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1.
J Pediatr ; 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516678

RESUMO

We conducted a pilot study to determine the effectiveness of a linkage to care intervention with social workers to improve 12-month post-hospital mortality for children in Tanzania with sickle cell disease. Comparison was done with a historical cohort. Mortality was 6.7% in the interventional cohort compared with 19.2% (adjusted Hazard Ratio, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.08-0.83).

2.
Bull World Health Organ ; 98(12): 859-868, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293746

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the regional- and district-level newborn prevalence of sickle cell trait and disease, and the prevalence of haemoglobin variants and genetic modifiers of sickle cell disease, in the nine regions of north-western United Republic of Tanzania. Methods: We repurposed dried blood spot samples from children (aged 0-24 months) born to mothers living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), collected as part of the HIV Early Infant Diagnosis programme, for sickle cell diagnosis. We performed isoelectric focusing to determine whether samples had normal haemoglobin, sickle cell trait, sickle cell disease or a rare haemoglobin variant. We shipped samples diagnosed as disease or variant to Cincinnati Children's Hospital in the United States of America for deoxyribonucleic-acid-based analyses to determine the prevalence of α-thalassaemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency or fetal haemoglobin genetic modifiers. Findings: We analysed a total of 17 200 specimens during February 2017-May 2018. We observed a prevalence of sickle cell trait and disease of 20.3% (3492/17 200) and 1.2% (210/17 200), respectively. District-level trait varied from 8.6% (5/58) to 28.1% (77/274). Among confirmed sickle cell disease specimens, we noted 42.7% (61/143) had 1-gene deletion and 14.7% (21/143) had 2-gene deletion α-thalassaemia trait. We documented G6PD A- deficiency in 19.2% (14/73) of males. Conclusion: Our calculated prevalence is twice as high as previously reported and reinforces the need for enhanced sickle cell diagnostic services. Our district-level data will inform public health policy, allowing screening and disease-modifying hydroxyurea therapy to be focused on high-prevalence areas, until universal newborn screening is available.

3.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 337, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe anemia is common and frequently fatal for hospitalized patients in limited-resource settings. Lack of access to low-cost, accurate, and rapid diagnosis of anemia impedes the delivery of life-saving care and appropriate use of the limited blood supply. The WHO Haemoglobin Colour Scale (HCS) is a simple low-cost test but frequently inaccurate. AnemoCheck-LRS (limited-resource settings) is a rapid, inexpensive, color-based point-of-care (POC) test optimized to diagnose severe anemia. METHODS: Deidentified whole blood samples were diluted with plasma to create variable hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, with most in the severe (≤ 7 g/dL) or profound (≤ 5 g/dL) anemia range. Each sample was tested with AnemoCheck-LRS and WHO HCS independently by three readers and compared to Hb measured by an electronic POC test (HemoCue 201+) and commercial hematology analyzer. RESULTS: For 570 evaluations within the limits of detection of AnemoCheck-LRS (Hb ≤ 8 g/dL), the average difference between AnemoCheck-LRS and measured Hb was 0.5 ± 0.4 g/dL. In contrast, the WHO HCS overestimated Hb with an absolute difference of 4.9 ± 1.3 g/dL for samples within its detection range (Hb 4-14 g/dL, n = 405). AnemoCheck-LRS was much more sensitive (92%) for the diagnosis of profound anemia than WHO HCS (22%). CONCLUSIONS: AnemoCheck-LRS is a rapid, inexpensive, and accurate POC test for anemia. AnemoCheck-LRS is more accurate than WHO HCS for detection of low Hb levels, severe anemia that may require blood transfusion. AnemoCheck-LRS should be tested prospectively in limited-resource settings where severe anemia is common, to determine its utility as a screening tool to identify patients who may require transfusion.

