collaborative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0-1 and provide written informed consent. All patients will receive 6 months in total of androgen deprivation therapy. Patients will be randomised to one of two SBRT regimens. The first will be 40 Gy in five fractions given on alternating days (SBRT monotherapy). The second will be 20 Gy in two fractions given 1 week apart followed 2 weeks later by 36 Gy in 12 fractions given five times per week (virtual high-dose rate boost (HDRB)). The primary efficacy outcome will be biochemical clinical control at 5 years. Secondary endpoints for the initial portion of NINJA look at the transition of centres towards MRI only planning and the impact of KBP on real-time (RT) plan assessment. The first 150 men will demonstrate accrual feasibility as well as addressing the KBP and MRI planning aims, prior to proceeding with total accrual to 472 patients as a phase III randomised controlled trial. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: NINJA is a multicentre cooperative clinical trial comparing two SBRT regimens for men with PC. It builds on promising results from several single-armed studies, and explores radiation dose escalation in the Virtual HDRB arm. The initial component includes novel technical elements, and will form an important platform set for a definitive phase III study. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ANZCTN 12615000223538.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cashew is a common cause of tree nut allergy in children. To date there have been few studies of diagnostic tests for cashew allergy, and positive predictive values (PPVs) for cashew as well as other tree nuts are largely extrapolated from studies of peanut allergy. How relevant these cutoffs are for cashew has not been formally explored. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to establish skin prick test (SPT) wheal sizes that correlated to 95% PPV for a positive food challenge for cashew. METHODS: We included all cashew oral food challenges (OFCs) conducted as part of the HealthNuts (n = 108; age, 4-6 years) and SchoolNuts (n = 37; age, 10-14 years) studies, both recruited from the community (population cohort). A second cohort of all cashew OFCs conducted at the Royal Children's Hospital (RCH) allergy center (n = 343) (2011-2016) and a private allergy clinic based at RCH (n = 43) was included via electronic medical record review (clinic cohort). The 95% PPV for cashew SPT was calculated for both cohorts. RESULTS: Among the population cohort (n = 145), 62% of cashew OFCs were positive compared with 20% of the clinic cohort (n = 386). The SPT cutoff for 95% PPV derived from the population cohort was 10 mm (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.5-12.0). For the clinic cohort, the 95% PPV was 14 mm (95% CI, 9.5-unknown). An SPT wheal size of 8 mm had a PPV of 89% (95% CI, 79-95) in the population cohort and 62% (95% CI, 45-78) in the clinic cohort. CONCLUSION: A higher SPT wheal size may be more appropriate than the commonly used 8 mm cutoff to guide clinical decisions around when to perform OFC for cashew.

3.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(5): 505-511, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172381

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative for many patients with primary immune deficiency (PID). Haploidentical donors have historically been associated with higher rates of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and graft failure. Use of T cell receptor (TCR) α+ß+/CD19+-depleted grafts has resulted in improved haploidentical HSCT outcomes. We sought to evaluate outcomes of TCR α+ß+/CD19+-depleted haploidentical HSCT in pediatric patients with PID at a single center in Australia. Specifically, we evaluated immune reconstitution, looking at time to T cell and B cell reconstitution, and B cell function post-HSCT. Eleven patients with a mean age of 7.92 years (range 0.33-17.17 years) were included. The median time to B cell recovery was 93 days (range 41-205 days), and the median time to cessation of immunoglobulin replacement was 281.5 days (range 41-205 days). All patients who had ceased immunoglobulin replacement had an adequate response to pneumococcal conjugate (Prevenar 13) vaccine. The median time to CD4+ recovery was 132 days (range 30-296 days), and naive T cells were present in all surviving patients by 4 months post-HSCT. Eight of 11 patients are surviving, with six patients having whole blood chimerism greater than 95%, one patient with whole blood chimerism of 82.8%, and another with 76.0%. All of these patients clinically had no evidence of underlying immunodeficiency. Likelihood of overall survival at 2 years post-HSCT was 81.8%. Cumulative incidence of acute GvHD was 27.3%. Cumulative incidence of CMV viremia was 63.6%. All patients previously exposed to CMV had reactivation post-HSCT, but were controlled with pre-emptive CMV treatment. Assuming most children with PID have a haploidentical donor available, use of this technique is likely to result in good outcomes for patients who do not have a suitable matched sibling or matched unrelated donor.

4.
Front Immunol ; 10: 895, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105705

RESUMO

Patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) have failure of B-cell development with lack of immunoglobulin (Ig) production. While immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IgRT) is beneficial, XLA patients remain at risk for infections, structural lung damage, and rarely, neoplasia. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) may offer a potential cure, but is associated with significant life-threatening complications. Here, we present a 25-year old XLA patient who developed pre-B acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) with somatic TP53 mutation, and treatment for this high-risk malignancy involved full myeloablative conditioning and a HLA-matched sibling alloSCT. Full donor chimerism was achieved for CD3+ and CD3- cell fractions. The patient remains in morphological and flow cytometric remission 14 months post-transplant, with late-onset oral GvHD requiring low dose prednisolone and cyclosporin. Following IgRT discontinuation at 4 months post-transplantation, humoral immunity was established within 14 months as reflected by normal numbers of total B cells, memory B cells, serum IgG, IgM, and IgA, and production of specific IgG responses to Prevenar-13 vaccination. This is only the second reported case of an XLA patient with pre-B-ALL, and the most detailed report of engraftment following alloSCT in XLA. Together with the two previous XLA cases treated with alloSCT, our report provides evidence for the potential for successful humoral reconstitution with alloSCT in patients with B-cell intrinsic antibody deficiency. These observations may be relevant given IgRT, while beneficial, remains an imperfect solution to long-term infectious complications.

5.
JCI Insight ; 52019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021819

RESUMO

Bi-allelic inactivating mutations in DOCK8 cause a combined immunodeficiency characterised by severe pathogen infections, eczema, allergies, malignancy and impaired humoral responses. These clinical features result from functional defects in most lymphocyte lineages. Thus, DOCK8 plays a key role in immune cell function. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative for DOCK8 deficiency. While previous reports have described clinical outcomes for DOCK8 deficiency following HSCT, the effect on lymphocyte reconstitution and function has not been investigated. Our study determined whether defects in lymphocyte differentiation and function in DOCK8-deficient patients were restored following HSCT. DOCK8-deficient T and B lymphocytes exhibited aberrant activation and effector function in vivo and in vitro. Frequencies of αß T and MAIT cells were reduced while γδT cells were increased in DOCK8-deficient patients. HSCT improved, abnormal lymphocyte function in DOCK8-deficient patients. Elevated total and allergen-specific IgE in DOCK8-deficient patients decreased over time following HSCT. Our results document the extensive catalogue of cellular defects in DOCK8-deficient patients, and the efficacy of HSCT to correct these defects, concurrent with improvements in clinical phenotypes. Overall, our findings provide mechanisms at a functional cellular level for improvements in clinical features of DOCK8 deficiency post-HSCT, identify biomarkers that correlate with improved clinical outcomes, and inform the general dynamics of immune reconstitution in patients with monogenic immune disorders following HSCT.

6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(1): 236-253, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in PIK3CD cause a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent respiratory tract infections, susceptibility to herpesvirus infections, and impaired antibody responses. Previous work revealed defects in CD8+ T and B cells that contribute to this clinical phenotype, but less is understood about the role of CD4+ T cells in disease pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to dissect the effects of increased phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling on CD4+ T-cell function. METHODS: We performed detailed ex vivo, in vivo, and in vitro phenotypic and functional analyses of patients' CD4+ T cells and a novel murine disease model caused by overactive PI3K signaling. RESULTS: PI3K overactivation caused substantial increases in numbers of memory and follicular helper T (TFH) cells and dramatic changes in cytokine production in both patients and mice. Furthermore, PIK3CD GOF human TFH cells had dysregulated phenotype and function characterized by increased programmed cell death protein 1, CXCR3, and IFN-γ expression, the phenotype of a TFH cell subset with impaired B-helper function. This was confirmed in vivo in which Pik3cd GOF CD4+ T cells also acquired an aberrant TFH phenotype and provided poor help to support germinal center reactions and humoral immune responses by antigen-specific wild-type B cells. The increase in numbers of both memory and TFH cells was largely CD4+ T-cell extrinsic, whereas changes in cytokine production and TFH cell function were cell intrinsic. CONCLUSION: Our studies reveal that CD4+ T cells with overactive PI3K have aberrant activation and differentiation, thereby providing mechanistic insight into dysfunctional antibody responses in patients with PIK3CD GOF mutations.