4.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(11): e28620, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an important, hidden cause of childhood mortality worldwide. It is most prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa where national newborn screening programs remain unavailable and most children in rural areas are never diagnosed. We conducted a study at a rural district hospital in northern Tanzania to determine the birth prevalence and community awareness of SCD and to determine the feasibility of using point-of-care testing to enroll newborns in a new SCD clinic for ongoing treatment. DESIGN/METHODS: We screened infants at Shirati KMT hospital for SCD using HemoTypeSC, an inexpensive point-of-care test. Infants who screened positive were enrolled in the SCD clinic and instructed to return at 6-12 weeks for confirmatory testing, counseling, and preventive care. RESULTS: A total of 999 newborns were screened from February to September 2019. Among these, 31.6% (315/999) had sickle cell trait and 3.9% (39/999) had SCD. No hemoglobin C was detected. Very few parents knew their own sickle cell status (0.3%). At 5 months after completion, 12 infants from the screening study and 30 additional children had been seen at the SCD clinic for ongoing counseling and care. CONCLUSIONS: Birth prevalence of SCD in rural Tanzania is extremely high and community awareness is low. Newborn point-of-care testing enhances case finding and enables early enrollment in preventive care for SCD, even in rural sub-Saharan Africa with minimal laboratory capacity. SCD-specific clinical services implemented at the district hospital level could expand access to many children and significantly reduce early SCD morbidity and mortality.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0214563, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Africa has the highest rates of child mortality. Little is known about outcomes after hospitalization for children with very severe anemia. OBJECTIVE: To determine one year mortality and predictors of mortality in Tanzanian children hospitalized with very severe anemia. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study enrolling children 2-12 years hospitalized from August 2014 to November 2014 at two public hospitals in northwestern Tanzania. Children were screened for anemia and followed until 12 months after discharge. The primary outcome measured was mortality. Predictors of mortality were determined using Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 505 children, 90 (17.8%) had very severe anemia and 415 (82.1%) did not. Mortality was higher for children with very severe anemia compared to children without over a one year period from admission, 27/90 (30.0%) vs. 59/415 (14.2%) respectively (Hazard Ratio (HR) 2.42, 95% Cl 1.53-3.83). In-hospital mortality was 11/90 (12.2%) and post-hospital mortality was 16/79 (20.2%) for children with very severe anemia. The strongest predictors of mortality were age (HR 1.01, 95% Cl 1.00-1.03) and decreased urine output (HR 4.30, 95% Cl 1.04-17.7). CONCLUSIONS: Children up to 12 years of age with very severe anemia have nearly a 30% chance of mortality following admission over a one year period, with over 50% of mortality occurring after discharge. Post-hospital interventions are urgently needed to reduce mortality in children with very severe anemia, and should include older children.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Anemia/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0202334, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30106987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest rates of child mortality worldwide. Little is known about post-hospital outcomes after an index hospitalization for older children. We determined 12-month post-hospital mortality rate and identified factors associated with higher mortality. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we enrolled children 2-12 years of age admitted to the pediatric wards of two public hospitals in northwestern Tanzania. Participants or proxies were contacted at 3, 6 and 12 months post-hospitalization. The primary outcome measured was mortality. Factors associated with mortality were determined using Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 506 participants were enrolled. In-hospital mortality rate was 7.7% (39/506). Of the 467 participants discharged, the post-hospital mortality rate was 10.1% (47/467). Sickle cell disease (Hazard Ratio (HR) 3.32, 95% CI 1.44-7.68), severe malnutrition (HR 3.19, 95% CI 1.18-8.57), neurologic diseases (HR 3.51, 95% CI 1.35-9.11), heart disease (HR 7.11, 95% CI, 2.89-17.51), cancer (HR 11.79, 95% CI 4.95-28.03), and septic shock (HR 4.64, 95% CI 1.42-15.08) had higher association with mortality compared to other diagnoses. The risk factors significantly associated with mortality included older age (HR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.08), lower hemoglobin level (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.76-0.90), lower Glasgow Coma Scale (HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.59-0.74), history of decreased urine output (HR 2.87, 95% CI 1.49-5.53), higher respiratory rate (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00-1.03), estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 ml/min/1.73m2 (binary) (HR 1.84, 95% CI 1.10-3.10), and lower oxygen saturation (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Post-hospital mortality is disturbingly high among children 2-12 years of age in Tanzania. Post-hospital interventions are urgently needed especially for older children with chronic illnesses.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança , Alta do Paciente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 65(1)2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28766840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, hemoglobinopathies affect millions of children. Identification of hemoglobin disorders in most sub-Saharan African countries is delayed until clinical signs of the disease are present. Limited studies have been conducted to understand their prevalence and clinical presentation among newborns in resource-limited settings. METHODOLOGY: This was a prospective cohort study. Newborns (aged 0-7 days) at two hospitals in Northwestern Tanzania were enrolled and followed prospectively for 6 months. Clinical and laboratory information were collected at baseline. Participants were screened for hemoglobinopathies using high-performance liquid chromatography. Clinical and laboratory follow-up was performed at 3 and 6 months for those with hemoglobinopathies as well as a comparison group of participants without hemoglobinopathies. RESULTS: A total of 919 newborns were enrolled. Among these, 1.4% (13/919) had sickle cell anemia or Hb S/ß0 -thalassemia (Hb FS), and 19.7% (181/919) had sickle cell trait or Hb S/ß+ thalassemia (Hb FAS). Furthermore, 0.2% (two of 919) had ß+ -thalassemia. Red cell indices compared between Hb FS, Hb FAS, and Hb FA were similar at baseline, but hemoglobin was lower and red cell distribution width was higher in children with Hb FS at 3- and 6-month follow-up. Febrile episodes were more common for children with Hb FS at 3- and 6-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of sickle cell disease among neonates born in Northwestern Tanzania is one of the highest in the world. Newborn screening is needed early in life to identify neonates with hemoglobinopathies so that clinical management may commence and morbidity and mortality related to hemoglobinopathies be reduced.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/sangue , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
8.
Ann Hematol ; 97(2): 239-246, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29147848