7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2238-2253, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CD40 ligand (CD40L) deficiency, an X-linked primary immunodeficiency, causes recurrent sinopulmonary, Pneumocystis and Cryptosporidium species infections. Long-term survival with supportive therapy is poor. Currently, the only curative treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). OBJECTIVE: We performed an international collaborative study to improve patients' management, aiming to individualize risk factors and determine optimal HSCT characteristics. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on 130 patients who underwent HSCT for CD40L deficiency between 1993-2015. We analyzed outcome and variables' relevance with respect to survival and cure. RESULTS: Overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were 78.2%, 58.1%, and 72.3% 5 years after HSCT. Results were better in transplantations performed in 2000 or later and in children less than 10 years old at the time of HSCT. Pre-existing organ damage negatively influenced outcome. Sclerosing cholangitis was the most important risk factor. After 2000, superior OS was achieved with matched donors. Use of myeloablative regimens and HSCT at 2 years or less from diagnosis associated with higher OS and DFS. EFS was best with matched sibling donors, myeloablative conditioning (MAC), and bone marrow-derived stem cells. Most rejections occurred after reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning, which associated with poor donor cell engraftment. Mortality occurred mainly early after HSCT, predominantly from infections. Among survivors who ceased immunoglobulin replacement, T-lymphocyte chimerism was 50% or greater donor in 85.2%. CONCLUSION: HSCT is curative in patients with CD40L deficiency, with improved outcome if performed before organ damage development. MAC is associated with better OS, EFS, and DFS. Prospective studies are required to compare the risks of HSCT with those of lifelong supportive therapy.

8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(3): 933-949, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27554822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) deficiency is a combined immunodeficiency caused by autosomal recessive loss-of-function mutations in DOCK8. This disorder is characterized by recurrent cutaneous infections, increased serum IgE levels, and severe atopic disease, including food-induced anaphylaxis. However, the contribution of defects in CD4+ T cells to disease pathogenesis in these patients has not been thoroughly investigated. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the phenotype and function of DOCK8-deficient CD4+ T cells to determine (1) intrinsic and extrinsic CD4+ T-cell defects and (2) how defects account for the clinical features of DOCK8 deficiency. METHODS: We performed in-depth analysis of the CD4+ T-cell compartment of DOCK8-deficient patients. We enumerated subsets of CD4+ T helper cells and assessed cytokine production and transcription factor expression. Finally, we determined the levels of IgE specific for staple foods and house dust mite allergens in DOCK8-deficient patients and healthy control subjects. RESULTS: DOCK8-deficient memory CD4+ T cells were biased toward a TH2 type, and this was at the expense of TH1 and TH17 cells. In vitro polarization of DOCK8-deficient naive CD4+ T cells revealed the TH2 bias and TH17 defect to be T-cell intrinsic. Examination of allergen-specific IgE revealed plasma IgE from DOCK8-deficient patients is directed against staple food antigens but not house dust mites. CONCLUSION: Investigations into the DOCK8-deficient CD4+ T cells provided an explanation for some of the clinical features of this disorder: the TH2 bias is likely to contribute to atopic disease, whereas defects in TH1 and TH17 cells compromise antiviral and antifungal immunity, respectively, explaining the infectious susceptibility of DOCK8-deficient patients.


Assuntos
Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/deficiência , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Alérgenos/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
Eur Radiol ; 27(3): 995-1003, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27287481

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore changes in bone mineral density (BMD) measured by DEXA and MRS fat fraction (FF), Dixon FF, and ADC in lower spinal vertebral bodies in men with prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). METHODS: Twenty-eight men were enrolled onto a clinical trial. All received ADT. DEXA imaging was performed at baseline and 12 months. L-spine MRI was done at baseline and 6 months. RESULTS: The number of patients who underwent DEXA, Dixon, ADC, and MRS at baseline/follow-up were 28/27, 28/26, 28/26, and 22/20. An increase in FF was observed from T11 to S2 (average 1 %/vertebra). There was a positive correlation between baseline MRS FF and Dixon FF (r = 0.85, p < 0.0001) and a negative correlation between MRS FF and ADC (r = -0.56, p = 0.036). Over 6 months, MRS FF increased by a median of 25 % in relative values (p = 0.0003), Dixon FF increased (p < 0.0001) and ADC values decreased (p = 0.0014). Men with >5 % BMD loss after 1 year had triple the percentage increase in MRS FF at 6 months (61.1 % vs. 20.9 %, p = 0.19). CONCLUSIONS: Changes are observed on L-spine MRI after 6 months of ADT. Further investigation is warranted of MRS change as a potential predictive biomarker for later BMD loss. KEY POINTS: • Spinal marrow fat fraction increases after 6 months of androgen deprivation therapy. • More inferior vertebral bodies tend to have higher fat fractions. • MRS fat fraction changes were associated with later changes in DEXA BMD.