RESUMO

Both anemia and sickle cell disease (SCD) are highly prevalent across sub-Saharan Africa, and limited resources exist to diagnose these conditions quickly and accurately. The development of simple, inexpensive, and accurate point-of-care (POC) assays represents an important advance for global hematology, one that could facilitate timely and life-saving medical interventions. In this prospective study, Robust Assays for Point-of-care Identification of Disease (RAPID), we simultaneously evaluated a POC immunoassay (Sickle SCAN™) to diagnose SCD and a first-generation POC color-based assay to detect anemia. Performed at Bugando Medical Center in Mwanza, Tanzania, RAPID tested 752 participants (age 1 day to 20 years) in four busy clinical locations. With minimally trained medical staff, the SCD POC assay diagnosed SCD with 98.1% sensitivity and 91.1% specificity. The hemoglobin POC assay had 83.2% sensitivity and 74.5% specificity for detection of severe anemia (Hb ≤ 7 g/dL). Interobserver agreement was excellent for both POC assays (r = 0.95-0.96). Results for the hemoglobin POC assay have informed the second-generation assay design to be more suitable for low-resource settings. RAPID provides practical feasibility data regarding two novel POC assays for the diagnosis of anemia and SCD in real-world field evaluations and documents the utility and potential impact of these POC assays for sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/diagnóstico , Anemia/diagnóstico , Colorimetria/métodos , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Testes Imediatos , Adolescente , Anemia/sangue , Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colorimetria/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tanzânia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Trop Pediatr ; 64(6): 479-487, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29244176

RESUMO

Parvovirus B19 (B19) can cause transient aplastic crisis and lead to acute severe anemia. This study investigated the relationship between B19 and anemia among children <5 years old in the city of Mwanza, Tanzania. An enzyme immunoassay was used to detect B19 IgM- and IgG-specific antibodies among children with various categories of anemia according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. A total of 265 children with median age of 28.5 months (interquartile range 18-39.5) were investigated. Eighty-six children (32.5%) had severe anemia. B19-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in 24 (9%) and 46 (17.4%) children, respectively. Low hemoglobin (Hb) level (p = 0.031), Plasmodium falciparum infection (p = 0.001) and residing in rural areas (p = 0.025) independently predicted B19 IgM seropositivity. Acute B19 infection decreased Hb level by 1.1 g/dl (p = 0.003). In malaria endemic areas, acute B19 infections should be considered among children with severe anemia from rural areas.