Assuntos
Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Coluna Vertebral/patologia
11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 136(4): 993-1006.e1, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26162572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Follicular helper T (TFH) cells underpin T cell-dependent humoral immunity and the success of most vaccines. TFH cells also contribute to human immune disorders, such as autoimmunity, immunodeficiency, and malignancy. Understanding the molecular requirements for the generation and function of TFH cells will provide strategies for targeting these cells to modulate their behavior in the setting of these immunologic abnormalities. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the signaling pathways and cellular interactions required for the development and function of TFH cells in human subjects. METHODS: Human primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) resulting from monogenic mutations provide a unique opportunity to assess the requirement for particular molecules in regulating human lymphocyte function. Circulating follicular helper T (cTFH) cell subsets, memory B cells, and serum immunoglobulin levels were quantified and functionally assessed in healthy control subjects, as well as in patients with PIDs resulting from mutations in STAT3, STAT1, TYK2, IL21, IL21R, IL10R, IFNGR1/2, IL12RB1, CD40LG, NEMO, ICOS, or BTK. RESULTS: Loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in STAT3, IL10R, CD40LG, NEMO, ICOS, or BTK reduced cTFH cell frequencies. STAT3 and IL21/R LOF and STAT1 gain-of-function mutations skewed cTFH cell differentiation toward a phenotype characterized by overexpression of IFN-γ and programmed death 1. IFN-γ inhibited cTFH cell function in vitro and in vivo, as corroborated by hypergammaglobulinemia in patients with IFNGR1/2, STAT1, and IL12RB1 LOF mutations. CONCLUSION: Specific mutations affect the quantity and quality of cTFH cells, highlighting the need to assess TFH cells in patients by using multiple criteria, including phenotype and function. Furthermore, IFN-γ functions in vivo to restrain TFH cell-induced B-cell differentiation. These findings shed new light on TFH cell biology and the integrated signaling pathways required for their generation, maintenance, and effector function and explain the compromised humoral immunity seen in patients with some PIDs.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Ligante de CD40/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Quinase I-kappa B/genética , Imunidade Humoral/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Memória Imunológica , Proteína Coestimuladora de Linfócitos T Induzíveis/genética , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária , Mutação/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Receptores de Citocinas/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
12.
J Exp Med ; 212(6): 855-64, 2015 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25941256

RESUMO

Unconventional T cells such as γδ T cells, natural killer T cells (NKT cells) and mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAIT cells) are a major component of the immune system; however, the cytokine signaling pathways that control their development and function in humans are unknown. Primary immunodeficiencies caused by single gene mutations provide a unique opportunity to investigate the role of specific molecules in regulating human lymphocyte development and function. We found that individuals with loss-of-function mutations in STAT3 had reduced numbers of peripheral blood MAIT and NKT but not γδ T cells. Analysis of STAT3 mosaic individuals revealed that this effect was cell intrinsic. Surprisingly, the residual STAT3-deficient MAIT cells expressed normal levels of the transcription factor RORγt. Despite this, they displayed a deficiency in secretion of IL-17A and IL-17F, but were able to secrete normal levels of cytokines such as IFNγ and TNF. The deficiency in MAIT and NKT cells in STAT3-deficient patients was mirrored by loss-of-function mutations in IL12RB1 and IL21R, respectively. Thus, these results reveal for the first time the essential role of STAT3 signaling downstream of IL-23R and IL-21R in controlling human MAIT and NKT cell numbers.


Assuntos
Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/citologia , Separação Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Interleucina-23/metabolismo , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/citologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/citologia , Linfócitos/citologia , Mutação , Membro 3 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/metabolismo , Receptores de Interleucina/metabolismo , Receptores de Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Receptores de Interleucina-21/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
13.
J Clin Immunol ; 35(4): 366-72, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25875700

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency is a systemic disorder of purine metabolism. Deficiency of the purine salvage enzyme ADA leads to the build-up of the toxic metabolites, deoxyadenosine triphosphate and deoxyadenosine. ADA is ubiquitously expressed in all tissues of the body but most profoundly affects lymphocyte development and function leading to severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Unlike most other forms of SCID, ADA deficiency also results in non-immunologic manifestations. Associations between ADA deficiency and sensorineural hearing loss, behavioural abnormalities, non-infectious pulmonary disease and skeletal dysplasia are all recognised, and affect the long term outcome for these patients. Identification of new non-immunological manifestations and clinical presentations of ADA deficiency is essential to allow early optimisation of supportive care. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here we report four patients with ADA deficiency whose presenting feature was haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). 3 of 4 patients were diagnosed with ADA deficiency only after developing HUS, and one diagnosis was made post mortem, after a sibling was diagnosed with SCID. Shiga-toxigenic organisms were not isolated from any of the patients. 2 patients made a good recovery from their HUS with supportive treatment and initiation of PEG-ADA. Both remain well on enzyme replacement with mild or no residual renal impairment. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should be aware of this previously unreported non-immunologic manifestation of ADA deficiency.


Assuntos
Adenosina Desaminase/deficiência , Agamaglobulinemia/diagnóstico , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica Atípica/diagnóstico , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Adenosina Desaminase/genética , Agamaglobulinemia/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/tratamento farmacológico
16.
J Clin Immunol ; 34(5): 551-4, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24817258

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify mechanisms of disease in a child born to consanguineous parents, who presented with Omenn syndrome (OS) and was found to carry a heterozygous RAG1 mutation in peripheral blood DNA. METHODS: Mutation analysis was performed on whole blood and buccal swab DNA. Recombination activity of the mutant RAG1 protein and diversity of T cell repertoire were tested. RESULTS: Apparent heterozygosity for a novel, functionally null RAG1 mutation in peripheral blood DNA from a patient with OS was shown to be secondary to true somatic reversion. Analysis of T cell repertoire demonstrated expression of various TCRBV families, but an overall restricted pattern. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first case of true somatic reversion of a RAG1 mutation in a patient with OS. The reversion event likely occurred at a stage where only a limited pool of T cell progenitors capable of performing V(D)J recombination could be generated. This work emphasizes the importance of performing functional studies to investigate the significance of novel genetic variants, and to consider somatic reversion as a possible disease modifier in SCID.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Mosaicismo , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Transposases/genética , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Genótipo , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Heterozigoto , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/sangue , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/patologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/patologia , Transposases/sangue
17.
J Exp Med ; 210(12): 2739-53, 2013 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24218138

RESUMO

Long-lived antibody memory is mediated by the combined effects of long-lived plasma cells (PCs) and memory B cells generated in response to T cell-dependent antigens (Ags). IL-10 and IL-21 can activate multiple signaling pathways, including STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5; ERK; PI3K/Akt, and potently promote human B cell differentiation. We previously showed that loss-of-function mutations in STAT3, but not STAT1, abrogate IL-10- and IL-21-mediated differentiation of human naive B cells into plasmablasts. We report here that, in contrast to naive B cells, STAT3-deficient memory B cells responded to these STAT3-activating cytokines, differentiating into plasmablasts and secreting high levels of IgM, IgG, and IgA, as well as Ag-specific IgG. This was associated with the induction of the molecular machinery necessary for PC formation. Mutations in IL21R, however, abolished IL-21-induced responses of both naive and memory human B cells and compromised memory B cell formation in vivo. These findings reveal a key role for IL-21R/STAT3 signaling in regulating human B cell function. Furthermore, our results indicate that the threshold of STAT3 activation required for differentiation is lower in memory compared with naive B cells, thereby identifying an intrinsic difference in the mechanism underlying differentiation of naive versus memory B cells.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Memória Imunológica , Plasmócitos/imunologia , Plasmócitos/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Humanos , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-21/deficiência , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-21/genética , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-21/metabolismo , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Mutação , Plasmócitos/citologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/deficiência , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Membro 7 da Superfamília de Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo
18.
Blood ; 122(24): 3940-50, 2013 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24159173