Assuntos
Anemia/complicações , Anemia/virologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Infecções por Parvoviridae/complicações , Parvovirus B19 Humano/imunologia , Parvovirus B19 Humano/isolamento & purificação , Anemia Aplástica/epidemiologia , Anemia Aplástica/virologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Infecções por Parvoviridae/imunologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Tanzânia
10.
Semin Hematol ; 55(2): 102-112, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616806

RESUMO

The vast majority of the world's population of children and adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) are born in low-resource settings, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, the Middle East, and India. As a result numerous well-established, cost-effective, and evidence-based strategies for managing SCD such as newborn screening, early education, vaccinations, screening for stroke prevention, and treatments with safe transfusions and hydroxyurea are often unavailable, leading to substantial morbidity and increased mortality. Collaborations between high-income countries and these low-resource settings (North-South partnerships) have been advocated, with the goal of improving clinical care. Based on directives promulgated by the World Health Organization, we have developed a strategy of developing prospective research programs that focus on training, capacity building, and local data collection. This strategy involves consideration of important guiding principles, full partnerships, proper planning, and financial issues before program launch, after which rigorous program management is required for full effect and long-term sustainability. Ultimately these collaborative research programs should help create national guidelines and lead to improved clinical care for all children and adults with SCD.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Cooperação Internacional , Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Saúde Global/normas , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/normas
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 11(8): e0005867, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28817570

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about hepatotoxicity in patients with schistosome and HIV co-infections. Several studies have reported increased liver enzymes and bilirubin levels associated with schistosome infection. We investigated whether HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy who had S. mansoni co-infection had a higher prevalence of hepatotoxicity than those without. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined the presence and grade of hepatotoxicity among 305 HIV-infected outpatients who had been on medium-term (3-6 months) and long-term (>36 months) antiretroviral therapy in a region of northwest Tanzania where S. mansoni is hyperendemic. We used the AIDS Clinical Trial Group definition to define mild to moderate hepatotoxicity as alanine aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and/or bilirubin elevations of grade 1 or 2, and severe hepatotoxicity as any elevation of grade 3 or 4. We determined schistosome infection status using the serum circulating cathodic antigen rapid test and used logistic regression to determine factors associated with hepatotoxicity. The prevalence of mild-moderate and severe hepatotoxicity was 29.6% (45/152) and 2.0% (3/152) in patients on medium-term antiretroviral therapy and 19.6% (30/153) and 3.3% (5/153) in the patients on long-term antiretroviral therapy. S. mansoni infection was significantly associated with hepatotoxicity on univariable analysis and after controlling for other factors associated with hepatotoxicity including hepatitis B or C and anti-tuberculosis medication use (adjusted odds ratio = 3.0 [1.6-5.8], p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our work demonstrates a strong association between S. mansoni infection and hepatotoxicity among HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. Our study highlights the importance of schistosome screening and treatment for patients starting antiretroviral therapy in schistosome-endemic settings. Additional studies to determine the effects of schistosome-HIV co-infections are warranted.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Coinfecção/complicações , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Falência Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Falência Hepática/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/complicações , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Bilirrubina/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Prevalência , Tanzânia
12.
World Neurosurg ; 105: 238-248, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28559070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Prospective TBI data from sub-Saharan Africa are sparse. This study examines epidemiology and explores management of patients with severe TBI and adherence to Brain Trauma Foundation Guidelines at a tertiary care referral hospital in Tanzania. METHODS: Patients with severe TBI hospitalized at Bugando Medical Centre were recorded in a prospective registry including epidemiologic, clinical, treatment, and outcome data. RESULTS: Between September 2013 and October 2015, 371 patients with TBI were admitted; 33% (115/371) had severe TBI. Mean age was 32.0 years ± 20.1, and most patients were male (80.0%). Vehicular injuries were the most common cause of injury (65.2%). Approximately half of the patients (47.8%) were hospitalized on the day of injury. Computed tomography of the brain was performed in 49.6% of patients, and 58.3% were admitted to the intensive care unit. Continuous arterial blood pressure monitoring and intracranial pressure monitoring were not performed in any patient. Of patients with severe TBI, 38.3% received hyperosmolar therapy, and 35.7% underwent craniotomy. The 2-week mortality was 34.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality of patients with severe TBI at Bugando Medical Centre, Tanzania, is approximately twice that in high-income countries. Intensive care unit care, computed tomography imaging, and continuous arterial blood pressure and intracranial pressure monitoring are underused or unavailable in the tertiary referral hospital setting. Improving outcomes after severe TBI will require concerted investment in prehospital care and improvement in availability of intensive care unit resources, computed tomography, and expertise in multidisciplinary care.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/epidemiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/psicologia , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Med Educ Online ; 22(1): 1270020, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28178918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interest in global health training during residency is increasing. Global health knowledge is also becoming essential for health-care delivery today. Many U.S. residency programs have been incorporating global health training opportunities for their residents. We performed a systematic literature review to evaluate global health training opportunities and challenges among U.S. residency specialties. METHODS: We searched PubMed from its earliest dates until October 2015. Articles included were survey results of U.S. program directors on global health training opportunities, and web-based searches of U.S. residency program websites on global health training opportunities. Data extracted included percentage of residency programs offering global health training within a specialty and challenges encountered. RESULTS: Studies were found for twelve U.S. residency specialties. Of the survey based studies, the specialties with the highest percentage of their residency programs offering global health training were preventive medicine (83%), emergency medicine (74%), and surgery (71%); and the lowest were orthopaedic surgery (26%), obstetrics and gynecology (28%), and plastic surgery (41%). Of the web-based studies, the specialties with the highest percentage of their residency programs offering global health training were emergency medicine (41%), pediatrics (33%), and family medicine (22%); and the lowest were psychiatry (9%), obstetrics and gynecology (17%), and surgery (18%). The most common challenges were lack of funding, lack of international partnerships, lack of supervision, and scheduling. CONCLUSION: Among U.S. residency specialties, there are wide disparities for global health training. In general, there are few opportunities in psychiatry and surgical residency specialties, and greater opportunities among medical residency specialties. Further emphasis should be made to scale-up opportunities for psychiatry and surgical residency specialties.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Saúde Global/educação , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estados Unidos
14.
Heart ; 102(15): 1200-5, 2016 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27105648

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare short-term and long-term cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk scores and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected adults receiving and not receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) to HIV-negative controls. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including 151 HIV-infected, ART-naive, 150 HIV-infected on ART and 153 HIV-negative adults. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors were determined by standard investigations. The primary outcome was American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) Risk Estimator lifetime CVD risk score. Secondary outcomes were ASCVD 10-year risk, Framingham risk scores, statin indication and metabolic syndrome. RESULTS: Compared with HIV-negative controls, more HIV-infected adults on ART were classified as high lifetime CVD risk (34.7% vs 17.0%, p<0.001) although 10-year risk scores were similar, a trend which was similar across multiple CVD risk models. In addition, HIV-infected adults on ART had a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome versus HIV-negative controls (21.3% vs 7.8%, p=0.008), with two common clusters of risk factors. More than one-quarter (28.7%) of HIV-infected Tanzanian adults on ART meet criteria for statin initiation. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected ART-treated individuals have high lifetime cardiovascular risk, and this risk seems to develop rapidly in the first 3-4 years of ART as does the development of clusters of metabolic syndrome criteria. These data identify a new subgroup of low short-term/high-lifetime risk HIV-infected individuals on ART who do not currently meet criteria for CVD risk factor modification but require further study.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Acta Trop ; 159: 36-43, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27001145