RESUMO

B-cell responses are guided by the integration of signals through the B-cell receptor (BCR), CD40, and cytokine receptors. The common γ chain (γc)-binding cytokine interleukin (IL)-21 drives humoral immune responses via STAT3-dependent induction of transcription factors required for plasma cell generation. We investigated additional mechanisms by which IL-21/STAT3 signaling modulates human B-cell responses by studying patients with STAT3 mutations. IL-21 strongly induced CD25 (IL-2Rα) in normal, but not STAT3-deficient, CD40L-stimulated naïve B cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed IL2RA as a direct target of STAT3. IL-21-induced CD25 expression was also impaired on B cells from patients with IL2RG or IL21R mutations, confirming a requirement for intact IL-21R signaling in this process. IL-2 increased plasmablast generation and immunoglobulin secretion from normal, but not CD25-deficient, naïve B cells stimulated with CD40L/IL-21. IL-2 and IL-21 were produced by T follicular helper cells, and neutralizing both cytokines abolished the B-cell helper capacity of these cells. Our results demonstrate that IL-21, via STAT3, sensitizes B cells to the stimulatory effects of IL-2. Thus, IL-2 may play an adjunctive role in IL-21-induced B-cell differentiation. Lack of this secondary effect of IL-21 may amplify the humoral immunodeficiency in patients with mutations in STAT3, IL2RG, or IL21R due to impaired responsiveness to IL-21.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-2/farmacologia , Interleucinas/farmacologia , Plasmócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Linfócitos B/citologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Ligante de CD40/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interleucina-10/farmacologia , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/genética , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Mutação , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Plasmócitos/citologia , Plasmócitos/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Blood ; 122(12): 2052-61, 2013 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23929855

RESUMO

Patients with the dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) immunodeficiency syndrome suffer from recurrent viral and bacterial infections, hyper-immunoglobulin E levels, eczema, and greater susceptibility to cancer. Because natural killer T (NKT) cells have been implicated in these diseases, we asked if these cells were affected by DOCK8 deficiency. Using a mouse model, we found that DOCK8 deficiency resulted in impaired NKT cell development, principally affecting the formation and survival of long-lived, differentiated NKT cells. In the thymus, DOCK8-deficient mice lack a terminally differentiated subset of NK1.1(+) NKT cells expressing the integrin CD103, whereas in the liver, DOCK8-deficient NKT cells express reduced levels of the prosurvival factor B-cell lymphoma 2 and the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1. Although the initial NKT cell response to antigen is intact in the absence of DOCK8, their ongoing proliferative and cytokine responses are impaired. Importantly, a similar defect in NKT cell numbers was detected in DOCK8-deficient humans, highlighting the relevance of the mouse model. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that DOCK8 is required for the development and survival of mature NKT cells, consistent with the idea that DOCK8 mediates survival signals within a specialized niche. Accordingly, impaired NKT cell numbers and function are likely to contribute to the susceptibility of DOCK8-deficient patients to recurrent infections and malignant disease.


Assuntos
Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Células T Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos Ly/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/metabolismo , Humanos , Receptores de Hialuronatos/metabolismo , Imunofenotipagem , Cadeias alfa de Integrinas/metabolismo , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Contagem de Linfócitos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Subfamília B de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/metabolismo , Células T Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Timo/imunologia , Timo/metabolismo
20.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 132(2): 400-11.e9, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23830147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The capacity of CD8(+) T cells to control infections and mediate antitumor immunity requires the development and survival of effector and memory cells. IL-21 has emerged as a potent inducer of CD8(+) T-cell effector function and memory development in mouse models of infectious disease. However, the role of IL-21 and associated signaling pathways in protective CD8(+) T-cell immunity in human subjects is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine which signaling pathways mediate the effects of IL-21 on human CD8(+) T cells and whether defects in these pathways contribute to disease pathogenesis in patients with primary immunodeficiencies caused by mutations in components of the IL-21 signaling cascade. METHODS: Human primary immunodeficiencies resulting from monogenic mutations provide a unique opportunity to assess the requirement for particular molecules in regulating human lymphocyte function. Lymphocytes from patients with loss-of-function mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), STAT3, or IL-21 receptor (IL21R) were used to assess the respective roles of these genes in human CD8(+) T-cell differentiation in vivo and in vitro. RESULTS: Mutations in STAT3 and IL21R, but not STAT1, led to a decrease in multiple memory CD8(+) T-cell subsets in vivo, indicating that STAT3 signaling, possibly downstream of IL-21R, regulates the memory cell pool. Furthermore, STAT3 was important for inducing the lytic machinery in IL-21-stimulated naive CD8(+) T cells. However, this defect was overcome by T-cell receptor engagement. CONCLUSION: The IL-21R/STAT3 pathway is required for many aspects of human CD8(+) T-cell behavior but in some cases can be compensated by other signals. This helps explain the relatively mild susceptibility to viral disease observed in STAT3- and IL-21R-deficient subjects.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Memória Imunológica , Síndrome de Job/genética , Mutação , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/imunologia , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Síndrome de Job/imunologia , Síndrome de Job/patologia , Receptores de Interleucina-21/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-21/imunologia , Receptores de Interleucina-21/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética
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