RESUMO

Malaria remains common in sub-Saharan Africa, but it is frequently over-diagnosed and over-treated in hospitalized children. HIV is prevalent in many malaria endemic areas and may delay parasite clearance and increase mortality among children with malaria. This prospective cohort study enrolled children with suspected malaria between 3 months and 12 years of age hospitalized at two referral hospitals in Tanzania. Both a thick blood smear (BS) and a malaria rapid diagnostic test (mRDT) were performed. If discordant results were obtained, PCR was performed for Plasmodium falciparum. Malaria was confirmed if two out of three tests were positive. Malaria parasite densities were determined for two consecutive days after diagnosis and treatment of malaria. All participants were tested for HIV. Among 1492 hospitalized children, 400 (26.8%) were enrolled with suspected malaria infection. There were 196/400 (49.0%) males, and the median age was 18 [9-36] months. BS was positive in 95/400 (23.8%), and mRDT was positive in 70/400 (17.5%), with moderate agreement (Kappa=0.598). Concordant results excluded malaria in 291/400 (72.8%) and confirmed malaria in 56/400 (14.0%). PCR performed on 53 discordant results confirmed malaria in 1/39 of the BS-positive/mRDT-negative cases, and 6/14 of the BS-negative/mRDT-positive cases. The prevalence of confirmed malaria was 63/400 (15.8%). In multivariable logistic regression, malaria was associated with HIV (OR 3.45 [1.65-7.20], p=0.001). Current breastfeeding (OR 0.25 [0.11-0.56], p=0.001) and higher hemoglobin (OR 0.70 [0.60-0.81], p<0.001 per 1g/dL) were associated with decreased odds of malaria. Malaria parasite clearance was delayed in HIV-infected participants (p<0.001). Malaria is over-diagnosed even at referral centers in high transmission areas. Hospitalized HIV-infected children are more likely to have malaria and exhibit delayed clearance of parasites. Hospitals should consider using mRDTs as a first step for malaria testing among hospitalized children in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/epidemiologia , Plasmodium falciparum/patogenicidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Pacientes Internados , Modelos Logísticos , Malária/patologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
16.
Hematology ; 21(4): 248-256, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26868490

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Tanzania has the third highest birth rate of sickle cell anaemia (SCA) in Africa, but few studies describe severity of complications or available treatments, especially in Northwest Tanzania around Lake Victoria where the sickle gene is most prevalent. This is a report of the spectrum of clinical disease and range of interventions available at Bugando Medical Centre (Bugando) in Northwest Tanzania in Africa. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Bugando between 1 August 2012 and 30 September 2012. Children (<15 years old) with SCA attending Bugando were sequentially enrolled. A trained research assistant completed a Swahili questionnaire with the parent or guardian of each participant concerning demographic information, clinical features of disease, and treatments received. RESULTS: Among the 124 participants enrolled, the median age was 6 years (interquartile range [IQR] 4-8.5), and only 13 (10.5%) were < 3 years old. Almost all participants (97.6%) had a prior history of a vaso-occlusive episode, 83 (66.9%) had prior acute chest syndrome, and 21 (16.9%) had prior stroke. In the preceding 12 months, 120 (96.8%) had been hospitalized, and a vaso-occlusive episode was the most common reason for hospitalization (35.5%). Prescriptions for folic acid (92.7%) and malaria prophylaxis (84.7%) were common, but only one had received a pneumococcal vaccine, and none had received hydroxyurea or prophylactic penicillin. CONCLUSION: Children with SCA receiving care in Tanzania are diagnosed late, hospitalized frequently, and have severe complications. Opportunities exist to improve care through wider access to screening and diagnosis as well as better coordination of comprehensive care.


Assuntos
Síndrome Torácica Aguda , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Hospitalização , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Doenças Vasculares , Síndrome Torácica Aguda/complicações , Síndrome Torácica Aguda/epidemiologia , Síndrome Torácica Aguda/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/complicações , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Doenças Vasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Vasculares/etiologia , Doenças Vasculares/terapia
17.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 18(3): 207-16, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26279168

RESUMO

Hypertension control rates are low in sub-Saharan Africa. Population-specific determinants of blood pressure (BP) control have not been adequately described. The authors measured BP and conducted interviews to determine factors associated with BP control among adults attending a hypertension clinic in Tanzania. Three hundred adults were enrolled. BP was controlled in 47.7% of patients at the study visit but only 28.3% over three consecutive visits. Demographic and socioeconomic factors were not associated with control. Obesity and higher medication cost were associated with decreased control. Their effect was mediated through adherence. Good knowledge of (odds ratio [OR], 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-6.1; P=.047), attitudes towards (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.0-7.1; P=.04), and practices concerning (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 2.3-13.0; P<.001) hypertension were independently associated with increased control, even after adjusting for mediation through adherence. Good adherence had the strongest association with control (OR, 14.6; 95% CI, 5.8-37.0; P<.001). Strategies to reduce hypertension-related morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa should target these factors. Interventional studies of such strategies are needed.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Hipertensivos/economia , Estudos Transversais , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/economia , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Tanzânia
19.
PLoS One ; 10(8): e0134410, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26287742

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Millions of HIV-infected Africans are living longer due to long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART), yet little is known about glucose metabolism disorders in this group. We aimed to compare the prevalence of glucose metabolism disorders among HIV-infected adults on long-term ART to ART-naïve adults and HIV-negative controls, hypothesizing that the odds of glucose metabolism disorders would be 2-fold greater even after adjusting for possible confounders. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study conducted between October 2012 and April 2013, consecutive adults (>18 years) attending an HIV clinic in Tanzania were enrolled in 3 groups: 153 HIV-negative controls, 151 HIV-infected, ART-naïve, and 150 HIV-infected on ART for ≥ 2 years. The primary outcome was the prevalence of glucose metabolism disorders as determined by oral glucose tolerance testing. We compared glucose metabolism disorder prevalence between each HIV group vs. the control group by Fisher's exact test and used multivariable logistic regression to determine factors associated with glucose metabolism disorders. RESULTS: HIV-infected adults on ART had a higher prevalence of glucose metabolism disorders (49/150 (32.7%) vs.11/153 (7.2%), p<0.001) and frank diabetes mellitus (27/150 (18.0%) vs. 8/153 (5.2%), p = 0.001) than HIV-negative adults, which remained highly significant even after adjusting for age, gender, adiposity and socioeconomic status (OR = 5.72 (2.78-11.77), p<0.001). Glucose metabolism disorders were significantly associated with higher CD4+ T-cell counts. Awareness of diabetes mellitus was <25%. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected adults on long-term ART had 5-fold greater odds of glucose metabolism disorders than HIV-negative controls but were rarely aware of their diagnosis. Intensive glucose metabolism disorder screening and education are needed in HIV clinics in sub-Saharan Africa. Further research should determine how glucose metabolism disorders might be related to immune reconstitution.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/complicações , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 9(1): e0003472, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25612312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis and HIV are both associated with kidney disease. Prevalence and factors associated with abnormal renal function among HIV-infected children in Africa compared to uninfected controls have not been well described in a schistosomiasis endemic area. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Sekou Toure Regional Hospital HIV clinic in Mwanza, Tanzania. A total of 122 HIV-infected children and 122 HIV-uninfected siblings were consecutively enrolled. Fresh urine was obtained for measurement of albuminuria and Schistosoma circulating cathodic antigen. Blood was collected for measurement of serum creatinine. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the modified Schwartz equation. Renal dysfunction was defined operationally as eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and/or albuminuria>20 mg/L in a single sample. Among 122 HIV-infected children, 61/122 (50.0%) met our criteria for renal dysfunction: 54/122 (44.3%) had albuminuria>20 mg/L and 9/122 (7.4%) had eGFR<60. Among 122 HIV-uninfected children, 51/122 (41.8%) met our criteria for renal dysfunction: 48/122 (39.3%) had albuminuria>20 mg/L and 6/122 (4.9%) had eGFR<60. Schistosomiasis was the only factor significantly associated with renal dysfunction by multivariable logistic regression (OR = 2.51, 95% CI 1.46-4.31, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A high prevalence of renal dysfunction exists among both HIV-infected Tanzanian children and their HIV-uninfected siblings. Schistosomiasis was strongly associated with renal dysfunction.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Esquistossomose/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
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